Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering
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Research on the Medical Potential of Stem Cells: Where does Europe stand?

Research on the Medical Potential of Stem Cells: Where does Europe stand? | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Once the pioneer of innovative research, Europe seems to be trapped today between societal and ethical dilemmas
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This interesting article describes the european position regarding stem cell research and therapy. 

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Image of the Day: Stem Cell Sentinel | The Scientist Magazine®

Image of the Day: Stem Cell Sentinel | The Scientist Magazine® | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
An unfertilized egg cell showing a dense cloud of protein called “Ronin,” which contributes to embryonic development and maintains stem cells in their undifferentiated states

 

   
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Printing Out a Biological Machine

Printing Out a Biological Machine | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Researchers at the University of Illinois have used a 3-D printer to make small hybrid “biobots” — part gel, part muscle cell — that can move on their own.
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This article describes the generation of tiny "biobots" by combining contracting muscle cells and gells. These contractile muscle cells can be used in the  future to mobilize engineered devices in our bodies.

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Developmental on-switch: Substances that convert body cells back into stem cells initially activate all genes in the embryo

Developmental on-switch: Substances that convert body cells back into stem cells initially activate all genes in the embryo | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Researchers have demonstrated for the first time why the molecular cocktail responsible for generating stem cells works.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from Freiburg university found that zebrafish Pou5f1, a homolog of the mammalian pluripotency transcription factor Oct4, occupies SOX-POU binding sites before the onset of zygotic transcription and activates the earliest zygotic genes. 

The paper was published in Science:

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2013/08/14/science.1242527

 

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To learn about stem cells and their related differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/in-vitro-cells

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

 

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Identification of the missing pluripotency mediator downstream of leukaemia inhibitory factor : The EMBO Journal

Identification of the missing pluripotency mediator downstream of leukaemia inhibitory factor : The EMBO Journal | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In this open-access paper, researchers identified Tfcp2l1 (also known as Crtr-1) as the principal bridge between LIF/Stat3 input and the transcription factor core of naïve pluripotency.

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The Bionic Eye prototype: Professor Rob Shepherd at TEDxUWollongong

Professor Rob Shepherd from the Australian Bionics Institute speaks at the 2012 TEDxUWollongong on developing a bionic eye prototype. www.tedxuwollongong.com
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is a very interesting TEDx talk describing the design and development of bionic eyes.

 

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New gene repair technique promises advances in regenerative medicine (PNAS -Aug. 12, 2013)

New gene repair technique promises advances in regenerative medicine (PNAS -Aug. 12, 2013) | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In a paper published in PNAS, researchers decribe a new method for gene repairing using a new system on pluripotent stem cells.

They used an RNA-guided nuclease system called clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) identified in Neisseria meningitidis, which is distinct from the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes system. This system enabled an efficient  targeting of an endogenous gene in three hPSC lines.

 http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/08/09/1313587110.abstract

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Tissue Engineered Animal Sparing Models for the Study of Joint and Muscle Diseases | InTechOpen

Tissue Engineered Animal Sparing Models for the Study of Joint and Muscle Diseases | InTechOpen | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Tissue Engineered Animal Sparing Models for the Study of Joint and Muscle Diseases | InTechOpen, Published on: 2013-05-22. Authors: Ali Mobasheri and Mark Lewis
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

From the introduction: "The aim of this book chapter is to highlight the fact that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have important consequences for animal research and can be exploited to develop powerful animal sparing in vitro models. The main objective of the authors is to encourage researchers to consider designing, developing, utilizing and exploiting biomimetic alternatives to in vivo animal models. This chapter will focus on some of the most popular in vitro models that have been developed for skeletal muscle and articular cartilage."

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To learn about bone and cartilage development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/bone

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/cartilage


For stem cells differentiation protocols: 

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols


Available chondrogenic differentiation kits in LifeMap Bioreagents:

http://bioreagents.lifemapsc.com/collections/differentiation-kits

 

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Cell Stem Cell - Myf5-Positive Satellite Cells Contribute to Pax7-Dependent Long-Term Maintenance of Adult Muscle Stem Cells

Cell Stem Cell - Myf5-Positive Satellite Cells Contribute to Pax7-Dependent Long-Term Maintenance of Adult Muscle Stem Cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from the Max-Planck institute and Carnegie Institution of Washington found that induced inactivation of Pax7 in Pax7-expressing cells of adult mice leads to loss of muscle stem cells and reduced heterochromatin condensation in rare surviving satellite cells. Inactivation of Pax7 in Myf5-expressing cells revealed that the majority of adult muscle stem cells originate from myogenic lineages, which express the myogenic regulators Myf5 or MyoD. Likewise, the majority of muscle stem cells are replenished from Myf5-expressing myogenic cells during adult life, and inactivation of Pax7 in Myf5-expressing cells after muscle damage leads to a complete arrest of muscle regeneration. The authors also  demonstrate that a relatively small number of muscle stem cells are sufficient for efficient repair of skeletal muscles. They conclude that Pax7 acts at different levels in a nonhierarchical regulatory network controlling muscle-satellite-cell-mediated muscle regeneration.

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To learn about skeletal muscle embryonic development :

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/skeletal-muscle


For skeletal muscle-related, stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols


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Jan-Jan Liu's curator insight, August 8, 2013 10:15 PM

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ASCL1 reprograms mouse Müller glia into neurogenic retinal progenitors

ASCL1 reprograms mouse Müller glia into neurogenic retinal progenitors | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers over-expressed ASCL1 in dissociated mouse muler glia (MG) cells, and induced them to upregulate genes related to retinal progenitors and to downregulate glia-related genes. Retinal progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into photoreceptors and other retina cells. In the future, they can be used to induce regeneration in the retina and to replace injured/damaged retina cells.

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To learn about retina development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/eye/retina

 

To learn about muller glia cells development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/eye/inner-nuclear-layer/muller-glia-precursor-cells

 

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Stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

 

 

 

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Synthetic beef hamburger tastes 'close to meat' - video

Synthetic beef hamburger tastes 'close to meat' - video | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
A beef burger grown in a laboratory in Holland tastes 'close to meat', according to two volunteers who are the first to taste it on Monday (RT @ScienceBL: Scientists tasted a synthetic burger grown from stem cells today.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

After you read about it in almost every sensational magazine or blog, now you can hear how it tastes...

Is this going to be our food in the future? And what about prions...?

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Efficient model for generating human induced pluripotent stem cells

Efficient model for generating human induced pluripotent stem cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report a simple, easily reproducible RNA-based method of generating human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the August 1 edition of Cell Stem Cell. Their approach has broad applicability for the successful production of iPSCs for use in human stem cell studies and eventual cell therapies.

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from UCSD report on  a simple, highly reproducible RNA-based iPSC generation approach that utilizes a single, synthetic self-replicating VEE-RF RNA replicon that expresses four reprogramming factors (OCT4, KLF4, and SOX2, with c-MYC or GLIS1) at consistent high levels prior to regulated RNA degradation. A single VEE-RF RNA transfection into newborn or adult human fibroblasts resulted in efficient generation of iPSCs with all the hallmarks of stem cells, including cell surface markers, global gene expression profiles, and in vivo pluripotency, to differentiate into all three germ layers.

 http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/abstract/S1934-5909(13)00259-2

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To learn more about stem cells and differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/in-vitro-cells


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Artificial human-like ear grown in lab

Artificial human-like ear grown in lab | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Plastic surgeons in the US say they have moved a step closer to being able to grow a complete human ear from a patient's cells.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Scientist were able to grow a human-like ear made from animal tissue on a titanium scaffold. The ear geometry was redesigned to achieve a more accurate aesthetic result when implanted subcutaneously in a nude rat model. A non-invasive method was developed to assess size and shape changes of the engineered ear in three dimensions. Computer models of the titanium framework were obtained from CT scans before and after implantation This work is another step towards the design "real" artificial organs.

 

http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/10/87/20130413

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Stem cells: Egg engineers

Stem cells: Egg engineers | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
In a technical tour de force, Japanese researchers created eggs and sperm in the laboratory.

"Since last October, molecular biologist Katsuhiko Hayashi has received around a dozen e-mails from couples, most of them middle-aged, who are desperate for one thing: a baby. One menopausal woman from England offered to come to his laboratory at Kyoto University in Japan in the hope that he could help her to conceive a child. “That is my only wish,” she wrote".

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In a paper, published on November in Science, Katsuhiko Hayashi describes the in-vitro generation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), from skin cells of mice. These unique cells can be further differentiate into sperm and eggs. Hayashi's findings raised both safety and ethical issues, that are discussed in this Nature News article.

 

To read Katsuhiko Hayashi's paper:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23042295?dopt=Abstract&holding=npg

 

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To learn about the development of the reproductive system:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/reproductive-system

 

Stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

 

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The Quest for an Artificial Liver - MIT Technology Review

The Quest for an Artificial Liver                             - MIT  Technology Review | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
MIT Technology Review The Quest for an Artificial Liver MIT Technology Review "Together, these papers offer a path forward to solve two of the long-standing challenges in liver tissue engineering—growing a large supply of liver cells outside the...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from MIT performed large-scale, rapid studies of how 12,500 different chemicals affect liver-cell growth and functions, including drug detoxification, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and bile production. 

They identified 12 compounds that helped the cells divide, maintain their normal functions, or both.

In addition, they examined the ability of the molecules to promote the differentiation of iPS cells toward a hepatic lineage and induce the maturation of iHep cells toward a more adult-like liver phenotype. 

This research will hopefully enable to develope new therapeutical strategies for chronic liver diseases such as hepatitis C.

http://www.nature.com/nchembio/journal/v9/n8/full/nchembio.1270.html


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To learn about liver development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/liver

 

Stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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MSC 2013: Induced tissue regeneration and developmental engineering

MSC 2013: Induced tissue regeneration and developmental engineering | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

I’m attending MSC 2013: Adult Stem Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine in Cleveland. It has been great meeting so far and I’m learning a lot of new things. The highlights of the first day for me were: a new term, coined by Michael West (CEO of BioTime) – induced tissue regeneration (iTR) and importance of the concept of developmental engineering. These two things intimately interconnected.

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In this post by ALEXEY BERSENEV, he describes his impressions from the MSC 2013 stem cell meeting first day. Michael West was a keynote speaker and talked about the rationale behing the derivation of embryonic mesenchymal progenitor cells (EMPC) from human embryonic stem (hES) cells. EMPC are adult-like, clonally-purified lines, made of pluripotent stem cells, which can be scaled up and suited for industrial manufacturing. Unlike ES cells, EMPC are mortal, but could go easily 100 doublings in culture. Importantly, these EMPC recapitulating normal embryonic development in vitro. EMPC are very sensitive to environmental cues and can be turned easily into more specific mesenchymal lineages.

 

If you wish to learn more about these EMPC, you can take a look at:

 http://bioreagents.lifemapsc.com/pages/category-purestem

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FDA Approves Stem Cell Clinical Trial For Multiple Sclerosis

NEW YORK, Aug. 14, 2013 /PRNewswire/ --   The Tisch MS Research Center of New York announced today that it has received Investigational New Drug (IND) approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to commence a Phase 1 trial using autologous neural stem cells in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS).  MS is a chronic human autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that leads to myelin damage and neurodegeneration and affects approximately 2.1 million people worldwide.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In the approved clinical trial, mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (MSC-NPs) will be isolated from the patient's bone marrow, expanded and tested prior to injection. Participants will receive three rounds of injections at three month intervals. Safety and efficacy parameters will be evaluated in all participants through regular follow-up visits.The approval of the trial will allow researchers, for the first time to test this treatment strategy in real human patients. Hopefully, this phase I trial will lead to further trials of other stem cells-based potential therapies.

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How human induced pluripotent stem cells will transform regenerative medicine- Human Molecular Genetics

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In this open-access review, researchers discuss the recent developments in the field as they relate to regenerative medicine, with an emphasis on creating functional cells, editing their genome, autologous transplantation and how this ground-breaking field may eventually impact human aging.

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Is this the future of organ donation? Scientists grow beating mouse heart made from HUMAN stem cells

Is this the future of organ donation? Scientists grow beating mouse heart made from HUMAN stem cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Scientists from the University of Pittsburgh believe their breakthrough could lead to the development of transplant organs for patients thanks to stem cells produced from simple skin biopsies.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Scientists generated heart constructs by repopulating decellularized mouse hearts with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived multipotential cardiovascular progenitor cells. The cells migrate, proliferate and differentiate in situ into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells to reconstruct the decellularized hearts. After 20 days of perfusion, the engineered heart tissues exhibit spontaneous contractions, generate mechanical force and are responsive to drugs. This very interesting paper demonstrates the vast potential of the combination between tissue engineering 3D scaffolds, and stem cells differentiation. It was shown by others that decellularized tissues contain growth factor "pockets" or other imprinted csignals that allows recellularization of the tissue and differentiation of stem cells.

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/130813/ncomms3307/full/ncomms3307.html


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To learn about the embryonic development of the heart:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/heart


Stem cells differentiation protocols: 

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

 


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Letícia Oliver Fernandes's curator insight, August 14, 2013 10:59 AM

Esta matéria, do jornal inglês Daily Mail, relata um experimento feito por cientistas ao trocar o coração de um rato por um coração feito a partir de células tronco, obtendo sucesso ao fazer com que voltasse a bater. Espera-se que, a partir desta experiência, seja possível desenvolver órgãos para transplante.

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Cell Stem Cell - Regional Localization within the Bone Marrow Influences the Functional Capacity of Human HSCs

Cell Stem Cell - Regional Localization within the Bone Marrow Influences the Functional Capacity of Human HSCs | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from McMaster university, Canada published a paper in Cell Stem Cell journal, discussing the regional localization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) withing the bone marrow. They found that HSC tend to localize to endosteal regions of the trabecular bone area (TBA). These cells have superior regenerative and self-renewal capacity and are molecularly distinct from those localizing to the long bone area (LBA).

This important paper, reveals that bone marrow localization is important to define the functional propeties of HSCs.

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Highly efficient differentiation of neural precursors from human embryonic stem cells and benefits of transplantation after ischemic stroke in mice -Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers diffrentiate human embryonic stem cells into neuronal progenitors using small molecules in smad-inhibition protocol. These neuronal progenitors differentiate in-vitro into neuronal cells. In addition, they differentiated in-vivo upon transplantation into a murine stroke model.

The paper's provosional PDF file can be downloaded from the journal's site.

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To learn about the embryonic development of the brain:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/brain

 

For stem cells neuronal differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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For Henrietta Lacks' famous cells, new and unique protection

For Henrietta Lacks' famous cells, new and unique protection | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
NEW YORK (Reuters) - Information about the most famous and valuable human cells in the history of science is about to become a little harder for researchers to get.The National Institutes of Health announced (.@NIH reaches agreement with family of...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Family relatives of Lacks,  will help decide which biomedical researchers will have access to the complete genome data in cells derived from her cervical tumor, called HeLa cells. That data - which can be used to infer medical and other information about Lacks' family - will be stored in a secure, NIH-controlled database.

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For information about stem cell lines, including gene expression data and related protocols and cell therapies:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/in-vitro-cells

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Cell Stem Cell - Stem Cells in the Face: Tooth Regeneration and Beyond

Cell Stem Cell - Stem Cells in the Face: Tooth Regeneration and Beyond | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

Summary: "The face distinguishes one person from another. Postnatal orofacial tissues harbor rare cells that exhibit stem cell properties. Despite unmet clinical needs for reconstruction of tissues lost in congenital anomalies, infections, trauma, or tumor resection, how orofacial stem/progenitor cells contribute to tissue development, pathogenesis, and regeneration is largely obscure. This perspective article critically analyzes the current status of our understanding of orofacial stem/progenitor cells, identifies gaps in our knowledge, and highlights pathways for the development of regenerative therapies".

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is a free review from Cell Stem Cell describing stem cells in the face. It was first published in September 2012, and is now available as part of the Featured Five review collection.

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To learn more about the embryonic development of the head mesenchyme and the bones:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/head-mesenchyme

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/bone

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For stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

 

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Reprogramming cells by computer | KurzweilAI

Reprogramming cells by computer | KurzweilAI | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

Scientists at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) of the University of Luxembourg have developed a model that makes predictions that allow for deciding which differentiated cells — for instance skin cells — can be very efficiently changed into completely different cell types — such as nerve cells, for example.

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

The full paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/stem.1473/abstract

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Stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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Japan to start stem-cell study on humans : Nature News Blog

Japan to start stem-cell study on humans : Nature News Blog | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

On 1 August, researchers at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan, will start recruiting patients for the world's first clinical study using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Ophthalmologist Masayo Takahashi will be using sheets of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, derived from iPS cells, to try to halt the progression of age-related macular degeneration. In the wet-type AMD targeted by Takahashi, abnormal vascularization invades and destabilizes the epithelium, which supports the photoreceptors, and causes loss of vision.

To learn more about stem cells differentiation protocols towards retina cells, photoreceptors and RPE:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols


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