Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering
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Pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine: challenges and recent progress : Nature Reviews Genetics

Pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine: challenges and recent progress : Nature Reviews Genetics | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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A new review by Viviane Tabar & Lorenz Studer discuss recent achievements  in directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells,  new technologies that have facilitated the success of pluripotent stem cells therapies and the remaining obstacles on the road towards developing pluripotent stem cell-based  therapies.

http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v15/n2/abs/nrg3563.html?lang=en?WT.ec_id=NRG-201402

 

To learn more about stem cells:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation

 

 

 

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David O'Connell's curator insight, February 8, 2014 10:31 AM
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A new review by Viviane Tabar & Lorenz Studer discuss recent achievements  in directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells,  new technologies that have facilitated the success of pluripotent stem cells therapies and the remaining obstacles on the road towards developing pluripotent stem cell-based  therapies.

http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v15/n2/abs/nrg3563.html?lang=en?WT.ec_id=NRG-201402

 

To learn more about stem cells:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation

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Cell Stem Cell - Reprogramming toward Heart Regeneration: Stem Cells and Beyond

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This is a free review (for now...) from Cell Stem Cells, about the study of  regenerative mechanisms in the heart. It discusses the use of endogenous adult stem cell populations alongside the recent application of reprogramming technologies  for the development of therapies targeting heart disease.

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World’s first $1,000 genome enables ‘factory’ scale sequencing for population and disease studies | KurzweilAI

Illumina, Inc. announced Tuesday that its new HiSeq X Ten Sequencing System has broken the “sound barrier” of human genomics by enabling the $1,000 genome.

 

“This platform includes dramatic technology breakthroughs that enable researchers to undertake studies of unprecedented scale by providing the throughput to sequence tens of thousands of human whole genomes in a single year in a single lab,” Illumina stated.

 

 


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Start of stem-cell study offers hope to patients with spinal-cord injuries

Start of stem-cell study offers hope to patients with spinal-cord injuries | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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A team of doctors at the University of Calgary has, for the first time in North America, successfully performed a stem cell transplant in a spinal cord injury patient, a procedure that could offer a glimmer of hope to patients whose injuries have long been considered untreatable. For the transplantation, researchers used  neural stem cells that were  isolated from the nervous system of a fetus. The transplant is part of an ongoing clinical trial being conducted by StemCells Inc.which. has nine patients currently enrolled in the study, and plans to enroll 12 others who are paralyzed from the chest down.

Read more: http://www.ctvnews.ca/health/start-of-stem-cell-study-offers-hope-to-patients-with-spinal-cord-injuries-1.1633993#ixzz2q9u2nKUx 

 

http://www.streetinsider.com/Corporate+News/Stemcells+(STEM)+Reports+Successful+First+Transplant+in+HuCNS-SC+in+Phase+III/9043960.html

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A shift in stem cell research | Wisconsin Institute for Discovery

A shift in stem cell research | Wisconsin Institute for Discovery | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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Researchers from University of Wisconsin-Madison have developed a novel process for efficient culturing of human pluripotent stem cells and for neuronal differentiation of these cells. First, they developed a mixture compound that allows the culturing of pluripotent stem cells in the absence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Another compound allows high efficient differentiation of these cells towards a neuonal fate. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/stem.1622/abstract

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Grow a new brain: First steps to lab-made grey matter - New Scientist

Grow a new brain: First steps to lab-made grey matter -  New Scientist | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Make a gelatin scaffold, add a pinch of brain tissue with the cells removed, followed by stem cells – and watch the neurons grow
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This article describes  a new method for  neural tissue engineering. In a proof of concept study, the authors seed  mesenchymal stem  cells in a gelatin scaffold which also contains a decellularized brain tissue.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961213013045

 

 

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Cell Stem Cell - Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture: Considerations for Maintenance, Expansion, and Therapeutics

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In this protocol review, the authors describe and compare  several methods for culturing of human pluripotent stem cells.

 

Learn more about stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/

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Fred 'Rusty' Gage - How Neurons Are Born - YouTube

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Rusty Gage describes the history of the discovery of adult neurogenesis, including his group's role in it, his current work studying neurogenesis using stem cells and how that ties into aging, and discusses current theories of memory reconsolidation.

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RegenMed, stem cell and cell therapy industry in 2013

At the end of the year, I overview the most interesting and important events in stem cell/ RegenMed/ cell therapy industry. This year I’d like to focus on trends, rather than separate events.
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This is a very interesting post in "stemcellassays" blog about 2013 trends in the regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy fields.

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2013’s Big Advances in Science | The Scientist Magazine®

2013’s Big Advances in Science | The Scientist Magazine® | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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A great summary of 2013 scientific achievements, from the scientist magazine.

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Cells from the eye are inkjet printed for the first time

Cells from the eye are inkjet printed for the first time | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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Researchers have bioprinted retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and glia from the retina of rats using an inkjet printer.

The open-access paper is available here: http://iopscience.iop.org/1758-5090/6/1/015001/article


Learn about embryonic development of the eye: 

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/eye



 

 

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Richard D. Hammer, M.D.'s curator insight, December 21, 2013 12:09 PM

3-D printing will eventually play  a role in transplanation.

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Ray Kurzweil: This is your future

Ray Kurzweil: This is your future | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
By the early 2020s, we will have the means to program our biology away from disease and aging.
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Ray Kurzweil predicts the future of regenrative medicine.

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Poster : Molecular mechanisms of stem-cell identity and fate (2006)

Poster : Molecular mechanisms of stem-cell identity and fate (2006) | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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Bioactive Scaffolds for the Controlled Formation of Complex Skeletal Tissues | InTechOpen

Bioactive Scaffolds for the Controlled Formation of Complex Skeletal Tissues | InTechOpen, Published on: 2011-08-29. Authors: Sandra Hofmann and Marcos Garcia-Fuentes
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This is an open-access book chapter entitled "Bioactive Scaffolds for the Controlled Formation of Complex Skeletal Tissues".

Also check the regenerative medicine and tissue engineering book collection:

http://www.intechopen.com/subjects/tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine

 

 

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Christopher Duntsch's curator insight, January 23, 2014 3:21 AM

This is a good review and report of what is trending now in tissue engineering. The push early was therapies with cells derived from mature tissue, or tissue sections from mature tissues, that were transferred into a degenerated, damaged, or diseased tissue with the hope of some sort of therapeutic or regenerative healing or reversal of the disease process. There are a few exceptions, but this approach never worked well in vitro, in vivo in animals, much less in the clinical studies that followed. The shift to stem cell technologies was a paradigm shift and in the right direction, but still there has not been a great deal of success using stem cell therapies in isolation. There are rare exceptions as always (HSCs and BM transplants).

 

Years ago and even more so recently, the definition of tissue engineering, has changed significantly. There are now so called core components, and is agreed by most that the ‘sum of the parts are greater than the "whole". In the most basic sense, I would think it could be simplified to 1) a stem cell product or therapeutic 2) support factors of many types … growth factors, nutrients, supplements, etc., 3) a 3D scaffold of some type.

 

This article keys in on successes that have begun to be seen in the scientific literature as of late. Namely, that in addition to the above, one must consider the impact of stem cells as before, but also of progenitor cells, changes in phenotype that are smart and strategic and also in line with fundamental biology, and for lack of a better word for it, developmental biology.  In any normal solid organ, there is a rare but immortal adult stem cell population, and that stem cell is quiescent most often, at least in a healthy state. However, inflammation and other molecular events that occur with disease and damage and degeneration can push quiescent stem cells to asymmetrically give off early progenitors. These are the machines of tissue development, as they are of effective regenerative medicine.

 

As early progenitors mature, they change in phenotype, lose stem cell phenotypy, and gain terminal lineage phenotypy. Eventually, as cells proliferate and migrate and fill a tissue niche, they crowd and mature and secrete ECM and enzymes.  EC enzymes such as MMPs, and Cell surface adhesion molecules and receptors, interact with ECM such as proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, and eventually cells fix in space in time, communicate locally, and organize. The result is prefabricated tissue that is the infrastructure and architectural pathway to the end goal.. As this remodels continuously, the cell and tissue and the structure / architecture remodels and continues to mature and evolve.  Ideally, a relatively regenerated tissue with structure, order, and function, is left where once there was damaged or nonfunctional tissue.

 

The point of the above is that the rough approximation of developmental biology in vitro in not just important but required  for successful tissue engineering. And this requires more than the three core components mentioned. Without more detail, it is enough to simply make these descriptive comments. Despite the lack of detail for what follows, it is fairly logical to assume that an in vitro developmental biology influence is indeed a key fourth core for tissue engineering.

 

Principles of Tissue Engineering with the following four core components.

1 A stem cell that is a proven therapeutic for the treated condition.

2 A supportive mix of growth factors, small molecules, media, glucose, ECM, as indicated.

3 A synthetic or organic but biocompatible 3D scaffold, and;

4 A series of key steps, protocols, manipulations that provide a  developmental nature or influence to the biological device prior to transplant into the animal.

 

In summary, a definition of an ideal tissue engineering product: A stem cell therapeutic, seeded into a tissue engineering complex in vitro, supplemented with ECM, GFs, supplements, etc, which, after methods and protocols are carried forward correctly, results in a comprehensive biological device or structure that has the following components:

1 a retained stem cell fraction with a phenotypically correct phenotype,

2 an early progenitor fraction rapidly dividing and migrating throughout the structure, and,

3  a small late progenitor fraction that is beginning to some degree to mature to the lineage of the cells needed for the tissue treated.

 

The importance is that the biological device used for tissue engineering is: primed genetically, epigenetically, and with respect to its cell and molecular phenotype; phenotypically more effective at integrating / assimilating into the target tissue, and immediately starts to grow, mature, change, and regenerate the tissue defect or replace / treat / supplement a diseased or degenerated tissue. Makes sense.

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LifeMap Discovery - Introduction - YouTube

LifeMap Discovery (http://discovery.lifemapsc.com) is a compendium of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine, constructed by int...
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View this introductory video on LifeMap Discovery database for the use of stem cell researchers, developmental biologists, and regenerative medicine experts!

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Joe Riggs's curator insight, January 15, 2014 5:42 PM

LifeMap Discovery is an unprecedented interactive user-friendly searchable database that provides comprehensive coverage of  stem cell research and developmental biology. Contains important protocols for differentiation, gene expression profiles, and more. The team at the Student Society for Stem Cell Research (SSSCR) is impressed by the educational potential of this platform and its significance for the research community.

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iPSCs used to model disease causing abnormal bone growth | Stem Cells Freak

iPSCs used to model disease causing abnormal bone growth | Stem Cells Freak | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Researchers use induced pluripotent stem cells to model Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
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Researchers from Researchers from the University of California - San Francisco developed an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from  fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) patient. In this rare disease, muscles and tendons progressively turn into bone. When differentiated into bone tissue, FOP iPS cells exhibited an increase in mineralization and enhanced chondrogenesis in vitro. 

 

To read the full article: http://www.ojrd.com/content/8/1/190

 

Learn about bone development: http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/bone


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Stem Cell Reports - Human RPE Stem Cells Grown into Polarized RPE Monolayers on a Polyester Matrix Are Maintained after Grafting into Rabbit Subretinal Space

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Human RPE stem cells (RPESC) can be isoated from ault human retina and further differentiate in-vitro into RPE cells. This paper describes the protocol for isolation and differentiation of these cells. The researchers suggest that RPESC can be used as an ault stem cell source for  for cell therapy of retina diseases, instead of the embryonic stem cells-derived RPE, that are currently being tested in clinical trials.

 

 

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Living brain cells made from patients’ biobanked brain tissue

Living brain cells made from patients’ biobanked brain tissue | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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In a collaborative effort between scientists at The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, and scientists from Columbia University Medical Center,  induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells lines were successfully generated from non-cryoprotected brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This process will allow neurobiologists to follow the development of AD, and perhaps to identify early cellular markers of the disease, before AD clinically symptoms are displayed.

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Stem Cells in the Blogosphere

Stem Cells in the Blogosphere | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Stem Cells in the Blogosphere (Stem Cells in the Blogosphere http://t.co/s6pLyrQs3c http://t.co/GIMDjQXuKb)...
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Here is a list of the top stem cell related blogs on the web.

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Mimicking Developmental Chondrogenesis to Generate Chondrocytes In-Vitro

Mimicking Developmental Chondrogenesis to Generate Chondrocytes In-Vitro | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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Cartilage injury and lack of cartilage regeneration often lead to osteoarthritis, which involves degradation of joint components, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone. In a new open-access paper published in Stem Cell Reports, the authors explored the developmental cues governing articular cartilage geneartion in-vivo. They followed the developmental progression of primordial mesenchymal cells towards...(click on the image/link to read the full story).

http://us4.campaign-archive1.com/?u=985051700e9649000fa0c0d4a&id=77ce89ebff&e=aeb607fc5e

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Your stem cells: friend or foe? Doug Frantz at TEDxSanAntonio 2013 - YouTube

Stem cells continue to gain momentum to treat and in some cases cure devastating human diseases. In contrast, there is the mounting evidence that stem cells ...
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Doug Farntz talks about the dark side of stem cells - cancer stem cells.

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365 days: Nature's 10

365 days: Nature's 10 | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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In this news article, Nature journal selects "ten people who mattered this year". Among them, Shoukhrat Mitalipov, who reported in May on the development of a stem cell line from a cloned human embryo.

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Induced pluripotent stem cells by Rudolf Jaenisch

Induced pluripotent stem cells by Rudolf Jaenisch | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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Prof. Rudolf Jaenisch on the discovery of iPS cells, their epigenetic state and their therapeutical potential.

Learn more about stem cells and differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/

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From pluripotent stem cells to kidneys in a dish

From pluripotent stem cells to kidneys in a dish | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/kidney

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Two new papers, published in Cell Stem Cell, and Nature Cell Biology magazines, describes protocols for generation of kidney structures from human pluripotent stem cells.

http://www.nature.com/ncb/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ncb2894.html

http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/abstract/S1934-5909(13)00501-8

 

To learn about the embryonic development, anatomical compartments, gene expression of the kidney and related stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/kidney

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Parkinson’s stem cell project aims for 2014 approval

Parkinson’s stem cell project aims for 2014 approval | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
For eight local Parkinson’s patients seeking stem cell therapy, 2014 could be a milestone.
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A new Parkinson’s stem cell project, aims to replace the damaged neuronal cells in the patient's brain with neurons that will be derived from he patient's own cells. This article, describes the time table and the funding issues behind this project

 
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