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Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools
Stories of success for at risk learners in the nation's schools
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To Help With Dyslexia, S p a c e L e t t e r s A p a r t, Study Says - U.S. News & World Report

To Help With Dyslexia, S p a c e   L e t t e r s   A p a r t, Study Says - U.S. News & World Report | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
To Help With Dyslexia, S p a c e L e t t e r s A p a r t, Study SaysU.S. News & World ReportTechnique boosted kids' reading speed by more than 20 percent and doubled text-reading accuracy, researchers say.

 

The spacing manipulation is grounded in a phenomenon known as "visual crowding" in which a letter is more difficult to identify when it is closely surrounded by other letters. This crowding, which abnormally affects those with dyslexia, hampers the letter recognition that is the foundation for all reading in alphabet-based languages.

 

"What this is telling us is that spacing clearly plays a role, but we've already known it plays a role for all readers," said Guinevere Eden, director of the Center for the Study of Learning and a professor of pediatrics at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. "It's telling us that, for dyslexic people, the problem is more critical. There is a sweet spot [of letter spacing] somewhere and everyone's sweet spot is probably different."

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Thank you @PatBassett for:TEDxCLE | Talks | 2012 | Dr. Lisa Damour

Thank you @PatBassett for:TEDxCLE | Talks | 2012 | Dr. Lisa Damour | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

Dr. Lisa Damour directs the Center for Research on Girls at Laurel School, maintains a private psychotherapy practice, consults to schools nationally, is a clinical instructor at Case Western Reserve University, and serves on the board of the Eating Disorders Network.

Dr. Damour is the author of numerous academic papers, chapters, editorials, and books related to education and child development. She is co-author with Dr. James Hansell of Abnormal Psychology, a widely-used college textbook and co-author with Dr. Anne Curzan of First Day to Final Grade, a handbook introducing college instructors to the art and craft of teaching. She has worked for the Yale Child Study Center and held fellowships from the Pediatric AIDS Foundation, the Bush Center for Child Development and Social Policy, and the Sadye Harwick Power Foundation.

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Common Myths about Dyslexia -

Common Myths about Dyslexia - | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
Myth: Dyslexia does not exist Fact: Dyslexia is one of the most researched and documented conditions that will impact children. Over 30 years of independent, scientific, replicated, published research...
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Leagalize Dyslexia!!: Next stop: Dyslexia-ville: Huff-Post Blog

Leagalize Dyslexia!!: Next stop: Dyslexia-ville: Huff-Post Blog | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

What's missing in our increasing 'teach to the test' culture are educational programs and creative ways to target kids with different learning styles. There has been some headway to accommodate children with learning disabilities, giving them accommodations on standardized tests, but most of the general public doesn't know what dyslexia is. What it is NOT is something as simple as learning how to rearrange words that one initially sees as upside-down and backwards. "Dyslexic children's brains are wired differently; some parts having to do with reading may have a few glitches while other parts having to do with creative thinking, empathy, and analysis may work especially well," explains Sally Shaywitz on the Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity website. The current Change.org "Legalize Dyslexia" petition set forth by The Yale Center is galvanizing a much-needed effort to ensure extra time on high stake tests

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Why isn't my gifted learner a good student? Students can both be gifted and have learning disabilities.

Why isn't my gifted learner a good student? Students can both be gifted and have learning disabilities. | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

One of the myths perpetuated about gifted learners is that they are all straight-A, high-achieving students. In fact, many gifted learners have school and achievement records that do not match their potential.


Students can both be gifted and have learning disabilities. These disabilities are often masked by high performance in the early elementary years.

A gifted learner with dyslexia, for example, may be able to keep up and even excel when reading requirements are light, but then suffer difficulties in middle school.

Other disabilities such as dysgraphia are not as important in the early years, but start to affect a student’s performance once skills like fast note-taking becomes more important.

Gifted learners who show resistance to increased learning demands should be evaluated by a gifted-friendly professional for masked disabilities.

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School Reform Through Blended Learning -- THE Journal

School Reform Through Blended Learning -- THE Journal | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
One of the lowest performing schools in Washington, DC is looking to blended learning to help raise proficiency levels and student engagement. So far, it's working.

When Principal Kwame Simmons was assigned to turn around the academic performance at Kramer Middle School in 2010, the situation looked bleak.
According to Simmons, the statistics were "staggering."
"Eighty-nine percent free and reduced lunch, 33 percent special education, which is 23 percent higher than the national average, 30 percent truancy, 18 percent and 17 percent math and reading respectively on the state tests, so it was just deplorable, the performance," Simmons said.
But through a combination of solid management and the effective use of technology, Kramer is indeed seeing a turnaround in academic performance.
First, Simmons and his staff "firmed up policies and procedures" and reduced truancy to 10 percent. At the same time, they added support for special education and made sure needs were responded to in a timely fashion.
"And then we just grabbed the instructional model by the horns by starting with universal language," Simmons said. "So we did book studies and selected language that we all agreed upon would be used to talk about instruction. And at the end of the year we recognized an 11 percent increase in math, and 15 percent increase in special education, so that was a tipping point."
Next, Simmons received permission from District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) Chancellor Kaya Henderson to reconstitute the staff, a process in which most teachers and staff members must reapply for their positions.
"The average teacher evaluation score was .5 below the district average. So you had very needy students as well as very needy teachers to try and bring about this sustained reform, and that just didn't mesh well and it didn't make sense," Simmons said. "In having that opportunity [to reconstitute] we released 98 percent of the adults to really start fresh."


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Dedham honors student, Miss Maine contender excels despite dyslexia, illness

Dedham honors student, Miss Maine contender excels despite dyslexia, illness | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
BANGOR, Maine — In fifth grade, Shayne Andersen was reading at a second-grade level. When her parents voiced concerns that she may be having neural or medical problems, school officials had a very blunt response.
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Digital Study Skills: to teach technology tools, use tech in our own learning!

Digital Study Skills:  to teach technology tools, use tech in our own learning! | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

Making the move from our safe and trusted traditional literacy habits to newer digital skills can be quite a challenge, but as teachers I think we are really unlikely to be able to use technology and help our students use technology really effectively unless we are prepared to face this challenge. Technology needs to be more than part of the way we teach but it also has to be part of the way we ourselves continue to learn and part of our everyday professional practice.


Via Nik Peachey
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Maureen Greenbaum's comment, June 8, 2012 2:34 PM
why this versus diigo???
lorenzacairo's comment, June 25, 2012 1:11 AM
la tecnologia è sempre più importante e presente. seguirò con attenzione il blog
Randy Rebman's curator insight, December 13, 2012 1:54 AM

Nik Peachey shows how a social bookmarking tool can be used in ESL/EFL instructional activites. There are some interesting ideas here on how the highlighting and commenting features can be used to stimulate students' learning process using this technology. 

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California Inches Closer to Open Content in Higher Education

California Inches Closer to Open Content in Higher Education | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
California is moving closer to the realm of open education resources (OER) with passage of two bills in its state senate that would fund development of digital textbooks and courseware for free or low-cost use in higher education. Senate Bill 1052, promoted by Senate President Darrell Steinberg, creates guidelines for the development of digital materials. Companion Bill 1053 sets up a digital library as a state repository for maintaining and distributing digital resources.

The state would apply $25 million in funding for creation of digital materials for the 50 most commonly taken lower division courses in public universities and community colleges. The work would be allocated through a competitive bidding process managed by an "open education resources council" made up of faculty members from the public institutions.

"As college students and their families struggle with college costs in this difficult time, let's do what we can with the tools that we have. Through open educational resources, we can use technology to provide high quality college textbooks at a fraction of today's costs," said Steinberg. "Faculty, publishers, and others can unleash their entrepreneurial spirit through the competitive bidding process in creating these materials. Our students and California's economy will reap the benefits."


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Favorite Literacy Apps for Preschooler & Kindergarten « Bloggin ...

Favorite Literacy Apps for Preschooler & Kindergarten « Bloggin ... | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

Prior to becoming a mother, I was a reading specialist and worked with struggling students and those with learning differences. I have been also trained in Orton-Gillingham, Lindamood- Bell LIPS, and Phographix- all are programs designed to be used with dyslexic and struggling readers. So I think I know a good learning app when I see one. Here are a few that I think are worth your while to download.

There are several great apps from preschool university. The are all free!!!

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Action Alert! Rights for Children with Dyslexia

Action Alert! Rights for Children with Dyslexia | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
In this Action Alert from Wrightslaw you can sign the petition to urge Congress to support a Bill of Rights for Children with Dyslexia. You will also learn how to send an email with your comments about the proposed revision to DSM5 removing Dyslexia.

Via Tina Marie DeLong
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In Praise of Misfits - CFO.com Magazine

In Praise of Misfits - CFO.com Magazine | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
In Praise of MisfitsCFO.com MagazineJulie Login of Cass Business School surveyed a group of entrepreneurs and found that 35% of them said they suffered from dyslexia, compared with 10% of the population as a whole and 1% of professional managers.

 

Wired magazine once called it “the Geek Syndrome.” Speaking of Internet firms founded in the past decade, Peter Thiel, an early Facebook investor, told the New Yorker that: “The people who run them are sort of autistic.” Yishan Wong, an ex-Facebooker, wrote that Mark Zuckerberg, the founder, has “a touch of Asperger’s,” in that “he does not provide much active feedback or confirmation that he is listening to you.” Craig Newmark, the founder of Craigslist, says he finds the symptoms of Asperger’s “uncomfortably familiar” when he hears them listed.

Similar traits are common in the upper reaches of finance. The quants have taken over from the preppies. The hero of Michael Lewis’s book The Big Short, Michael Burry, a hedge-fund manager, is a loner who wrote a stock-market blog as a hobby while he was studying to be a doctor. He attracted so much attention from money managers that he quit medicine to start his own hedge fund, Scion Capital. After noticing that there was something awry with the mortgage market, he made a killing betting that it would crash. “The one guy that I could trust in the middle of this crisis,” Lewis told National Public Radio, “was this fellow with Asperger’s and a glass eye.”

Entrepreneurs also display a striking number of mental oddities. Julie Login of Cass Business School surveyed a group of entrepreneurs and found that 35% of them said they suffered from dyslexia, compared with 10% of the population as a whole and 1% of professional managers. Prominent dyslexics include the founders of Ford, General Electric, IBM, and IKEA, not to mention more recent successes such as Charles Schwab (the founder of a stockbroker), Richard Branson (the Virgin Group), John Chambers (Cisco), and Steve Jobs (Apple).

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Why Business Needs People With Asperger's Syndrome, Attention-Deficit Disorder And Dyslexia

Why Business Needs People With Asperger's Syndrome, Attention-Deficit Disorder And Dyslexia | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
In 1956 William Whyte argued in his bestseller, "The Organisation Man", that companies were so in love with "well-rounded" executives that they fought a "fight against genius".
Today many suffer from the opposite prejudice. Software firms gobble up anti-social geeks. Hedge funds hoover up equally oddball quants.
Hollywood bends over backwards to accommodate the whims of creatives. And policymakers look to rule-breaking entrepreneurs to create jobs.
Unlike the school playground, the marketplace is kind to misfits.
Recruiters have noticed that the mental qualities that make a good computer programmer resemble those that might get you diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome: an obsessive interest in narrow subjects; a passion for numbers, patterns and machines; an addiction to repetitive tasks; and a lack of sensitivity to social cues. Some joke that the internet was invented by and for people who are "on the spectrum", as they put it in the Valley. Online, you can communicate without the ordeal of meeting people.

 

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Can a Daughter With Dyslexia Learn to Love Words? - New York Times (blog)

Can a Daughter With Dyslexia Learn to Love Words? - New York Times (blog) | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
Can a Daughter With Dyslexia Learn to Love Words?New York Times (blog)My daughter's dyslexia may mean that she never learns to share my love of language and literature. What will we share instead?

The fear I just can’t shake is that my dyslexic daughter won’t be able to learn the language that is paramount to how I have always been able to express my deepest emotions. Will she ever be able to speak the language of literacy?

I know in my heart that my little girl is going to be fine. She is funny, smart as a whip and already clearly gifted in the area of visual/spatial reasoning, as many dyslexics are. I am confident that she will work hard, and just as important, learn to embrace what makes her different.

Maybe the question is not, will my daughter speak the language that I love so well, but, will I appreciate her form of expression, be it music, art or design? Perhaps my daughter will one day help me become literate in whatever language she finds most fitting to her sense of self and her unique gifts. And I look forward to becoming fluent in it together.

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Check it out: How Long Before You Will Scoop.it Instead of Google It?

Check it out: How Long Before You Will Scoop.it Instead of Google It? | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

"Services like Scoop.it depend on a community of millions of hardworking experts who wonder what to do with the wealth of knowledge and wisdom they have accumulated in life and are happy to share it."

 

Written by blogger Shred Pillai on the Huffington Post, this vibrant praise of Social Curation in general and Scoop.it in particular, points out the changes we're seeing in the way we look for information. From basic search, we now look more and more for meaning and context from human experts.

 

Beyond information, we want knowledge.

 

And this is what Curation is all about.

 

As he concludes: "At the end of the day, Scoop.it, which is free, is the right answer for information seekers and providers as well as the experts who like to show off their expertise."


Via Guillaume Decugis, Robin Good
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lelapin's comment, June 17, 2012 3:46 AM
I may be wrong but I don't see this happening any time soon.
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Words of wisdom and creativity from a dyslexic Schoolboy entrepreneur

Words of wisdom and creativity from a dyslexic Schoolboy entrepreneur | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
A severely dyslexic A-Level student has launched 10 companies around the globe which he claims have generated more than £500,000 over the past four years.

Dan, from Oxshott, said he has struggled with "people not believing in him" due to the severe dyslexia and learning problems he has battled throughout his life.

But having achieved 3 A* grades and 6 As at GCSE, he credits his successes to the hurdles he has had to overcome.

He said: "I had to work hard because of my dyslexia and that work ethic was ingrained in me. I think a lot of people make excuses.

"Both my parents came from very poor backgrounds and worked their way up."

Winner of a regional marketing award for the young enterprise company he set up with peers at St John’s last year, Dan plans to take a gap year after his exams before embarking on a law degree at university.

He said: "I want to do the degree for myself because I think you get to a certain point in terms of success where it becomes a bit boring.

"I don’t think I could run my businesses day-to-day.

"You have to strike a balance. When I was 16, I was naive and just thought I would run the businesses like a young Alan Sugar. But, at the end of the day, life is to be enjoyed.

"I don’t want to be the richest man in the graveyard."

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Manchester, OH: student with dyslexia wins essay contest to honor teachers

Manchester, OH:  student  with dyslexia wins essay contest to honor teachers | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

 

Barnes and Noble executives probably didn’t expect to receive a winning essay from a student with dyslexia.

Still, that‘s precisely what happened when Manchester High School freshman Lara Hailey Brown submitted her entry during a store-sponsored contest to honor local teachers.

The Montrose location of the bookstore chain chose Brown’s essay, written in honor of her eighth-grade teacher Rebecca Chesnick, out of 350 essays.

Chesnick, an intervention specialist at the middle school, became acquainted with Brown during a language arts class last year. When Chesnick found out that Brown had entered her in the My Favorite Teacher Contest back in April, she was shocked.

“I was really surprised,” Chesnick said. “I didn’t know that she had considered me her favorite teacher. After everything that we’ve been through, I was really excited.”

For Brown, dyslexia has been a life-long struggle that often left her feeling alienated. Chesnick helped her cope with that.

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Take a minute to sign this online petition to get dyslexia back in the DSM-5.| All About Learning ...

Take a minute to sign this online petition to get dyslexia back in the DSM-5.| All About Learning ... | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
As you may know, doctors use DSM codes to diagnose learning disabilities. If a disability doesn’t have a DSM code, most insurance companies and schools don’t view the disability as “real.” Dyslexia hasn’t had its own DSM code in the past, and that’s one of the reasons why it has been so hard for many kids to get the remediation they need to overcome the symptoms of dyslexia.

Last fall, dyslexia was given its own DSM code in the draft of the DSM-5 manual, which is due to come out in 2013. Over the past several years, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has been revising the DSM manual and, in the draft, dyslexia was recognized as a real disability and given its own code of 315.00. That was great news, but the news didn’t last for long.

Unfortunately, the most recent draft of the DSM-5 no longer includes a diagnostic code specifically for dyslexia. This is a HUGE step backwards for our children, because if dyslexia isn’t considered a real disability, why would anyone treat it?

Dyslexia is a real disorder, and it can be diagnosed and treated. But when a disorder does not have a DSM code, it is very difficult to get a diagnosis and treatment. We at All About Learning Press strongly support the inclusion of dyslexia in DSM-5, andwe feel that the current revision represents a grave mistake.

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Help Change Manual Impacting LD Diagnosis:National Center for Learning Disabilities

Help Change Manual Impacting LD Diagnosis:National Center for Learning Disabilities | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
The National Center for Learning Disabilities presents LD.org - the leading online resource for parents and educators on learning disabilities and related disorders (Help Change Manual Impacting LD Diagnosis: http://t.co/Uuv7FNI3...

The National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) is writing to ask for your help. A final revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (to be known as the DSM-5) is currently underway, and changes to this guide could have a powerful impact on how decisions are made to identify ("diagnose") and provide services to individuals with learning disabilities.

Deadline for feedback to the DSM-5 Task Force is June 15th. Please act now!

Whether you are a parent of a child with LD, an educator or school administrator, psychologist, speech-language pathologist, physician or other related services provider, your feedback is critical to ensure that the classification systems that support individuals with learning disabilities (LD) and related disorders are up-to-date and sensitive to the most current knowledge and practice in the field of LD.

Please don't delay in submitting your comments — the deadline is Friday, June 15th!

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Kentucky: Dyslexia screening offered in Hopkinsville

Kentucky: Dyslexia screening offered in Hopkinsville | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
On May 29, Gov. Steve Beshear signed House Bill 69 into law, enabling response-to-intervention actions to be taken for students who fall behind their classmates due to a number of learning disabilities, including dyslexia.
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MOOC Mythbuster – Massive Open and Online Courses, What MOOC’s are and what they aren’t

MOOC Mythbuster – Massive Open and Online Courses, What MOOC’s are and what they aren’t | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
How MOOCs Work
First, let’s break down what’s really going on before we don the fighting gloves – the traditional model of higher education is being challenged – the ‘course’ where the professor lectures, delivers the content, student uses a textbook, complete assignments and is assessed - is at the crux of the matter. Note however, that MOOCs include similar core components of the traditional ‘course’, there are three as outlined by Stephen Downes, [educator, researcher and founder of the MOOCs] in his essay, Introducing my Work (2012, p 35) which are:

1. Open Content
2. Open Instruction
3. Open Assessment

You may notice the similarities between what Downes outlines and traditional education: content, instruction, assessment, yet its the word OPEN that differentiates how a student participating in a Massive Open Online Courses goes about learning. The other fundamental difference is the presupposition on how learning happens, and the pedagogy that goes along with it.


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Grow & Know! Gardening Offers Authentic Learning Experiences-Orion School.

Grow & Know! Gardening Offers Authentic Learning Experiences-Orion School. | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

 

Primary learning activities like gardening make a multitude of valuable academic connections that cannot possibly be made sitting at a desk in a classroom. Visiting community gardens expands an understanding of the community we all live in.
The Orion School is a special needs school offering an intensively supportive education for students who have social and emotional conditions like ADHD or Aspergers. Our students may or may not have additional learning differences. Our students all benefit from a curriculum rich in high interest, high concept learning modalities.

One of our ongoing goals is to expand our ability to offer even more opportunities for authentic experiential learning for our students.

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In Case you missed this: Kids With Learning Disorders Might Not Benefit From Memory Training Programs

In Case you missed this: Kids With Learning Disorders Might Not Benefit From Memory Training Programs | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

Children with disorders, such as dyslexia or attention-deficit/hyperactivity, are not likely to benefit from working memory training, say researchers.

The study, conducted by researchers from the University of Oslo and University College London and published online in The British Journal of Developmental Psychology, also found that memory training tasks have limited effect on healthy children and adults seeking to improve their cognitive skills or do better in school.

Monica Melby-Lervåg, PhD, of the University of Oslo, and lead author of the study, explained:

"The success of working memory training programs is often based on the idea that you can train your brain to perform better, using repetitive memory trials, much like lifting weights builds muscle mass.

However, this analysis shows that simply loading up the brain with training exercises will not lead to better performance outside of the tasks presented within these tests."

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International Dyslexia Association Requests Reinstatement of "Dyslexia" in the DSM 5 revision

International Dyslexia Association Requests Reinstatement of  "Dyslexia" in the DSM 5 revision | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it
The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) voiced concerns today about proposed revisions to the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which no longer include the term "dyslexia."

"Many members of the International Dyslexia Association and dyslexia communities were heartened by inclusion of the term 'dyslexia' in an earlier round of proposed DSM-5 revisions," said Karen Dakin, secretary, IDA Board of Directors. "However, many view this latest round of revisions -- which now omits the term dyslexia -- as a significant step backward and worry that this omission will perpetuate lack of recognition and understanding of dyslexia and contribute to delays in diagnosis and treatment."

According to IDA, terminology used in the DSM-5 can have a profound impact on individuals' access to information, assessment, and educational, psychological, and medical services. The DSM includes codes for all mental health disorders currently recognized. With dyslexia appropriately named, described, and linked to treatment, individuals with this syndrome are more likely to be identified and provided with interventions that can improve their academic outcomes and quality of life.

In the latest revisions to the DSM-5, APA noted the following change: "Learning Disorder has been changed to Specific Learning Disorder and the previous types of Learning Disorder (Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, and Disorder of Written Expression) no longer are being recommended."

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With help from caring adults, 'at-risk' teenagers can succeed - Press Herald

With help from caring adults, 'at-risk' teenagers can succeed - Press Herald | Students with dyslexia & ADHD in independent and public schools | Scoop.it

"Thank you for having hope for me when I didn't have hope for myself ..."

These were one student's words as she spoke to a standing-room-only crowd, prepared to graduate from the Community Schools at Opportunity Farm and Camden last week.

We serve youth at risk of not completing high school – students who, for a variety of reasons, have not been successful in a traditional setting.

We operate a residential program in Camden and New Gloucester and the home-based Passages program for teen parents. We work with small groups of students on a highly individualized basis to help them become connected, contributing members of society and earn a state of Maine-approved high school diploma. Our students often come into our school as disengaged learners – where a difficult event in their lives or a challenging learning or school history has derailed their success.

As researchers in adolescence, we often talk about "risk and protective factors" predictive of problem behaviors such as substance abuse or delinquency. The ultimate goal of this body of work is to increase protective factors (e.g., resources, caring adults, access to quality after-school programs) and reduce risk factors (e.g., effects of poverty, abuse and neglect, truancy or dropping out).

Certainly, it is widely known that the presence of a caring adult is one very important protective factor.

Also, what we find in our work at the Community Schools is that simply keeping a youth engaged in school is one of our greatest protective factors. Our students are around caring adults who create a healthy environment for learning – which leads to a meaningful high school diploma.

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