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Science, technology, engineering and math in K-12
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"The Last of the Free Seas"

"The Last of the Free Seas" | STEM Connections | Scoop.it

"The Last of the Free Seas is the title of this fantastic map of the Great Lakes made by Boris Artzbasheff.  It was published in Fortune Magazine in July 1940."


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Seth Dixon's curator insight, July 14, 5:23 PM

The inland waterways were absolutely critical to the demographic and economic development of the eastern part of the United States, especially from 1820-1940.  Before World War II, Great Lakes shipping exceeded the tonnage of U.S. Pacific Coast shipping (see hi-res map here). World War II and the beginning of the Cold War led to a consolidation of naval power for the United States and its allies, greatly expanding Pacific shipping trade and spurring fast-developing economies countries. 

 

Great Lakes shipping dramatically declined, in part because steel production has gone to lower-cost producers that were connected to the U.S. economy through the expanded trade.  Some could see irony since the steel warships created from the Great Lakes manufacturing enabled expanded Pacific and Atlantic trade that led to the decline of Great Lakes manufacturing and regional struggles in the rust belt.  Still, more than 200 million tons of cargo, mostly iron ore, coal, and grain, travel across the Great Lakes annually.

 

This deindustrialization clearly is a huge economic negative but the environmental impacts for lakeside communities has been enormous.  Industrial emissions in the watershed and shipping pollution in the lakes went down as waterfowl populations returned and more waterfront property became swimmable again.  Still this map of the environmental stress on the Great Lakes shows they are far from pristine.    

 

Tagsenvironment, historicalwater, resources, transportation, industry, economicregions, globalization.

 

PIRatE Lab's curator insight, August 8, 9:08 PM
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Earth Temperature Timeline

Earth Temperature Timeline | STEM Connections | Scoop.it

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, September 13, 2016 2:03 PM

This infographic is a fascinating way to put into context the very recent trend of rising global temperatures.  This is worth scrolling all the way through to make the ending all the more meaningful.  Oh yeah, and August 2016 was the hottest month in recorded history...only 11 months of record-breaking temperatures.  

 

TagsXKCD, artinfographic, physicalhistorical, environment, climate change.

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Old Mexico lives on

Old Mexico lives on | STEM Connections | Scoop.it
On February 2nd 1848, following a short and one-sided war, Mexico agreed to cede more than half its territory to the United States. An area covering most of present-day Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah, plus parts of several other states, was handed over to gringolandia. The rebellious state of Tejas, which had declared its independence from Mexico in 1836, was recognised as American soil too. But a century and a half later, communities have proved more durable than borders. The counties with the highest concentration of Mexicans (as defined by ethnicity, rather than citizenship) overlap closely with the area that belonged to Mexico before the great gringo land-grab of 1848. Some are recent arrivals; others trace their roots to long before the map was redrawn. They didn’t jump the border—it jumped them.

 

Tags: culture, demographics, North America, historical, colonialism, borders, political.


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Alex Smiga's curator insight, August 10, 6:51 AM
I say it all the time, culture does not respect boarders. 
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The forgotten way African Americans stayed safe in a racist America

The forgotten way African Americans stayed safe in a racist America | STEM Connections | Scoop.it
When racist towns used to lynch people, these guides helped keep black travelers safe

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Bonnie Bracey Sutton's insight:

I have mentioned the Green Book before, but now there is an interactive mapping application that let's users map out a trip in the United States during the Jim Crow era. Geographer Derek Alderman complied these resources for teachers wanting to use the example of the Green Book in their classrooms.   

 The use of the Confederate flag is now a warning sign that one is not welcome especially in small businesses and establishments.

Tags: mobility, transportation, race, class, culture, historical, ethnicity.

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Tania Gammage's curator insight, March 17, 2016 6:58 PM

I have mentioned the Green Book before, but now there is an interactive mapping application that let's users map out a trip in the United States during the Jim Crow era (and a 99 Percent Invisible podcast to walk you through the issues). Geographer Derek Alderman complied these resources for teachers wanting to use the example of the Green Book in their classrooms.   

 

Tags: mobility, transportation, race, class, culture, historical, ethnicity.

Bob Zavitz's curator insight, March 19, 2016 8:48 PM

I have mentioned the Green Book before, but now there is an interactive mapping application that let's users map out a trip in the United States during the Jim Crow era (and a 99 Percent Invisible podcast to walk you through the issues). Geographer Derek Alderman complied these resources for teachers wanting to use the example of the Green Book in their classrooms.   

 

Tags: mobility, transportation, race, class, culture, historical, ethnicity.

lpatteson's curator insight, March 23, 2016 1:10 PM

I have mentioned the Green Book before, but now there is an interactive mapping application that let's users map out a trip in the United States during the Jim Crow era (and a 99 Percent Invisible podcast to walk you through the issues). Geographer Derek Alderman complied these resources for teachers wanting to use the example of the Green Book in their classrooms.   

 

Tags: mobility, transportation, race, class, culture, historical, ethnicity.

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Galapagos Islands and Biodiversity

Galapagos Islands and Biodiversity | STEM Connections | Scoop.it
Radiolab wraps 2015 with a series of special episodes.

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, January 5, 2016 2:11 PM

The Galapagos Islands (as are most islands) filled with remarkably distinct species from the mainland--one of the key reasons that the island were so instrumental in shaping Charles Darwin's thinking about evolution.  This environmental Radiolab podcast is mainly about the Galapagos wildlife and it's conservation and covers many important biogeographic concepts (with time in the episode): 

  • Traveling to the Galapagos (5:25)
  • Who will fight to protect the environment? (10:00)
  • Tortoises and their role in habitats (13:30)
  • Invasive Species and goats (16:30)
  • Removal of Invasive species (19:00)
  • The return of the original habitat (25:40)
  • Local anger against conservation (26:30)
  • 'Restoring' extinct tortoise species (30:00)
  • How do we best protect nature? (37:00)
  • Genetically engineering extinct species (41:00)
  • Tourism and ecological change (46:45)
  • Darwin and finches (50:00)
  • Endangered finches and flies (55:00)
  • Hybrid species (1:02:00)

 

Tags: Ecuador, biogeography, environmentecology, historical.

Marianne Naughton's curator insight, January 14, 2016 1:33 PM

Wildlife & Conservation

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The Myth of the Caliphate

The Myth of the Caliphate | STEM Connections | Scoop.it

Myth Article #1: Western pundits and nostalgic Muslim thinkers alike have built up a narrative of the caliphate as an enduring institution, central to Islam and Islamic thought between the seventh and twentieth centuries. In fact, the caliphate is a political or religious idea whose relevance has waxed and waned according to circumstances.

 

Myth Article #2: ISIS may use terrorism as a tactic, but it is not a terrorist organization. Rather, it is a pseudo-state led by a conventional army. So the counterterrorism strategies that were useful against al Qaeda won’t work in the fight against ISIS.

 

Myth Video #1: This video points to the reasons that recruits are attracted to extremism (not just poverty and ignorance).

 

Tags: political, governance, religion, Islam, historical, terrorism, geopolitics, ISIS.


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Luis Cesar Nunes's curator insight, November 26, 2015 5:12 AM

Myth

Benjamin Jackson's curator insight, November 30, 2015 2:32 PM

The idea of the Caliphate seems to be more of what all the groups which called themselves Caliphates seem to be pursuing. It seems to me that the fact of the matter is less important than the idea, as what happened one hundred years ago is far less important than what is believed to have happened. That ISIS is a state can be argued, but the fact that they are fighting a conventional war is indisputable. Yes, the tactics we use must be shifted, but this means that support from aircraft or by indirect means are even more viable than they were during the Second Gulf War.

 

 

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Travel speeds in the U.S. in the 1800s

Travel speeds in the U.S. in the 1800s | STEM Connections | Scoop.it
Maps from the 1932 Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States put travel in the 1800s into perspective.

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Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, September 8, 2015 1:02 PM

unit 1

Seth Dixon's curator insight, September 14, 2015 4:05 PM

This series of maps shows the great leaps and bounds that were made during the 19th century in transportation technology in the United States.  This impacted population settlement, economic interactions and functionally made the great distances seem smaller.  This is what many call the time-space compression; the friction of distance is diminished as communication and transportation technologies improve.  


Questions to Ponder: When someone says they live "10 minutes away," what does that say about how we think about distance, transportation infrastructure and time?  How is geography still relevant in a world where distance appears to becoming less of a factor?  

 

Tags: transportation, modelsdiffusion, globalization, diffusion, time-space.

Erik Glitman's curator insight, September 18, 2015 11:39 AM

Comparing how long it took to travel even 150 years ago opens up a question on trust. At that time, checking accounts were rare, credit cards non-existent, and every one had to travel with cash. Yet, incidents of robbery were uncommon and trust in the stranger was high. Now travel takes a small fraction of the time it did 150 years ago and strangers are seen as a threat. Trust has eroded, but is it a fear based or fact based erosion?  Is travel less safe now than it was in the 1860's?

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49 Maps That Explain The U.S.

49 Maps That Explain The U.S. | STEM Connections | Scoop.it

"49 Maps That Explain The U.S. For Dumb Foreigners--The United States is mind-boggling. Right?!"


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Matthew Richmond's curator insight, September 16, 2015 2:00 PM

Some of them are quite fascinating. Scooped from my professor.

Alex Vielman's curator insight, September 21, 2015 11:10 PM

It's to see these "maps" that "explain" the U.S. in almost a sarcastic matter. Americans are living in what researches call megaregions. After, doing our Map of the U.S. for an assignment, it becomes difficult to divide regions when one is so familiar with one area, in my case, New England. New England, or the Northeast, is considered a megaregion because there is high population density in this area. In the map that displays these megaregions, its interesting to see those areas that are emerging. For example, in the map it saids Cascadia is emegering which is the corner of the U.S., the state of Washington. 

Some people think that the U.S. population is spread throughout the whole map. Its interesting to actually realize that 47% of the U.S. has zero population. This was an awesome article thats loaded with fun interesting facts. 

Raymond Dolloff's curator insight, November 23, 2015 2:32 PM

Understanding the landscape of our Country is important. The way to best understand it is to look at maps, especially these maps, and get a hold on what the country looks like. From the height of exploration to seeing where the most trees are within the country. This map has a lot of information for anyone who has questions.

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'Dirty Old London': Geographies of Human Waste

'Dirty Old London': Geographies of Human Waste | STEM Connections | Scoop.it

In the 19th century, London was the capital of the largest empire the world had ever known — and it was infamously filthy. It had choking, sooty fogs; the Thames River was thick with human sewage; and the streets were covered with mud.  But according to Lee Jackson, author of Dirty Old London: The Victorian Fight Against Filth, mud was actually a euphemism. 'It was essentially composed of horse dung,' he tells Fresh Air's Sam Briger. 'There were tens of thousands of working horses in London [with] inevitable consequences for the streets. And the Victorians never really found an effective way of removing that, unfortunately.'"


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Samuel Meyer's curator insight, March 23, 2015 12:03 PM

London has come a far way from the industrial town it was in the 19th century, and is now cleaner than ever. But pollution led to many issues in London at the time. This is also evident in the developing world today, such as in China, Africa, and South America.

EuroHistoireGeoAmiens's curator insight, April 11, 2015 10:16 AM

Pas mal en première pour une étude détaillée du Londres de Dickens

Emily Bian's curator insight, May 23, 2015 11:41 AM

This article is about London, UK during the time of Industrial Revolution. The city of London expanded so rapidly, that there wasn't enough time for urban planning. Factories and houses were going up everywhere, and thousands of people migrated to London for jobs. This led to an influx of filth. The air was polluted and there wasn't adequate irrigation systems or waste systems. Everything dirty could be found on the streets like horse dung, and the water would get polluted and unsanitary. 

I liked this article, because it really created an image in my head how terrible and filthy the Industrial Revolution was at the start. 

7)Development and character of cities

Development and character of cities

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Integrating Geography and History

Integrating Geography and History | STEM Connections | Scoop.it

"This 18-stanza poem by Kit Salter, beautifully captures the importance of geographic thinking in any history/social studies curriculum.  This was shared by Dr. Vernon Domingo and the slides of his keynote address titled, Integrating Geography and History are available here."


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Kit Salter is the best in geography education. One of my mentors.

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, October 9, 2014 2:36 PM

It was my privilege to hear my good friend and fellow geo-evangelist, Dr. Vernon Domingo recently as he shared ideas on the importance of integrating geographic analysis in historical inquiry.  He shared a fabulous poem by Kit Salter, one of the pioneers in the Network of Geographic Alliances.  I'll only share the first stanza here:


    How can there be a separate scene,
    For history without place
    How can there be events in time,
    For which there is no space?


Tags: geo-inspiration, geography educationspatial, historical.

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The Silk Road: Connecting the ancient world through trade

"With modern technology, a global exchange of goods and ideas can happen at the click of a button. But what about 2,000 years ago? Shannon Harris Castelo unfolds the history of the 5,000-mile Silk Road, a network of multiple routes that used the common language of commerce to connect the world's major settlements, thread by thread."


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Seth Dixon's curator insight, June 4, 2014 10:02 PM

This TED-ED lesson was produced in part by an AP Human Geography teacher and the strands of geographic thought in this video are evident.  More geographers should make their own TED ED lessons; thanks for blazing the trail Shannon! 


Tags: TED, worldwide, transportation, globalization, diffusion, historical, and video.

Amanda Morgan's comment, September 13, 2014 5:09 PM
Great video! Very cool to see how far the world has come in regards to globalization. Technology has allowed the people across the globe to immerse themselves in other cultures and good from other parts of the world.
Amanda Morgan's curator insight, September 18, 2014 10:51 AM

Great video! Very cool to see how far the world has come in regards to globalization. Technology has allowed the people across the globe to immerse themselves in other cultures and good from other parts of the world.

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Top 10 Countries That Disappeared In The 20th Century

Top 10 Countries That Disappeared In The 20th Century | STEM Connections | Scoop.it
New nations seem to pop up with alarming regularity. At the start of the 20th century, there were only a few dozen independent sovereign states on the planet; today, there are nearly 200!

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Al Picozzi's curator insight, July 2, 2013 11:38 AM

Amazing to see many of the countries and empires that are no longer around.  Also with the dissoution of many of the empires it lead's to many of the issues that were are dealiing with today.  Splitting the Austro-Hugaraian Empire after WWI along ethnic lines didn't really work and helped to lead to WWII.  The Germans in the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia fro example.  See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sudetendeutsche_gebiete.svg

 for the area of German population.

Lauren Stahowiak's curator insight, February 27, 2014 5:01 PM

10 countries that have become nonexistent in the 20th century include Tibet, East Germany and Yugoslavia. These countries have died off because of ethic, religious and cultural falls that were quickly taken over by bigger and more powerful countries.

Amanda Morgan's curator insight, October 23, 2014 9:13 PM

Essentially this article boils down to the issues of religion, ethnicity and nationalism.  People who are diverse and have different ideas generally cannot all live together under one rule and agree on everything, hence nations split and new ones form to cater to their own beliefs and similarities.

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Space archaeologist unlocks secrets of ancient civilizations

Space archaeologist unlocks secrets of ancient civilizations | STEM Connections | Scoop.it
Dr Sarah Parcak uses satellite technology to unearth Egypt's ancient settlements, pyramids and palaces lost in the sands of time.

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Excellent!

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Jessica Rieman's curator insight, April 4, 2014 12:10 AM

It is interesting to find out that in this specific article there is controversy over the looting of tombs over 5,000 years ago as soon as the deceased were buried there were many more looting acts taken place. The Arab spring is an important landmark to think of when relating this to the reading.

Lauren Sellers's curator insight, May 20, 2014 11:51 AM

This describes human characteristics that defined this region because it shows how ancient artifacts are being unearthed through new-age technology.

Felix Ramos Jr.'s curator insight, March 19, 2015 10:49 AM

Space archaeology only makes sense.  If we have the capability for satellites to take pictures of earth from above why shouldn't it be used for archaeological analysis?  I am sure that this is only the tip of the iceberg as far as what we will see in the future from this specific field. This article/video just lends more credibility to the fact that Archaeology should function as an interdisciplinary field.

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The Spice Trade's Legacy

The Spice Trade's Legacy | STEM Connections | Scoop.it

"In its day, the spice trade was the world’s biggest industry. It established and destroyed empires and helped the Europeans (who were looking for alternate routes to the east) map the globe through their discovery of new continents. What was once tightly controlled by the Arabs for centuries was now available throughout Europe with the establishment of the Ocean Spice Trade route connecting Europe directly to South Asia (India) and South East Asia."


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Seth Dixon's curator insight, November 17, 2016 2:37 PM

The spice trade changed how we eat forever but it did so much more.  The fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire cut off Europe from the vital trade routes to the east and access to the most prized commodities of the day.  What drove European exploration to get around Africa and to cross the Atlantic?  It was to reshape their situation location relative to the economic networks that shaped the emerging global economy.  In essence, the spice trade reshaped the fortunes and trajectories of several major world regions.   

 

Tags: Southeast Asia, food productiondiffusionglobalization, agriculture, economicindustry, economic, historical, regions.

Liz Caughlin's curator insight, November 21, 2016 7:45 PM
Spice trade and connections with diffusion of Islam
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When Mexico Was Flooded By Immigrants

When Mexico Was Flooded By Immigrants | STEM Connections | Scoop.it
In the early nineteenth-century, Mexico had a problem with American immigrants.

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, July 29, 2016 4:53 PM
A century and a half ago, the immigration debate and geopolitical shifts in power on the United States-Mexico border reflected a profoundly different dynamic than it does today.  This history has enduring cultural impacts on southwestern states that had the international border jump them.

 

Tags: culture, demographicsmigration, North Americahistorical, colonialism, borders, political.

Ken Feltman's curator insight, July 31, 2016 7:56 AM
Turning the tables...
Alex Smiga's curator insight, August 10, 7:02 AM
Seth Dixon's insight: A century and a half ago, the immigration debate and geopolitical shifts in power on the United States-Mexico border reflected a profoundly different dynamic than it does today. This history has enduring cultural impacts on southwestern states that had the international border jump them.
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von Humboldt: The Invention of Nature

"Andrea Wulf's new book The Invention of Nature reveals the extraordinary life of the visionary German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) and how he created the way we understand nature today. Though almost forgotten today, his name lingers everywhere from the Humboldt Current to the Humboldt penguin. Humboldt was an intrepid explorer and the most famous scientist of his age. Perceiving nature as an interconnected global force, Humboldt discovered similarities between climate zones across the world and predicted human-induced climate change. Wulf traces Humboldt’s influences through the great minds he inspired in revolution, evolution, ecology, conservation, art and literature.  In The Invention of Nature Wulf brings this lost hero to science and the forgotten father of environmentalism back to life."


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A Great Book to Read " The Invention of Nature"
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Seth Dixon's curator insight, April 19, 2016 4:30 PM

Alexander von Humboldt has been described as the last great ancient geographer concerned with understanding an eclectic cosmography as well as the first modern geographer. He is honored far and wide throughout Europe and especially  Latin America for his explorations, but given that people are confused as how to categorize him and classify his contributions, today he is under-appreciated.  Geographers need to reclaim his memory and call his extensive, globetrotting work on a wide range of subjects ‘geography.’  Here are more articles and videos on the man that I feel geographers should publicly champion as their intellectual ancestor the way that biologists point to Darwin.  

 

Tags:  historicalbiogeography, book reviews.

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Revisiting Alexander von Humboldt

Revisiting Alexander von Humboldt | STEM Connections | Scoop.it
On why a Prussian scientific visionary should be studied afresh…In a superb biography, Andrea Wulf makes an inspired case for Alexander von Humboldt to be considered the greatest scientist of the 19th century. Certainly he was the last great polymath in a scientific world which, by the time he died in Berlin in 1859, aged 89, was fast hardening into the narrow specializations that typify science to this day. Yet in the English-speaking world, Humboldt is strangely little-known.

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, December 10, 2015 8:28 AM

Alexander von Humboldt has been described as the last great ancient geographer concerned with understanding an eclectic cosmography as well as the first modern geographer. He is honored far and wide throughout Europe and especially  Latin America for his explorations, but given that people are confused as how to categorize him and classify his contributions, today he is under-appreciated.  Geographers need to reclaim his memory and call his extensive, globetrotting work on a wide range of subjects ‘geography.’  Here is another article and TED-ED video on the most influential scientist that you might not have heard of (at least until today).

 

Tags:  historicalbiogeography.

Tony Burton's curator insight, January 29, 2016 11:32 AM

An interesting biography, but, strangely, Ms Wulf almost completely ignores Humboldt's time in Mexico. In some ways, his time in Mexico was more pivotal in terms of geography than his time in South America. Claiming that Humboldt is a virtual unknown in Europe is a gross distortion of the facts; there have been numerous books about Humboldt over the last thirty to forty years, let alone before that time!.

Pieter de Paauw's curator insight, February 15, 2016 6:25 AM

De nieuwe methode van de onderbouw: (Alexander von) Humboldt

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Man of the world

Man of the world | STEM Connections | Scoop.it

"On why a Prussian scientific visionary should be studied afresh...In a superb biography, Andrea Wulf makes an inspired case for Alexander von Humboldt to be considered the greatest scientist of the 19th century. Certainly he was the last great polymath in a scientific world which, by the time he died in Berlin in 1859, aged 89, was fast hardening into the narrow specializations that typify science to this day. Yet in the English-speaking world, Humboldt is strangely little-known."


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Seth Dixon's curator insight, November 24, 2015 3:13 PM

Alexander von Humboldt has been described as the last great ancient geographer concerned with understanding an eclectic cosmography as well as the first modern geographer. He is honored far and wide throughout Latin America and Europe, but given that intellectually people are confused as how to categorize him and classify his contributions, today he is under-appreciated.  Geographers need to reclaim his memory and call his extensive, globetrotting work on a wide range of subjects 'geography.'  Here is another article and TED-ED video on the most influential scientist that you might not have heard of (at least until today).    


Tags:  historicalbiogeography, unit 1 Geoprinciples, book reviews.

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What Did Chicago Look Like Before the Great Fire?

What Did Chicago Look Like Before the Great Fire? | STEM Connections | Scoop.it
This 1868 pocket map of Chicago shows the city in full-blown expansion, a mere 3 years before the infamous blaze

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, September 16, 2015 8:41 AM

This is an ESRI interactive web app that uses the 'spyglass' feature.  Chicago is displaced during a economic boom period as the U.S. was expanding westward.  Where where the railroads located then?  Why have some of them vanished today?  Notice anything curious about the coastline along Lake Michigan?  Follow this link to see similar interactives of other major U.S. cities.


Tags: Chicago, historical

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Non-Native American Nations Control over North America

Non-Native American Nations Control over North America | STEM Connections | Scoop.it

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Alex Lewis's curator insight, April 6, 2015 10:00 AM

This animated photo shows the progression of the different nations in control of North America. The development of the U.S. is also depicted on here, as they went from mostly European control to independence. While the U.S. controlled most of what is now America, you can recognize the Civil War period by the control of Confederate States. 

 

                                        -A.L.

Kevin Cournoyer's curator insight, April 8, 2015 1:33 PM

Wow. As a history major, I found this map timeline really interesting and really cool. It's a great example of how even though the physical geography of a place can remain the same, its political and economic geography can change so rapidly (or not so rapidly). It was especially interesting to see the brief stints that entities such as the Republic of the Rio Grande or the Confederate States of America did in the dividing up of North America over the last two and a half centuries. For someone who knows nothing about U.S. history, those blips on the radar beg the question, "what happened there?" How can a political entity encompass a geographic region and then disappear just as quickly?

 

And that ties into what I think this map is really about: colonialism. This map says a great deal about how European (or Western) empires carved up the New World and what some of their political or economic goals were in the times that the map shows. It's also important to note the title of the map: "Non-Native American Nations Control over North America". So as we see the map changing to show European or United States expansion, what we DON'T see is the gradual loss of land experienced by the various Native American tribes that inhabited the continent long before Europeans ever laid eyes on it. This map, therefore, highlights how political and economic geography can change so drastically when groups with a lot of economic, political, and military power are at odds with groups who are severely disadvantaged in these areas. 

Mark Hathaway's curator insight, September 17, 2015 9:00 AM

This map is an excellent resource in show the evolution of colonial claims to North America.. It is fascinating to watch all the political changes that have occurred on the continent in over the past 500 years. The biggest change is the evolutions of the United Sates from a small city state like nation to an empire on both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. This is also an extremely sad story to be told from this map. The loss and destruction of Native Americans is next to slavery is  the greatest sin of America. This map tells the complex story of our Continent.