Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering
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Susan Lim: Transplant cells, not organs | Video on TED.com

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A very interesting talk by Susan Lim, a pioneering surgeon who performed the first liver transplant in Asia. She talks about the importance of stem cell transplantation.

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StemCells gets FDA OK on spinal cord trial

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The FDA gave permission to StemCell Inc.  to start testing an experimental stem cell therapy in humans who have suffered spinal cord injuries. This experiment will be conducted mainly in the USA, but also in Canada, and its designed mostly to demonstrate that the stem cell injections are safe. 

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Cell - A Zebrafish Embryo Culture System Defines Factors that Promote Vertebrate Myogenesis across Species

Cell - A Zebrafish Embryo Culture System Defines Factors that Promote Vertebrate Myogenesis across Species | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A team of researchers, led by Leonard Zon, Amy Wagers, and Ronald Kahn describe a novel technique to identify small molecules and chemicals that can promote myogenesis differentiation and proliferation. The main goal of the study was to identify novel molecules that will allow efficient skeletal muscle differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These skeletal muscle cells, could be then transplanted into patients with muscle loss.

In order to achieve that, the researchers first use a zebrafish embryo-based culture system to screen for molecules that promote myogenesis and expansion of muscle progenitors. Then they applied these molecules on iPS cells, to generate engraftable myogenic progenitors that contributed to muscle repair in vivo.

http://www.cell.com/abstract/S0092-8674(13)01299-3

 

To learn about skeletal muscle embryonic development :

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/skeletal-muscle

 

*The picture is taken from Lifemap Discovery database*

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iPSC-derived neural precursors exert a neuroprotective role in immune-mediated demyelination via the secretion of LIF

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers found that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) secretion by induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs) has a neuprotective effect against demyelination.

These NPCs were derived from mouse iPSC and  intrathecally  transplanted into an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Upon transplantation, the cells induced a neurprotective effect not by cell replacement  but through the secretion of LIF  that was shown promotes survival, differentiation and the remyelination capacity of both endogenous oligodendrocyte precursors and mature oligodendrocytes.

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131022/ncomms3597/full/ncomms3597.html

 

 

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How Nanotechnology Can Advance Regenerative Medicine

How Nanotechnology Can Advance Regenerative Medicine | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In this open-access review paper, the authos  summarize the recent studies on nanotechnology with applications to stem cell biology,

including the regulation of stem cell adhesion, growth, differentiation, tracking and imaging.

http://iopscience.iop.org/1468-6996/14/5/054401/pdf/1468-6996_14_5_054401.pdf

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Cell & Tissue Models in Drug Discovery & Development - Case Presentation

Cell & Tissue Models in Drug Discovery & Development - Case Presentation | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Alexey Bersenev, who writes the blog "Stem Cell Assays" (http://stemcellassays.com/) shares this interesting video recorded 2 weeks ago at Stem Cell Meeting on the Mesa.

I highly recommends his blog!

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Scientists 'spike' stem cells to generate myelin

Scientists 'spike' stem cells to generate myelin | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

University of California Davis, have generated oligodendrocyte-like cells from Olig2-GFP embryonic stem cells (ESC). Although a subset of brain OPCs express voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV ), mediating the spiking properties of oligodendrocyte-progenitor cells (OPCs), the ESC-derived OPCs did not express functional NaV and failed to generate spikes. By virally transduction of NaV 1.2 α subunit into the ESC-OPCs, the researchers were able to turn these cells into spiking OPCs.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/stem.1515/abstract;jsessionid=12439BB8456A4C7645A35920C08EF9FF.f03t02

 

Learn about brain development and related stem cell protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/brain

 

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3D Printer Uses Microscopic Water Droplets That May Be Used For Tissue Engineering and Wound Healing | Bioprinting World

3D Printer Uses Microscopic Water Droplets That May Be Used For Tissue Engineering and Wound Healing | Bioprinting World | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers have developed to "print" or organize lipid droplets in 3D shapes. In the web page-embedded video, they show how these structures can be re-organized after they were prined. 

Very cool stuff!

 

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What are induced pluripotent stem cells? Narrated by Dr. Mick Bhatia

Celebrated by the 2012 Nobel Prize in Medicine, a type of cell known as an "induced pluripotent stem cell" or "iPS cell" has important implications for the emerging…
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What are embryonic stem cells? Narrated by Dr. Janet Rossant

Since their first discovery, embryonic stem (ES) cells have been the focus of intense research and public scrutiny. Derived from discarded 5-day old embryos (typically…
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Gene Expression Changes in the Injured Spinal Cord Following Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

Gene Expression Changes in the Injured Spinal Cord Following Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Olfactory Ensheathing Cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A new paper, published in Plos ONE compares gene expression changes following transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into  injured spinal cords. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be easily isolated from the bone marrow or peripheral blood and are being used in cell therapies for a variety of diseases. Olfactory ensheathing cells are a unique type of glia cells that reside in the nasal olfactory epithelium and in the olfactory bulb. Both cell types have the capacity to secrete neurotrophic factors and are believed to promote neurprotection and recovery. 

The results presented in this paper will enable to refine the cell therapy procedures for spinal cord injuries and will also enable to understand the mechanisms by which OECs and MSCs exert neural recovery, post transplantation.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076141#s4

 

To study spinal cord embryonic development and gene expression:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/spinal-cord

 

 

 

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Potential of 3D cell-based models for regenerative medicine explored in new webinar

Potential of 3D cell-based models for regenerative medicine explored in new webinar | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Presented by Dr Elad Katz, a senior scientist at AMSBIO, a new on-demand webinar explores the potential of 3D cell-based models for regenerative medicine and drug discovery.
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GEN | Magazine Articles: Gene Trends: Eye-Openers for Unusual Gene Variations

GEN | Magazine Articles: Gene Trends: Eye-Openers for Unusual Gene Variations | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This Gene Trends article focuses on  SCN11A, (sodium channel, voltage-gated, type XI, alpha subunit) and  SGK196 (Sugen Kinase 196) named after the biotech company that branded it as part of a quest for cancer-related protein kinases genes..

http://www.genengnews.com/bioperspectives/gene-trends-eye-openers-for-unusual-gene-variations/5054

 

 

 

 

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Regenerative Medicine Research | Current status of induced pluripotent stem cells in cardiac tissue regeneration and engineering

In this open-access short review, Liu. et al, discuss the achievements and current status of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for cardiac tissue regeneration, including development of iPSC derivation, in vitro strategies for cardiac generation from iPSCs, cardiac application of iPSCs, challenges confronted at present as well as perspective in the future. 

 

To learn  about heart development, stem cell differentiation protocols, and cell therapies:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/heart

 

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Neural stem cells: generating and regenerating the brain

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Fred Gage and Sally Temple published a very interesting review about neural stem cells (NSCs) in Neuron journal. This is an open-access, and highly recommended review from one of the leading scientist in the field.

http://www.cell.com/neuron/retrieve/pii/S0896627313009896

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Cell Death and Differentiation - Immunobiology of mesenchymal stem cells

Cell Death and Differentiation - Immunobiology of mesenchymal stem cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Mesenchymal stem cells play an important role in cell therapy and are being currently tested in clinical trials for a variety of diseases. This open-access paper focus on their immunomodulatory effect.

 

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Emerging therapeutic targets for Type 2 Diabetes Melitus-Nature Reviews Endocrinology

Emerging therapeutic targets for Type 2 Diabetes Melitus-Nature Reviews Endocrinology | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Interested in Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM) ? Nature reviews endocrinology brings you a free collection of reviews, describing new therapeutical approachesfor the treatment of the disease. 

*The picture above is taken from the Lifemap Discovery database"

http://www.nature.com/nrendo/collection/type2-diabetes-mellitus/index.html

 

Explore the embryonic development of the pancreas:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/pancreas

 

Learn about beta-cells development and stem cell protocols for their derivation:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/pancreas/islets-of-langerhans/mature-beta-cells

 

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Identification and rescue of α-Synuclein toxicity in Parkinson's disease-associated neurons

Identification and rescue of α-Synuclein toxicity in Parkinson's disease-associated neurons | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease typically characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain. Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) affects 80% of PD patients, and is pathologically related to neuronal loss and aggregation of α-Synuclein (αSyn) (encoded by the SNCA gene) in the cerebral cortex area of the brain. In order to study the molecular characteristics of and mechanisms underlying PDD, researchers from the Whitehead Institute have generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from patient skin cells, harboring α-Synuclein mutations (A53T). In a parallel experiment, (click the image to read more).

 

Explore dopaminegic neurons development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/dopaminergic-neurons

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Genome hacker uncovers largest-ever family tree

Genome hacker uncovers largest-ever family tree | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Using data pulled from online genealogy sites, a renowned ‘genome hacker’ has constructed what is likely the biggest family trees ever assembled. The research was presented by  computational biologist Yaniv Erlich from the Whitehead Institute,  at the American Society of Human Genetics annual meeting in Boston.

 

http://www.nature.com/news/genome-hacker-uncovers-largest-ever-family-tree-1.14037

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Jesse Isaacs's curator insight, November 7, 2013 11:33 AM

Now that's BIG data!!  How could this information be used to help living individuals identified in this 'family tree'?

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Isolation and propagation of sweat glands multipotent stem cells

Isolation and propagation of sweat glands multipotent stem cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

The human skin contains multiple different stem cell populations. In a new paper published in Plos ONE, Nagel et al. report the isolation and further culturing of sweat gland stroma-derived stem cells (SGSCs). These cells coexpressed Nestin and Integrin alpha 6, secreted various cytokines and have the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal cells.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0078365

 

Explore stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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Lou Gehrig’s disease: From patient stem cells to potential treatment strategy

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A team of doctors and scientists led by researchers at the Cedars-Sinai Regenerative Medicine Institute, generated an induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) also known as Lou Gehrig’s Disease. ALS  is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The most common cause of the familial form of ALS (C9-ALS) are expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the noncoding region of the C9ORF72 gene. In the paper, published on Science Translational Medicine journal, the researchers generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from ALS patients carrying the C9ORF72 repeat expansion. These iPS cells were then differentiated into motor neuron-like cells that enable the researchers to study ALS related molecular events and gene expression profiles. The C9-ALS motor neurons exhibited altered expression of genes involved in membrane excitability , and demonstrated a diminished capacity to fire continuous spikes upon depolarization.  By using antisense oligonucleotides to  target the C9ORF72 transcript, they were able to reverse the gene expression alterations.

The use of iPS cells to form "disease-in-a dish" models, allow researchers to study molecular events-related to the disease and to screen for possible drugs. Yet, in the case of ALS (and other diseases), most of the patients suffer from  sporadic ALS  and not from the familial form of the disease. Thus, there is still lots to do before a therapy for ALS will be  offered. 

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/5/208/208ra149

 

To learn more about motor neurons and spinal cord development, and stem cells-related differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/spinal-cord

 

 

 

 

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What is a stem cell? Narrated by Dr. Jim Till

A seminal paper published in 1961 by Drs. James Till and Ernest McCulloch was the first academic study to prove the existence of an exciting new type of cell, the…
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Important step towards stem cell-based treatment for stroke

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

For the first time, researchers used  pluripotent stem cells-derived  neuronal-like cells to treat stroke in a rat animal model. First, they generated neuroepithelial stem (NES) cells from pluripotent stem cells that were further differentiated into cortically fated neuronal-like cells..These cortically fated neurons  were then transplanted into stroke animal models, where they induced a partial regeneration of the stroke cavity and improved sensorimotor deficits. Two months after the transplantation, the cells proliferated, survived, and generated mature neurons.

Although these are very interesting and important results, further studies will be needed to verify them and to decipher the mechanisms by which the transplanted neuronal progenitors, differentiate in-vivo and integrate with the uninjured neuronal tissue at the tranplantation site.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24148272%20%20

 

 

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Implanted Trachea Going Strong - A 5 year Follow Up Report

Implanted Trachea Going Strong - A 5 year Follow Up Report | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Five years after receiving a tissue-engineered airway, the 30-year-old Colombian patient is doing well, having experienced no immunological complications associated with the procedure.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A 5 year follow-up report on the first  tissue-engineered airway transplantation, has been published in The Lancet journal. In 2008, Claudia Castillo got a new trachea made from a decellularized human trachea that formed the scaffolds, that was then seeded with autologous epithelial and stem cells. 5 years later, the researchers report that the tissue-engineered trachea  remained open over its entire length, is well vascularised, completely re-cellularised with respiratory epithelium, and had normal ciliary function and mucus clearance. In addition, No stem-cell-related teratoma formed and no anti-donor antibodies developed.

These wonderful results encourage tissue engineering researchers to continue and test this therapeutical approach in other fields of regenerative medicine.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2813%2962033-4/abstract?rss=yes

 

 

 

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, October 25, 2013 1:05 PM

Some feedback after 5 years. This encourages me to walk this track: RESULTS and not only successful experiments

 

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Image of the Day: Neon Neuron | The Scientist Magazine®

Image of the Day: Neon Neuron | The Scientist Magazine® | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
A cortical neuron (green) against a background of neuronal stem cells (red)
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A beautiful picture!!

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