Suivi - évaluation
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Improving Performance through Service Contracts: Can It Be Done?

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This report assesses the performance-based service contracts that bound Vitens Evides International (VEI) with Blantyre Water Board and Lilongwe Water Board in Malawi. Signed in 2009 and due to end in October 2014, these service contracts were part of a larger EIB-EU investment programme, which included works to improve water production capacity and the extension of water supply in low-income areas.

The contract was a mix between a traditional service contract (with no transfer of management responsibilities to the contractor) and a more ambitious management contract, with bonus payments linked to a set key performance indicators, including reduction of NRW and improvement in the working ratio. The adoption of such contractual arrangements was driven by the specific context, where substantial management changes were needed to improve the poor performance of the Water Boards whilst there was no appetite in-country for relinquishing management control.

The report extract lessons for future contract design: it highlights the need for an independent conciliator to improve dialogue and align expectations between the parties. In addition, sharing the performance-based compensation should be considered to align both parties’ incentives.

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Women: Walking and Waiting for Water The Time Value of Public Water Supply

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Public funding of water supply infrastructure in developing countries is often justified by the expectation that the time spent on water collection significantly decreases, leading to increased labor force participation of women. In this study the authors test this hypothesis by applying a difference-in-difference analysis to a sample of 2,000 households in rural Benin where improved water supply was phased in over time. Time savings per day were rather modest at 35 minutes; even though walking distances are considerably reduced, women still spend a lot of time waiting at the water source. Moreover, a reduction in time to collect one water container induces women to collect a higher number of containers per day. Results indicate that time savings are rarely followed by increased labor supply of women; men are the first to be freed from water-fetching activities. 

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Systematic review and meta-analysis: association between water and sanitation environment and maternal mortality

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There is evidence of association between sanitation and maternal mortality and between water and maternal mortality. Both associations are of substantial magnitude and remain after adjusting for confounders. However, these conclusions are based on a very small number of studies, few of which set out to examine sanitation or water as risk factors, and only some of which adjusted for potential confounders.

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Impact of Water and Sanitation Interventions on Childhood Diarrhea: Evidence from Bangladesh 3ie Grantee Final Report

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This paper analyzes the possible relevance of water and sanitation improvements for diarrhea reduction in the context of Bangladesh. Much of the public policy thinking in the past wasguided by public investment in providing improved access to water. The paper provides evidence that the relevance of water as a tool for fighting diarrhea may have changed over time.

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Seasonal Effects of Water Quality: The Hidden Costs of the Green Revolution to Infant and Child Health in India

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This paper examines the impact of fertilizer agrichemicals in water on infant and child health using water quality data combined with data on child health outcomes from the Demographic and Health Surveys of India. The results indicate that children exposed to higher concentrations of agrichemicals during their first month experience worse health outcomes on a variety of measures; these effects are largest among the most vulnerable groups, particularly the children of uneducated poor women living in rural India.

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The Child Health Implications of Privatizing Africa’s Urban Water Supply

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Identifying policies which can improve water sector management is critically important given the global burden of water-related disease. Each year, 1 in 10 child deaths—roughly 800,000 in total—is the direct
result of diarrhea. Can private-sector participation (PSP) in the urban piped water sector improve child health? The author uses child-level data from 39 African countries during 1986–2010 to show that
introducing PSP decreases diarrhea among urban dwelling children under five years of age by 5.6 percentage points, or 35 percent of its mean prevalence. PSP also leads to greater reliance on piped water.
To attribute causality, the author exploits time variation in the private water market share controlled by African countries’ former colonizers. A placebo analysis reveals that PSP does not affect symptoms of respiratory illness in the same children, nor does it affect a rural control group unaffected by PSP.

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Improved Sanitation and its Impact on Children: An Exploration of Sanergy

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This child impact case study examines the positive impacts of improved sanitation on households and communities, using Sanergy’s experience in Kenya. This for-profit enterprise operates franchises in Nairobi’s slums and provides modular sanitation facilities and entrepreneurial training.

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The Long-Term Dynamics of Mortality Benefits from improved Water and Sanitation in Less Developed Countries

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GLAAS 2012 : analyse et évaluation mondiales de l’ONU-Eau sur l’assainissement et l’eau potable, le défi : l’extension et le maintien des services

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L’Analyse et l’évaluation mondiales de l’ONU-Eau sur l’assainissement et l’eau potable (GLAAS) est produite tous les deux ans par l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) à la demande de l’ONU-Eau. Elle dresse un état des lieux mondial des cadres d’action publique, des dispositifs institutionnels, des ressources humaines, ainsi que des flux internationaux et nationaux qui financent l’assainissement et l’eau potable. Cette évaluation contribue largement aux activités de l’initiative Assainissement et eau potable pour tous.
Le Rapport GLAAS est rapidement devenu incontournable dans le secteur de l’eau ; il est de plus en plus utilisé pour éclairer la prise de décisions. De fait, il est apparu que le manque d’informations sur les politiques nationales et les ressources financières et humaines consacrées à l’assainissement et à l’eau potable freinait les avancées.

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Using ICT for Monitoring Rural Water Services: From Data to Action

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Ce document propose un cadre conceptuel sur les Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (TIC) visant l'amélioration des services d'eau en milieu rural. Le papier s'appuie sur deux études de cas, au Burkina Faso et au Ghana.

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Evaluation des interventions d'hygiène, étude coûts - efficacité au Burkina Faso

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Cette étude présente, dans le cadre d'une méthodologie pragmatique, une appréciation des changements de comportement, au regard des coûts des activités de sensibilisation, dans deux localités burkinabè. Que ce soit en termes de méthodes d'intervention ou de coûts indicatifs, le lecteur trouvera dans ce document de travail des pistes de mise en oeuvre très opérationnelles.

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Under five diarrhea among model household an non model households in Hawassa, Sout Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional community based survey

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This study shows that there is a significantly higher prevalence of diarrhea among children residing in non-model households compared to those residing in model households. According to a study conducted in Keffa Sheka, southwest Ethiopia, fewer number of rooms was a risk factor associated with under-5 diarrhea. This may be due to the fact that when there is overcrowding in the household, the chances for contamination of water and food are high. Other important improvements in household conditions are having a separate sleeping place for domestic animals and having a separate kitchen.

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Public Health and Social Benefits of at-house Water Supplies

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A strong theme that emerges from field data is that households often use multiple water sources. This dimension of water usage has received only limited attention from researchers. It is likely that the use of multiple sources of water for different activities is a significant confounder and one of the reasons why research into the relationships between health outcomes and use of specific water sources has been inconclusive.

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A Post-2015 Global Goal for Water: Synthesis of key findings and recommendations from UN-Water

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Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Evidence Paper

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This paper aims to provide an accessible guide to existing evidence, including a conceptual framework for understanding how WASH impacts health and well-being and a description of methods used for ascertaining the health, economic, and social impacts of WASH. It also presents the available evidence on the benefits and cost-effectiveness of WASHinterventions.

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Human health and thewater environment: Using the DPSEEA framework to identify the driving forces of disease

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There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force–Pressure–State–Exposure–Effect–Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces.

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Mapping sustainability assessment tools t support sustainable water and sanitatio service delivery

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The Cost of a Knowledge Silo: A Systematic Re-Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions

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Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

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Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled.

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Suivi technique & financier et régulation

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Dans les bourgs et petites villes des pays en développement, la gestion des réseaux d’eau potable se heurte régulièrement à des difficultés qui fragilisent la qualité et la pérennité des services. Pour y remédier, plusieurs pays ont mis en place des mécanismes de suivi technique et financier qui visent à mesurer la qualité des services afin d’en renforcer la gouvernance et la performance.
Cet ouvrage décrit les mécanismes de suivi technique et financier tels que mis en oeuvre dans ces pays. Il fournit également une compréhension détaillée des indicateurs utilisés pour le suivi et précise les bénéfices générés autant vis-à-vis de la qualité des services que des enjeux de régulation. Des recommandations sont enfin proposées sur la démarche à suivre pour mettre en place de tels mécanismes.
Destiné aux décideurs nationaux, autorités responsables, gestionnaires et acteurs du secteur de l’eau, cet ouvrage vise à approfondir et étendre la compréhension du suivi technique et financier. Bien plus qu’un outil d’encadrement et d’appui aux mini réseaux d’eau potable, le suivi technique et financier est un outil essentiel pour le pilotage et le développement du secteur.

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Bénéfices liés aux investissements dans l'eau et l'assainissement | OECD READ edition

Ce rapport réunit et résume les informations existantes sur les avantages de l’eau et de l’assainissement.
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La fourniture de services d’approvisionnement en eau, d’assainissement et de traitement des eaux usées a des répercussions très favorables sur la santé publique, l’économie et l’environnement. Dans les pays en développement, le rapport avantages/coûts peut aller jusqu’à 7 pour 1 pour les services d’eau et d’assainissement de base. Les actions en matière de traitement des eaux usées, par exemple, peuvent s’accompagner d’effets très positifs en termes de santé publique et d’environnement, ainsi que pour certains secteurs économiques comme la pêche, le tourisme et le marché de l’immobilier. Les retombées favorables des services d’eau sont rarement considérées dans leur pleine mesure pour différentes raisons, notamment la difficulté de quantifier d’importants avantages non économiques tels que les valeurs de non-usage, la dignité, le statut social, la propreté et le bien-être général. Par ailleurs, les informations concernant les avantages liés aux services d’eau sont souvent enfouies dans des documents techniques et échappent aux principaux décideurs des ministères. Ce rapport réunit et résume les informations existantes sur les avantages de l’eau et de l’assainissement.
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Boîte à outils pour le marketing de l'assainissement

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Basé sur des expériences issues de plusieurs pays, cette boîte à outils fournit un ensemble détaillé et complet de recommandations pour la conception et la mise en oeuvre d'actions de marketing de l'assainissement.

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