More so than any other countries in the world, China and India have been characterized in recent years by growing populations and rapid urbanization. And, while urban environments hold the promise of improved livelihoods for rural transplants, services in these cities have often struggled to keep up with their influx of rural-to-urban migrants, in turn creating under-serviced and disadvantaged urban areas. In an effort to embrace these newly urban citizens and ensure their success, China and India must implement structural adjustments. China has thus far been more willing to do so, investing $116 per capita in urban infrastructure in comparison with $17 per capita in India, which is urbanizing at a slightly slower pace. But China faces another urban dilemma: integrating its rural transplants. China has seen a severe social divide between rural transplants and established urbanites, which underscores the difficulty in creating truly cohesive communities in the context of rapid urbanization.