Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering
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Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering
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Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Since the discovery of direct reprogramming by Marius Wernig, few years ago, it is posiible to directly differentiate fibroblasts into neuronal cells In order to study neuronal-related disease phenotypes. In this paper, from the group of Thomas Sudhof, fibroblasts, taken from an autism mouse model ,that harbors a mutation in the neuroligin gene, are directly differentiate into neuronal cells. The researchers found that these cells now exhibit a phenotype similar to that observed in the endogenous neurons of the mouse model.

 


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Carlos Garcia Pando's comment, September 23, 2013 11:54 AM
Every day brings an even more astounding record in this race of stem cell engineering. I can't think of any other branch of science or technology that grows at such a pace.
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Andras Forgacs: Leather and meat without killing animals | Video on TED.com

By 2050, it will take 100 billion land animals to provide the world's population with meat, dairy, eggs and leather goods. Maintaining this herd will take a huge, potentially unsustainable toll on the planet.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Andras Forgcas discuss the motivation behind leather and meat biofabrication in the lab. Perhaps 30 years from now, leather and meat will be produced in a bioreactor in a same way  beer is being produced today.

 

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Skin engineering - an interview with Prof. Howard Green

Skin engineering - an interview with Prof. Howard Green | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Professor Howard Green stumbled across a skin transplant technique that involved growing keratinocytes into full skin layers, making him a pioneer in regenerative medicine.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is an interview with prof. Howard Green, a regenartive medicine pioneer. During the 70's and early 80's, he and his graduate student James Rheinwald discovered a technique to co-culture fibroblasts and keratinocytes. The results - a thin layer of skin-like tissue that can be transplanted to replace damaged skin tissue. Only later onthey discovered that the keratinocytes included a sub-population of adult stem cells.The presence of stem cells explains why the grafts, transplanted as thin sheets mainly made up of the skin’s upper layer, the epidermis, continue to grow and thicken, adding a deeper layer, the dermis, over ensuing months.

A great story, truely inspiring!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo7vSI4LiIs

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Researchers isolate and grow pancreatic stem cells | Stem Cells Freak

Researchers isolate and grow pancreatic stem cells | Stem Cells Freak | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A research team from the Netherlands led by Dr. Hans Clevers, isolated and grew adult stem cells from the pancreases of mice using a 3-D culture system and studied their in-vitro differentiation potential. Lgr5, a receptor for the Wnt-agonistic R-spondins (RSPOs), serves as an adults stem cells marker in multiple adult organs. Under normal conditions the Wnt signalling pathway is inactive and Lgr5 is not expressed. However, under pathological conditions, such as injury, the Wnt signalling pathway is robustly activated, concomitant with Lgr5 expression in regenerating pancreatic ducts. When cultured in-vitro, mouse pancreatic duct fragmens form cyst-like structures, termed organoids. By modulating the in-vitro culturing conditions, the research showed that they can control the differentiation faith of these pancreatic organoids either towards the generation of pancreatic duct cells or towards the formation hormone-secreting endocrine-like cells.
This interesting paper demonstrates the bi-potent nature of pancreatic Lgr5+ cells, and the next step will be to show that human pancreatic stem cells behave the same way and have the same differentiation potential.


To the open-access paper:

http://www.nature.com/emboj/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/emboj2013204a.html


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To study pancreas development: 

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/pancreas


For stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, September 18, 2013 5:48 AM

How long until we can manufacture functional pancreatic islands to implant? How will insulin manufacturers try to impede this happening?

Jacob Blumenthal's comment, September 18, 2013 6:31 AM
According to Doug Melton, in his 2013 ISSCR talk, there is no problem to generate millions of beta cells from embryonic stem cells. The main obstecle is how to encapsulate them upon administration to prevent the immune rejection response. I guess that the next step depends on bioengineering and biomaterials researchers.
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Organs on Demand | The Scientist Magazine®

Organs on Demand | The Scientist Magazine® | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This article, in The Scientist Magazine, gives a wide perspective on the field of 3D bioprinting. It describes the latest achievements and the challenges in turning experimental bioprinting into medical reality. 

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Stem cells are wired for cooperation, down to the DNA

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A new paper suggests that cells are not only tiny machiness that perform assigned tasks, but can also cooperative and communicate with each other. The researchers took a long view toward the behavior of cells. They wondered how it was that cells, which lived on earth as single units for hundreds of millions of years, could effectively bundle themselves together to perform specific tasks. But they also questioned what happened to the "cheating" behavior that can be seen in single cells, such as amoeba, that live in colonies—competitive behavior that allows the cell to gain a reproductive advantage without contributing its fair share to the community.
The researchers conducted a genetic screen in murine induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to look for mutants that allow cells to do things they would not normally do. Their genetic screen identified about 100 genes, which seem to cluster into a network.

This unique paper offers new insights into disease/pathological processes, which may be a unique cooperative state between cells rather than just a program malfunction.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2013/09/11/science.1241628.abstract?sid=e93b3e6b-cd19-4d5c-8c7e-397280a6654a

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Join our Linkedin group for stem cells, regenerative medicine and embryonic development updates and discussions:

http://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=4972382&trk=anet_ug_hm

 

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Induction of Pluripotency by Defined Factors

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This is a  talk by Shinya Yamanaka about the generation of induced pluripotent stem  (iPS) cells. He gave the talk on 2010 as part of the NIH Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series.

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Cell Stem Cell - Reprogramming Fibroblasts into Bipotential Hepatic Stem Cells by Defined Factors

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Researchers from China report a new method for direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into hepatic stem cells. They used Hnf1β and Foxa3, liver organogenesis transcription factors, to induce the reprogramming process. The resulted induced hepatic stem cells (iHepSCs)have the potential to further differentiate into both hepatocytic and cholagiocytic lineages. When introduced into the injured liver of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah)-deficient mice, the cells have differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells.

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To learn more about the embryonic development of the liver:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/liver


To explore a variety of stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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Penn: Protein That Protects Nucleus Also Regulates Stem Cell Differentiation

Penn: Protein That Protects Nucleus Also Regulates Stem Cell Differentiation | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

The human body has hundreds of different cell types, all with the same basic DNA, and all of which can ultimately be traced back to identical stem cells. Despite this fundamental similarity, a bone cell has little in common with a brain cell when it comes to appearance or function. The fact that bone is rigid and mechanically distinct from soft fat or brain had been speculated to play some role in differentiation to new cells in those parts of the body, but mechanisms have been unclear.

Now, a study by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have shown that a protein found in the nuclei of all cells — lamin-A — plays a key role in the differentiation process.

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A new study, published in Science magazine,  describes a new role for lamin-A protein in the differentiation process of stem cells. Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania found that levels of lamin-A varied between cell types of both human and mose tissues. For example, cells derived from bone, contain 30 times higher levels of lamin-A, as compared to cells derived from the brain. They also showed that  higher levels of lamin-A were correlated with greater protection of DNA and with added rigidity. Interestingly, when they silenced lamin-A by RNA interference in differentiating stem cells, they were able to repress or to alter the differentiation process.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6149/1240104.full


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To learn more about the lamin-A gene, LMNA:

http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=LMNA&search=LAMIN


Explore lamin-A related diseases:

http://www.malacards.org/search/by_symbol/LMNA

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Jordan Miller Helps Rice University Get into Medical 3D Printing

Jordan Miller Helps Rice University Get into Medical 3D Printing | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

Jordan Miller, the brains behind the 3D printed vascular networks discovered earlier this year, is moving up in the world. He's the newest assistant bioengineering professor at Rice University and the founder of Rice's new Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute (AMRI) program"

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

The 3D printed vascular networks Miller helped design and print were a groundbreaking discovery. Universities around the world are working to print transplantable organs like hearts and kidneys. Without a way to ensure blood flow throughout the printed organ however, the cells on the inside die from lack of nourishment. Miller used a RepRap 3D printer to create the needed blood vessel networks out of sugar; making them dissolvable once the rest of the organ gets printed and sets up. Blood can then be pumped freely through the organ, feeding the cells buried deep within the structure and getting scientists one step closer to that first 3D printed heart transplant.

To see the RepRap printer in-action, watch:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9VHFlwJQIkE

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Brain in-a-dish: Stem cells mimic human brain

Brain in-a-dish: Stem cells mimic human brain | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
'With the right mix of nutrients and a little bit of coaxing, human stem cells derived from skin can assemble spontaneously into brain-like chunks of tissue. Researchers provide the first description and application of these ‘mini-brains’ today in Nature
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers have previously used human stem cells to grow structures resembling the eye and even tissue layers similar to the brain's cortex. But in the latest advance, scientists developed bigger and more complex neural-tissue clumps by first growing the stem cells on a synthetic gel that resembled natural connective tissues found in the brain and elsewhere in the body. Then, they plopped the nascent clumps into a spinning bath to infuse the tissue with nutrients and oxygen.

Although they are not a "brain", these 3D neural clumps will allow to study cell-interactions and perhaps even neural circuits and to mimic neural development, better than any 2D neural culture.


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To learn more about brain development and related stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/brain


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International Stem Cell Corporation enters into clinical research agreement for Parkinson's Disease program

International Stem Cell Corporation, (ISCO, www.internationalstemcell.com), a California-based biotechnology company developing novel stem cell-based therapies, announced today that it has entered into a master clinical research agreement with Duke University to conduct clinical trials research in Parkinson's disease using ISCO's innovative neural stem cell product.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

ISCO's Parkinson's disease program uses human parthenogenetic neural stem cells (hPNSC), a novel therapeutic cellular product derived from the company's proprietary histocompatible human pluripotent stem cells. The hPNSC are self-renewing mulitpotent cells that are precursors for the major cells of the central nervous system. The ability of hPNSC to (1) differentiate into dopaminergic neurons and (2) express neurotrophic factors such as glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to protect the nigrostriatal system, offers a new and revolutionary opportunity for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, especially in cases where current dopamine-replacement approaches fail to adequately control the symptoms.

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To learn about the embryonic development of dopaminergic neurons:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/dopaminergic-neurons


Stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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Engineering Life | The Scientist Magazine®

Engineering Life | The Scientist Magazine® | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Cellular “tinkering” is critical for establishing a new engineering discipline that will lead to the next generation of technologies based on life’s building blocks.
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A great article from "The-Scientist" on synthetic biology and the new era of cell engineering.

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Mini drug factory churns out drugs from inside bone - life - 18 September 2013 - New Scientist

Mini drug factory churns out drugs from inside bone - life - 18 September 2013 - New Scientist | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Engineered immune cells migrate to bone marrow where they produce missing proteins – potentially creating a personalised drug factory inside the body
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In 2009, David Baltimore and his team from the California Institute of Technology described a metod to genetically engineer, pre-mature B cells from the bone marrow to secrete antibodies aginist the HIV virus (http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/113/7/1422). Since then, the idea of engineering bone-marrow cells into small drug factories has been further developed. This article summarizes the present and future concepts of this field .

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Near-perfect and rapid generation of induced pluripotent stem cells

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A research team from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, led by Dr. Yakub Hanna have discovered a protein that prevents the effective generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The protein, MDB3, is expressed  in every cell in the body, at every stage of development.  The researchers found that there is one exception to the rule of universal expression of this protein: the first three days after conception. These are exactly the three days in which the fertilized egg begins dividing, and the nascent embryo is a growing ball of pluripotent stem cells that will eventually supply all the cell types in the body. Starting on the fourth day, differentiation begins and the cells already start to lose their pluripotent status. And that is just when the MBD3 proteins first appear. By removing this protein from adult cells, the efficiency of the stem cells generation increased from 1% to almost 100%. Moreover, the process itself was shortened from  4 weeks to 8 days. The low efficient production of iPS cells using non-viral systems was one of the major setbacks in using these cells for regenerative medicine therapies. These amazing findings may help facilitate the efficient production of stem cells for medical use, as well as advancing our understanding of the mysterious process cell reprogramming by which mature cells can revert back into their original, embryonic state.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12587.html

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Robert J. Chen's curator insight, September 23, 2013 10:13 PM

Closer to clinical implementation?

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Niemann-Pick type C1 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells display disease specific hallmarks

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A new paper, published in the Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, describes the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from fibroblast cells of a Niemen-Pick type C1 patient. Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene. In this lysosomal storage disorder the intracellular transport and sequestration of several lipids like cholesterol is severely impaired, resulting in an accumulation of lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes. The neurological manifestation of the disease is caused by dysfunction and cell death in the central nervous system. The researchers differentiated the iPS into neural progenitor cells and into functional neurons. When they tested cholesterol accumulation in these cells they noticed  a significantly elevated cholesterol level in cells derived from fibroblasts of a NPC1 patient, compared to cells derived from fibroblasts of a healthy individual.

 

 

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Stem cells generated in living mice

Stem cells generated in living mice | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

In a new paper published in Nature, researchers describe a novel technique to reprogram cells in living mice, without removing those cells from their natural niche.

The researchers genetically engineered mice to express four genes that are used in culture to create induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell – Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-MYC. The genes were under a control of a chemical switch. To induce gene expression, the...

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Biomaterials and Biotechnology: From the Discovery of the First Angiogenesis Inhibitors to the Development of Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and the Foundation of Tissue engineering - Dr. Robert ...

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is a great talk by Dr. Robert Langer about the development of drug delivery systems and the early days of tissue engineering! 

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Join our Linkedin group for stem cells, regenerative medicine and embryonic development updates and discussions:

http://www.linkedin.com/groups?home=&gid=4972382&trk=anet_ug_hm

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Programmable glue made of DNA directs tiny gel bricks to self-assemble : Wyss Institute at Harvard

Programmable glue made of DNA directs tiny gel bricks to self-assemble : Wyss Institute at Harvard | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, have generated a DNA glue that can be used for the assembly of hydrogel "bricks" to form large biocompatible structures in-vivo. DNA stores genetic information as a sequence of four nucleotides, that bind in a specific way to complementary nucleotides (A to T, and C to G). A single strand of DNA adheres tightly to a second strand, but only if the second strand has a complementary nucleotide sequence to the first. 

The researchers used enzymes to make multiple copies of a short DNA sequence, to form long pieces of DNA called "giant DNA". These long strands contained multiple copies of that short DNA sequence. Then, they coated hydrogel cubes with this giant DNA, and found that the cubes adhered only to partner cubes coated with matching  giant DNA. The ability to generate any DNA strands with any desired sequence, makes that giant DNA, a true programmable DNA glue.

This technique will help to bring the idea of building in-vivo complexed structures from the dreams of tissue engineering scientists into real life.

 

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/130909/ncomms3275/full/ncomms3275.html

 

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Cell Stem Cell - Chemical Approaches to Stem Cell Biology and Therapeutics

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Small chemical molecules are being used more and more to differentiate pluripotent stem cells into mature cells. This review discuss the recent scientific and therapeutic progress, as well as new perspectives and future challenges for using chemical approaches in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

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Sweet Success- How Dessert Inspired My Research: Jordan Miller at TEDxYouth@SanDiego

Using simple yet illustrative analogies to help non-scientists understand his scientific discovery process, Biomedical Researcher Jordan Miller explains to h...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Printing sugar to create 3D structures to be used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine - A great talk by Jordan Miller !

 

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Siri Anderson's curator insight, September 4, 2013 10:41 AM

Food as art, well obviously.

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Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells - Cell Stem Cell

Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells - Cell Stem Cell | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Cell Stem Cell journal published two papers, describing methods to generate functional thymic epithelium cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The first paper describes a novel and robust method to generate human embryonic stem cell-derived thymic epithelial progenitor (TEP) cells in-vitro, and their maturation in-vivo into functional thymus epithelial cells (TECs).  The main author,  Audrey V. Parent, demonstrated that transplantation of TEPs into athymic-nude mice, that do not have mature T cells, was sufficient to support T cell development as shown by the generation of mature CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations.

http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/abstract/S1934-5909(13)00140-9

 

In the second paper, the researchers report a stepwise protocol to direct the differentiation of hESCs into thymic epithelial progenitor-like cells (TEPLCs) by mimicking thymus organogenesis with sequential regulation of Activin, retinoic acid, BMP, and WNT signals. The TEPLCs expressed key thymic markers and were shown to develop in vivo into thymic epithelium expressing the functional thymic markers MHC II and AIRE upon transplantation. Moreover, the TEPLC-derived thymic epithelium could support mouse thymopoiesis in T-cell-deficient mice and promote human T cell generation in NOD/SCID mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs). 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1934590913002725

 

As demonstrated by these two excellent papers, the ability to generate thymic epithelial progenitor cells from hESCs, may have broad applications for enhancing engraftment in cell-based therapies as well as restoring age- and stress-related thymic decline. In addition, these protocols may provide a valuable in vitro platform for studying human thymus organogenesis and regeneration.

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For stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

 

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Team 'spikes' stem cells to generate myelin

Team 'spikes' stem cells to generate myelin | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

"Stem cell technology has long offered the hope of regenerating tissue to repair broken or damaged neural tissue. Findings from a team of UC Davis investigators have brought this dream a step closer by developing a method to generate functioning brain cells that produce myelin—a fatty, insulating sheath essential to normal neural conduction".


Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In the current study, researchers from UC Davis developed a novel protocol to efficiently induce embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to differentiate into oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs), which can further differentiate into oligodendrocytes. Their protocol results in a pure population of OPCs, with fewer other cell types arising from the technique.

In the next step, they compared electrophysiological properties of the derived OPCs to naturally occurring OPCs. They found that unlike natural OPCs, the ESC-derived OPCs lacked sodium ion channels in their cell membranes, making them unable to generate spikes when electrically stimulated. Using viral transduction, the researchers introduced DNA that codes for sodium channels into the ESC-derived OPCs. These OPCs then expressed ion channels in their cells and developed the ability to generate spikes.

 

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/stem.1515/abstract




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Stem Cell Reports - Direct Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts toward a Cardiomyocyte-like State

Stem Cell Reports - Direct Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts toward a Cardiomyocyte-like State | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

Summary: Direct reprogramming of adult somatic cells into alternative cell types has been shown for several lineages. We previously showed that GATA4, MEF2C, and TBX5 (GMT) directly reprogrammed nonmyocyte mouse heart cells into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) in vitro and in vivo. However, GMT alone appears insufficient in human fibroblasts, at least in vitro. Here, we show that GMT plus ESRRG and MESP1 induced global cardiac gene-expression and phenotypic shifts in human fibroblasts derived from embryonic stem cells, fetal heart, and neonatal skin. Adding Myocardin and ZFPM2 enhanced reprogramming, including sarcomere formation, calcium transients, and action potentials, although the efficiency remained low. Human iCM reprogramming was epigenetically stable. Furthermore, we found that transforming growth factor β signaling was important for, and improved the efficiency of, human iCM reprogramming. These findings demonstrate that human fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed toward the cardiac lineage, and lay the foundation for future refinements in vitro and in vivo.

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In this paper, the researchers use direct differentiation methods to differentiate fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells. First, they do a screening analysis to find the most effective cocktail of transcription factor for the reprogramming. Then, they explore the gene expression of the induced cardiomtocytes, including their epigenetic state. Taken together, this paper adds important information regarding the transcription factors and signal pathways that are important to establish the identity of cardiomyocytes, which may lead in the future to the development of patient-specific therapies for heart diseases.

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To learn more about the development of the heart and cardiomyocytes:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/heart

 

To explore stem cells differentiation protocols towards cardiomyocytes :

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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An Organized Approach to 3D Tissue Engineering

An Organized Approach to 3D Tissue Engineering | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

Researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) have developed a simple method of organizing cells and their microenvironments in hydrogel fibers. Their unique technology provides a feasible template for assembling complex structures, such as liver and fat tissues, as described in their recent publication in Nature Communications.

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) in Singapore, have used interfacial polyelectrolyte complexation (IPC) fiber assembly, a unique cell patterning technology patented by IBN, to produce cell-laden hydrogel fibers under aqueous conditions at room temperature. Unlike other methods, IBN’s novel technique allows researchers to incorporate different cell types separately into different fibers, and these cell-laden fibers may then be assembled into more complex constructs with hierarchical tissue structures. In addition, IBN researchers are able to tailor the microenvironment for each cell type for optimal functionality by incorporating the appropriate factors, e.g. proteins, into the fibers. Using IPC fiber assembly, the researchers have engineered an endothelial vessel network, as well as cell-patterned fat and liver tissue constructs, which have successfully integrated with the host circulatory system in a mouse model and produced vascularized tissues. 

 

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/130819/ncomms3353/full/ncomms3353.html

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* I would like to thank Dr. Karthikeyan Narayanan, for the paper information and pictures presented in the post.

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