Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering
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Generation of 3D Skin Equivalents Fully Reconstituted from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)

Generation of 3D Skin Equivalents Fully Reconstituted from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from University of Maryland School of Medicine, describe a method for direct differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. In order to test the in vivo functional capacity of the iPSC-derived fibroblasts and keratinocytes, the researchers prformed skin reconstitution chamber assays and were also able to generate in-vitro 3D skin equivalents using another assay .

Taken together, the results  indicates that pluripotent stem cells have the ability to supply a source of both major types of skin cells, and produce an autologous 3D skin equivalent for generating in vitro skin disease models and developing gene and stem cell therapies for both inherited skin diseases.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077673

 

To learn about stem cells and embryonic development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/

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Transplantation of Expanded Fetal Intestinal Progenitors Contributes to Colon Regeneration after Injury

Transplantation of Expanded Fetal Intestinal Progenitors Contributes to Colon Regeneration after Injury | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In an open-access paper, published in Cell Stem Cells, Fordham et al, show that human and mouse fetal intestine contains proliferative, immature progenitors, which can be expanded in vitro as Fetal Enterospheres (FEnS). In addition, they were able to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells into immature intestinal progenitors. These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells- derived Fetal enterospheres had Villin present at the apical cell membrane in the spherical structure, and expressed markers of immature intestinal progenitors, as demonstrated expression analysis and comparison to primary human small intestine samples. In addition, in vitro cultured fetal enterosphers, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of E16 EGFP transgenic mouse fetus, were intracolonic transplanted into Rag2−/-mice.  The transplanted cells attached to ulcerated regions in the distal colon and were subsequently maintained long-term. A week after the second transplantation, the  engrafted cells formed epithelial crypt-like structures taht persisted at 1.5 months after transplantation, with continued evidence for proper differentiation and proliferation.

This results presented in this paper shed some light on  the mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation and demonstrates that immature intestinal progenitors, can be used in colonic regenerative therapies.

 

To read the full article:

http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/abstract/S1934-5909(13)00445-1#Summary

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Physical cues help mature cells revert into embryonic-like stem cells

Physical cues help mature cells revert into embryonic-like stem cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Bioengineers have shown that physical cues can help reprogram mature cells back into pluripotent stem cells. The study demonstrates for the first time that biomaterials can help regulate the memory of a cell's identity.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In a paper, published in Nature Materials by Downing el al, the researchers demonstrate how surface microtopography enhance reprogramming of mature cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. They found that parallel microgrooves,can replace the effects of small-molecule epigenetic modifiers and significantly improve reprogramming efficiency.

http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nmat3777.html

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H. Fai Poon's curator insight, October 23, 2013 10:16 PM

Good read to update you stem cell knowledge.

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Synthetic Biology designing tools for a better world

Synthetic Biology designing tools for a better world | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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A very good talk by Dr. Omri Drori, founder of Genome compiler, on the synthetic biology revolution.

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Direct Induction of Chondrogenic Cells from Human Dermal Fibroblast Culture

Direct Induction of Chondrogenic Cells from Human Dermal Fibroblast Culture | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In a paper poublished today in Plos ONE, Outani et al, describe a new method for direct reprogramming of skin fibroblasts into chondrogenic cells. They introduced 3 genes: c-MYC, KLF4, and SOX9 into mouse dermal fibroblasts and turned them into cartilage chondrogenic cells (iChon). The induced cells expressed chondrocyte-specific markers, and formed cartilage upon transplantation into nude mice.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0077365

 

To learn about SOX9 gene expression:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/gene-expression-signals/gene-search?q=sox9#results

 

To learn about the embryonic development of cartilage:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/cartilage

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, October 17, 2013 2:46 AM

Again!. Every day brings a brighter promise in this field.

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Derivation and Expansion of Multipotent Foregut Stem Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Derivation and Expansion of Multipotent Foregut Stem Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

During embryonic development, the foregut region gives rise to many organ systems such as the liver, thyroid, lungs, upper airways, billary system, stomach, and pancreas. Thus, a source of multipotent foregut stem cells is necessary to study the developmental process of these organs. In the lastest issue of Stem Cell Reports, Hannan et al outline a novel protocol for derivation of foregut stem cells... (click the image to read the full story)

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Packaging stem cells in capsules for heart therapy

Packaging stem cells in capsules for heart therapy | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

When stem cells are used for the treatment of heart diseases, they usually have a short-term effect, mostly because they don't stay at the injection site or simply because they die. In order to overcome this problem, researchers from Emory university encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in alginate-based capsules and inserted them into heart-attack rat models. They found that the rats that were treated with the encapsulated cells displayed increased heart function, reduced scar size and more growth of new blood vessels , compared to control rats that were treated by standard cell injection. In addition. more encapsulated cells remained viable.

This strategy can be used for other cell therapies, like transplantation of pluripotent stem cells-derived beta islets for the treatment of diabetes. Of course, in that case the main challenge will be to prevent the rejection of these cells, post transplantation.

The paper was published in the Journal of American Heart Association: http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/2/5/e000367.full

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Cell Stem Cell - Next-Generation Regenerative Medicine: Organogenesis from Stem Cells in 3D Culture - Free Review

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is a free review from the "Featured Five" review collection of Cell Stem Cell journal. It describes various techniques to differentiate stem cells in 3D structures rather than as a monolayer. This strategy enables to mimick  the cell interactions and differentiation cues that exist in-vivo.

To learn about stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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H. Fai Poon's curator insight, October 17, 2013 12:59 AM

This is a good marriage!

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GEN | Gene Trends: Which Ones Should You Be Studying Now?

GEN | Gene Trends: Which Ones Should You Be Studying Now? | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Which genes are trending among researchers right now? Find out here.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This article, pubished on GEN magazine lists the most popular genes in GENECARDS, an automatically mined human gene compendium.

One of these genes is TFCP2L1—transcription factor CP2-like 1. TFCP2L1 is a downstream transcription effector of the LIF/STAT3 signalling pathway and is essential in order to maintain the pluripotent state of mouse embryonic stem cells in-culture.

 

To learn about TCFP2L1 expression during embryonic development and in stem cells:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/gene-expression-signals/gene-search?q=TFCP2L1#results

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Pioneering Regenerative Medicine, Dr. Anthony Atala - GE FOCUS FORWARD

Subscribe to the GE Channel: http://full.sc/12xcByI Dr. Anthony Atala pioneered the field of regenerative medicine as the first to successfully engineer, gro...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is a short movie/interview with Dr. Anthony Atala about his work. Truely inspiring. Science fiction becomes a reality!

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, October 5, 2013 12:58 PM

Short promol video interview about organ printing, the present and the future. as far as I know nobody has printed functional kidneys yet although they mention it here. 

Anyway, it's great to see this happening

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Salivary gland bioengineering - Nature Communications

Salivary gland bioengineering                            -  Nature Communications | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A team led by Takashi Tsuji of the Tokyo University published a new paper in Nature communications describing the generation of functional salivary glands. The glands were prepared in-vitro from mice submandibular glands that were further dissected and seperated into mesenchymnal and epithelial tissues.The bioengineered gland secreted saliva in response to the administration of pilocarpine and gustatory stimulation by citrate, protected against oral bacterial infection and restored normal swallowing in a salivary gland-defective mouse model. 

This approach can be used as a therapy to salivary gland hypofunction, also known as xerostomia, that occurs as a result of radiation therapy for head cancer, Sjögren’s syndrome or aging.

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131001/ncomms3498/full/ncomms3498.html

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Tissue Engineering for Clinical Applications: Faculty Insight with Sujata Bhatia

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In this interview, Sujata Bhatia, a leading tissue engineering scientist describes her research and the development of a novel tissue glue.

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Till & McCulloch Award goes to Peter Zandstra | U of T News

Till & McCulloch Award goes to Peter Zandstra | U of T News | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

The University of Toronto's Peter Zandstra is the recipient of the prestigious 2013 Till & McCulloch Award in recognition of this contribution to global stem cell research.

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Peter Zandstra is a leading scientist, focusing on engineering systems for stem cells culturing and differentiation. He will recieve the prestigous award for the discovery of a new method for expansion of stem cells. His research team published a paper in the February 2012 issue of Cell Stem Cell, entitled “Rapid Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Automated Control of Inhibitory Feedback Signaling,”, describing a novel method for culturing and expansion of cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells.

As Michael Rudnicki, the Scientific Director of the Stem Cell Network, comments, this method is very likely to improve the outcome of blood system transplants for many patients.

http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/retrieve/pii/S1934590912000057

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Induced pluripotent stem cells reveal differences between humans and great apes

Induced pluripotent stem cells reveal differences between humans and great apes | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In a paper published today (23.10) in Nature, researchers have  taken human, chimpanzee and bonobo skin cells and turned them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and found disparities in the regulation of jumping genes or transposons (DNA elements that can copy and paste themselves into spots throughout the genome)  between the humans and the non-human primate cells. In addition, they  identified genes that are differentially expressed between iPSCs from humans and both chimpanzees and bonobos.

This paper demonstrates how iPSC can be used to study evolutionary differences between humans and non-human primates.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12686.html

 

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To learn about stem cells and embryonic development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/

 

 

 

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Baldness research 'creates a new hair follicle'

Baldness research 'creates a new hair follicle' | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Is this the end of baldness? I am not so sure...

Researchers from columbia university found that adult human hairfollicle dermal papilla cells can be partially reprogrammed to

become capable of inducing hair-follicle neogenesis, simply by allowing them to form 3D spheroids. In addition, using microarray analysis, they identified key transcription regulators, that will enable complete recapitulation of the genetic profile of a fully functioning dermal papilla.

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/10/16/1309970110.abstract

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Meet Frank, the world's first bionic man

Meet Frank, the world's first bionic man | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Frank, short for Frankenstein, was designed by Swiss scientists using artificial body parts and has a fully functioning circulatory system with a beating heart.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Check this awesome technology demostrator bionic man,

where tissue engineering, and 3D bioprinting are merged !

Take a look at the following links:

http://www.livescience.com/40531-the-incredible-bionic-man-gallery.html

http://www.smithsonianchannel.com/sc/web/show/3378516/the-incredible-bionic-man

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xBiOQKonkWs#t=81

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Craig Venter: 'This isn't a fantasy look at the future. We are doing the future'

Craig Venter: 'This isn't a fantasy look at the future. We are doing the future' | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
The pioneering American scientist, who created the world's first synthetic life, is building a gadget that could teletransport medicine and vaccines into our homes or to colonists in space
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is an interview with one of the great and controversial scientists of our time. From his early work, the human genome sequencing project and Celera genomics to the creation of synthetic organisms and beyond.

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Mini-pancreas grown from stem cells has implications for future insulin delivery

Mini-pancreas grown from stem cells has implications for future insulin delivery | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In a paper, published in Development journal, researchers from the  Danish Stem Cell Centre have shown that they can culture mouse pancreatic cells into expanded, branched structures in a 3D culture.

By manipulating the medium composition they  generated either hollow spheres, which are mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors, or complex organoids that spontaneously undergo pancreatic morphogenesis and differentiation.

Manipulation and improvement of  culture and expansion techniques 

 could lead to a more efficient and  developed method of creating insulin-releasing beta cells, which will eventually be used for cell therapy of diabetes.

http://dev.biologists.org/content/140/21/4452.full

 

To learn about pancreatic development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/pancreas

 

To learn about stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

 

 

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, October 16, 2013 2:04 PM

Another wonder result from tissue engineering!

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Adult Stem Cells Help Build Human Blood Vessels in Engineered Tissues

Adult Stem Cells Help Build Human Blood Vessels in Engineered Tissues | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Chicago, IL (Scicasts) – Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have identified a protein expressed by human bone marrow stem cells that guides and stimulates the formation of blood vessels.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from the university of Illinois studied the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the formation of vascular networks in-vitro. They found that “pericytic” MSCs secrete the pro-angiogenic vascular guidance molecule SLIT3, which guides vascular development by directing ROBO4-positive endothelial cells to form networks in engineered tissue. In contrast, “non-pericytic” MSCs exhibit reduced activation of the SLIT3/ROBO4 pathway and do not support vascular networks. 

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002228281300268X

 

To learn about endothelial cells embryonic development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/endothelium

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Carlos Garcia Pando's comment, October 15, 2013 1:37 PM
This is it! Now the road is much more clear for 3d printing tissue
Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, October 15, 2013 1:38 PM

Wonderful discovery that paves the road to complex (and big) 3d printed functional tissue

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PLOS ONE: Transcriptome Comparison of Human Neurons Generated Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp and Skin Fibroblasts

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

There are different protocols to generate neurons ad neural progenitor cells form human pluripotent stem cells. However, not much is known about the gene expression profiles of the differentiation neurons. In this paper, Chen J et al, have generated induced pluripotent stem cells from both fibroblasts and dental pulp stem cells, and used RNA-sequencing to reveal the gene expression profiles of the stem cells-derived neuron precursor cells (NPCs) and neurons. 

To learn about stem cells differentiation protocols, please enter:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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A Stem Cell Story

A Stem Cell Story | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
What are stem cells, where do they come from, and what do we really know about them? An award-winning introduction to the world of stem cell research. Innova...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is a very nice movie about stem cells.

From the EuroStemCell organization site:    http://www.eurostemcell.org/films#story

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We have to change the culture of science to do better research: Uri Alon at TEDxLausanne

http://www.tedxlausanne.org. Uri Alon is a unique scientist. After contributing game-changing ideas to the fields of network analysis and systems biology, he...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Uri Alon, a systems biology scientist and an extraordinary person talks about that "special moment" in every scientist career, that nothing happens as you expected, and basically your research is stuck...

A very nice talk!

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Geron stem cell work finds new home, reunited with Tom Okarma - San Francisco Business Times

Geron stem cell work finds new home, reunited with Tom Okarma - San Francisco Business Times | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Nearly a year after BioTime Inc. started publicly sniffing around Geron Corp.'s ...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A new stem cell company was born, Asterias Biotherapeutics, which is a  subsidiary of BioTime Inc. The company's CEO is Tom Okarma, who was the former president and CEO of Geron. Now, based on Geron's stem cell work and cell lines, Asterias Biotherapeutics will try to develope new stem cell-based therapies. Good luck!

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Novel Col2a1-EGFP iPS Cells used to monitor chondrogenic differentiation

Novel Col2a1-EGFP iPS Cells used to monitor chondrogenic differentiation | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In this open-access paper, Saito et al. generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from embryonic fibroblasts of Col2a1-GFP transgenic mice, by transducing them with a viral cocktail of the iPSC factor genes Klf4, Sox2, Oct4, and c-Myc. The resulting iPSCs were...(click the picture)

 

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Neural stem and progenitor cells in health and disease - Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews

Neural stem and progenitor cells in health and disease  - Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC) can be found in both embryonic and adult neuronal tissues, and can be used for cell therapies of various neurological disorders. Moreover, researchers can induce fibroblasts to differentiate into neural stem and progenitor-like cells. This review describes the origin tissues of NSPC, their main characteristics and their possible clinical potential. 

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