Review of "...recent research findings in reading disorder (dyslexia). These studies estimated the prevalence of dyslexia at approximately 10% of children with rates in boys nearly twice that of girls. Twin studies show a significant genetic contribution to the risk for dyslexia. Brain imaging studies show deficits in the structure and function of inferior parietal and supramarginal gray matter regions in those with dyslexia. Brain imaging is beginning to be used as a tool to direct and monitor the effect of psychological treatment. Real-time fMRI appears to be a promising approach to individualizing psychotherapy in PTSD and other brain disorders.
The important findings from this study included:
• Students demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in reading skills such as phonemic awareness, real and pseudo word reading and passage comprehension
• Brain gray matter volumes increased between 2 and 4 percent in the left fusiform/hippocampus, left precuneus, right hippocampus and right cerebellum regions after the intervention
• Improvement in reading skills and the increase in brain gray matter volumes persisted 8 weeks after the completion of the intervention The left fusiform brain region has been noted to show deficits in dyslexia in other cross-sectional brain imaging studies. The authors note this region is "commonly engaged in tasks involving object processing and object naming and may suggest that the dyslexic students are relying on this region to improve their processing of words".