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UCLA stem cell researchers track early development of human articular cartilage

Stem cell researchers from UCLA's Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research have published the first study to identify the origin cells and track the early development of human articular cartilage, providing what...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from UCLA found that  recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a more efficient way to generate articular cartilage thenusin adult stem/progenitor cells. They published their findins in "Stem Cell Reports": http://www.cell.com/stem-cell-reports/abstract/S2213-6711(13)00124-0


To learn about the embryonic development of articular cartilage:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/cartilage


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Christopher Duntsch's curator insight, December 14, 2013 12:28 AM

Foundation building, a valid, solid, and smart approach to building a genomic, epigenetic / TF factor and gene target cohesive model, stem cell and progenitor and cell biology paradigm, cell proliferation, migration, maturation, differentiation biologic, and all the intracellular and extracellular machinery that take a chaotic mass of cells and polymers and matrix and the like, and pull it together into ever increasing layers of organization best known as tissue fabrication.


This occurs as a first step to a complex end. Biomechanical forces, ECM and Cell Cell contact, polymer matrix biology, morphogens, and neighboring cells and tissues, all are a player in this. From pre-tissue a tissue forms, but not fully mature, certainly not functional, until much more occurs  Tissue remodeling, and structure function development of the first product of the effort described above are both needed and strategically part of the biology. 


Recreating said modeling as above, for cartilage development, whether static, structural, dynamic, or functional, will be an equally difficult and equally important first step for stem cell biology and cell biology of cartilage development into first tissue then structure and function. A first step nonetheless, but a milestone that cannot be bypassed.  That being a developmental biology model, integration of stem cell biology, and extrapolating from cells and molecular machines, to a full understanding at all levels what transpired to create the tissue or organ in question with its architecture, function, and purpose.


This may sound a like a lot to do about nothing, but while this is a foundation for next gen therapeutics, the translation from in vivo foundational studies and knowledge derived therein, to a stem cell based tissue engineered regenerative product of real substance, safety, efficacy  practicality, etc, once done well, is the single biggest challenge the stem cell biologist and tissue engineering scientist face in every aspect of animal biology at every level, in healthy and disease, in young and in old.


And why might that be. The answer why does not need to be sought long to be given. It is a simple matter to observe that a true in vitro 3D complex functional stem cell based biologic device with matrix biology and tissue engineering integrated into the system, and at the same time the overlay of cell biology paradigms that serve to lead the way for all yet do not exist until understood,  architected, and implemented by the scientist.


Only for these UCLA researchers and others now and that follow, they do not have the advantage of God's infinite science, nor that of the uncountable mistakes that occurred as building blocks of randomness came together every 600th time they interacted, and over 4 billion years, eventually created unimaginable intelligent design.  Indeed, the challenge is taking what has been learned, and what is known as well, and combining that with technologies and biomaterials from the tissue of interest, from surrogate molecules and matrix biology (both living, synthetic  and inert), and combining all into a 3D structure static and dynamical properties, architecture that gives function by design, and as above, the overlay of a near invisible yet all powerful cell biology protocol set that is the driver of the machine.

 

Compared to the foundational and translational studies that are so complex, slow to develop, and slow to translate, I think we will see a rapid acceleration in scientific and medical breakthroughs as the milestones of the first two phases slowly are reached.  However, this is more likely if there efforts parallel the scientific methods and a team effort for all those academic and commercial, scientific and clinical.  If the intent and drive is there, and the research is done well, then the final key biologic is that of the in vitro transition phase. Meaning integrating the biology of the biotechnology created into the human condition for disease or other clinical purpose should be similar to the inherent self driven and all knowing developmental biology of the foundation.


The nobel prize medicine here is in two areas, the early discovery science of the foundation, and all aspects of in vitro translation to human application.  That is something most don't quite grasp in the current day.

 

Christopher Duntsch, MD, PhD

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International Stem Cell Networks: The Power of Contacts - Cell Stem Cell

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This article discuss the importance of networking between stem cell researchers.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S193459091300502X

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CNIO: PRODUCING EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS IN LIVING ADULT ORGANISMS

A team from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) has become the first to make adult cells from a living organism retreat in their evolutionary ...
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A very nice movie, demonstrating the discovery of in-vivo stem cells reprogramming.

A link to the paper:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=24025773

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Proto-Organelles for Synthetic Cells | The Scientist Magazine®

Proto-Organelles for Synthetic Cells | The Scientist Magazine® | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Researchers construct lipid-encapsulated compartments within synthetic cells.
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"Researchers construct lipid-encapsulated compartments within synthetic cells".

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New collaboration combines genomic sequencing and stem cell technology to understand disease

New collaboration combines genomic sequencing and stem cell technology to understand disease | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A new collaboration between the Harvard Personal Genome Project (PGP), and researchers from the New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) Research Institute has been announced today. NYCSF researchers will derive induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from samples of patients participating in PGP. These cell lines can then be examined and compared to data gathered by the PGP including whole genomes, medical histories, body microbiomes and hundreds of other traits from over 3,000 participants. 

 

To learn about stem cells and related differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/

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Stem cell research faces budget crunch

Stem cell research faces budget crunch | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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Mahendra Rao, director of the National Institute of Regenerative Medicine delivered the news on Wednesday morning session of the World Stem Cell Summit.

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Researchers unlock a new means of growing intestinal stem cells

Researchers unlock a new means of growing intestinal stem cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from the labs of prof. Robert Langer and prof. Jeffrey Karp, have developed a novel method for efficient propagation of intestinal Lgr5+ stem cells. Until now, researchers were able to culture these cells in-vitro only in a co-culture with supportive cells called Paneth cells. Now, it is possible to replace these supportive cells with two small mlecules CHIR99021 and Valproic Acid.

The paper was published online on Nature methods:

http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nmeth.2737.html

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Isolation, characterization, and molecular regulation of muscle stem cells | Frontiers in Striated Muscle Physiology

Isolation, characterization, and molecular regulation of muscle stem cells | Frontiers in Striated Muscle Physiology | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This open access review describes a method for direct  isolation of muscle stem cells also known as satellite cells. In addition, it details their characteristics and their unique gene expression profile.

 

To learn more about the embryonic development of skeletal muscles, and related stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/skeletal-muscle

 

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Stem cells - Dr Jekyll or Mr Hyde: Hans Clevers at TEDxAmsterdam

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Hans Clevers talks about stem cells and how we can use them for regenerative medicine.

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Irv Arons' Journal: Stem Cells in Ophthalmology Update 24: Current Tables Now Online

Irv Arons' Journal: Stem Cells in Ophthalmology Update 24: Current Tables Now Online | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This blog by Irv Arons brings interesting and useful information about stem cell-related cell therapies in ophthalmology. 

http://irvaronsjournal.blogspot.fr/2012/12/stem-cells-in-ophthalmology-update-24.html

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Inhibition of let-7 microRNA promotes reprogramming to human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) - Cell Stem Cell

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A new paper from the lab of Shinya Yamanaka suggest that the let-7  family of microRNAs induce an inhibitory effect on the reprogramming process by regulation of pro-differentiation factors, such as EGR1. Inhibition of let-7  in human cells results in an increase in the level of the let-7 target LIN-41/TRIM71, which in turn promotes reprogramming.

http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/abstract/S1934-5909(13)00492-X


To learn about stem cells and related differentiation protocols, follow the links:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/in-vitro-cells

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols


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Human stem cells used to reveal mechanisms of beta-cell failure in diabetes

Human stem cells used to reveal mechanisms of beta-cell failure in diabetes | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers derived induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from skin cells taken from patients with a rare form of diabetes -- Wolfram syndrome. Then they differentiated these iPS cells into beta-like cells, and found that the derived cells failed to secrete insulin due to  protein-folding, or endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  stress. By adding 4-phenyl butyric acid, the cells regain the ability to secrete insulin.

This paper is a good example to the ability to use iPS cells as iin-vitro disease models, to gain insight into disease-related molecular mechanisms and to screen for potential drugs.

http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2013/11/07/db13-0717.abstract

 

To learn about the embryonic development of the Pancreas, and related stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/pancreas

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Current status and perspectives on stem cell-based therapies undergoing clinical trials for regenerative medicine: case studies

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This new review, summarizes the current status of stem cell-based therapies. 

To learn about stem cells and related cell therapies, please enter:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/in-vitro-cells

 

*Cell therapies cards are currently a premium feature

 

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'Don't eat me' cancer drug work at Stanford wins $12.7 million CIRM grant - San Francisco Business Times

'Don't eat me' cancer drug work at Stanford wins $12.7 million CIRM grant - San Francisco Business Times | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
A team led by Stanford University researcher Irv Weissman won a $12.7 million grant...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers, led by Prof. Irv Weismann have developed a novel antibody designed to block the so-called "don't eat me" signal from a protein called CD47. That protein, found on the surface of cancer stem cells, prevents the immune system's garbage collectors — white blood cells called macrophages — from devouring the cancer cells. 

Now, the researchers won a CIRM grant, that will allow them to conduct early-stage safety testing early next year in acute myelogenous leukemia patients or patients with several solid tumors. 

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Nobel winner declares boycott of top science journals

Nobel winner declares boycott of top science journals | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Randy Schekman says his lab will no longer send papers to Nature, Cell and Science as they distort scientific process
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The global landscape of stem cell clinical trials - Future Medicine

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This review  brings a comprehensive overview on 4749 worldwide stem cell-related clinical trials up to 2013.

http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/full/10.2217/rme.13.80

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23andMe Steps Back | The Scientist Magazine®

23andMe Steps Back | The Scientist Magazine® | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
The company announces that it will stop offering health interpretations of personal genetic data.
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Cell Stem Cell - Integrating Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Drug Development - Cell Stem Cell

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This review, published on June in Cell Stem Cell journal, is now freely available, as part of the "Featured Five Reviews" of the Journal. It describes how researchers can use human pluripotent stem cells for drug discovery purposes.

http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/fulltext/S1934-5909(13)00204-X

 

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Defining Key Design Criteria for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

Defining Key Design Criteria for Cardiac Tissue Engineering | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Cardiomyocytes, differentiated from either human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are used in cardiovascular research throughout the last decade. In addition to their regenerative capacities and promise for clinical application, these cells provide an unlimited source of...

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, December 5, 2013 3:18 AM

This is like the drawings and procedure. Sience is taking the engineering steps.

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Scientists make lung cells from human stem cells

Scientists make lung cells from human stem cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from the  Columbia University Medical Center, published a new paper in Nature Bitechnology, describing a novel method for generation of functional lung cells from pluripotent stem cells. Their highly-efficient differentiation method resulted in the formation of clara, ciliated, type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells.

A link to the paper:

 http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nbt.2754.html

 

To learn about the embryonic development of the lung and realted stem cell protocols: 

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/lung

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A fully defined and scalable 3D culture system for human pluripotent stem cell expansion and differentiation

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A new paper in PNAS describes a novel 3D culturing system for culturing and expansion of pluripotent stem cells. It is based on a unique hydrogel that allows  to control the exact composition of the growth environment, free of any human- or animal-derived factors, and entailing only recombinant protein factors.


To learn about stem cells, embryonic development, and regenerative medicine:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/

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Experimental & Molecular Medicine - Mesenchymal stem cells: environmentally responsive therapeutics for regenerative medicine

Experimental & Molecular Medicine - Mesenchymal stem cells: environmentally responsive therapeutics for regenerative medicine | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

Via Richard D. Hammer, M.D.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This open-access review describes the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and their therapeutical potential for regenerative medicine. 

 

 

To learn about mesenchymal stem cells and their gene expression in Lifemap Discovery database:

 

Adipose-MSCs: http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/in-vitro-cells/adipose-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-family

 

Bone marrow-MSCs: http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/in-vitro-cells/bone-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-family

 

Umbilical cord-MSCs: http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/in-vitro-cells/blood-umbilical-cord-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-family

 

 

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Richard D. Hammer, M.D.'s curator insight, November 20, 2013 12:54 PM

Another article in support of autologous therapy.  

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'Mini-kidney' structures generated from human stem cells for first time

'Mini-kidney' structures generated from human stem cells for first time | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
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Researchers from the Salk institute have generated three-dimensional kidney structures from human induced pluripotent stem cells, as a platform to study the development and diseases of the kidney. 

http://www.nature.com/ncb/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/ncb2872.pdf#figures

 

To learn about the embryonic developement of the kidney, and related stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/kidney

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Induced Expression of Lin28 Promotes Tissue Regeneration

Induced Expression of Lin28 Promotes Tissue Regeneration | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

A paper published this month in Cell by Shyh-Chang et al., suggests that expression of  Lin28, a highly conserved RNA-binding protein, can lead to tissue regeneration. Lin28 was first identified as a developmental timing regulator in C. elegans. In mammals, Lin28a, a conserved mammalian paralog of Lin28, was shown to be expressed during embryogenesis and in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and to repress let7 microRNA. However, during fetal development, ...(click the image or the link to read the full story):

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Stem cells: A time to heal - Nature

Stem cells: A time to heal - Nature | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
The first stem-cell therapies for spinal cord injuries are already being tested in clinical studies, but scientific and political uncertainty remain.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

An article, published today in Nature, describes the current status of stem cell therapy clinical trials for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). 

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, November 14, 2013 8:02 AM

It's not political uncertainty, but only fear of the darkest and dirtiest side of humans: greed to make profit out of other persons lifs or bodies. In other words, they avoid the risk of facing fetuses traffic.