Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering
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Harnessing the potential of stem cells for new medicines: Doug Melton at TEDxBeaconStreet

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Doug Melton speaks about the potential of stem cell biology for regenerative medicine, and especially on his own goal to find therapy for diabetes.

Learn more about stem cells:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation

 

Join my Facebook group:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/STEMCELLSNET/

 

 

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Emerging therapeutic targets for Type 2 Diabetes Melitus-Nature Reviews Endocrinology

Emerging therapeutic targets for Type 2 Diabetes Melitus-Nature Reviews Endocrinology | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Interested in Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM) ? Nature reviews endocrinology brings you a free collection of reviews, describing new therapeutical approachesfor the treatment of the disease. 

*The picture above is taken from the Lifemap Discovery database"

http://www.nature.com/nrendo/collection/type2-diabetes-mellitus/index.html

 

Explore the embryonic development of the pancreas:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/pancreas

 

Learn about beta-cells development and stem cell protocols for their derivation:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/pancreas/islets-of-langerhans/mature-beta-cells

 

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Researchers demonstrate use of stem cells to analyze causes, treatment of diabetes

Researchers demonstrate use of stem cells to analyze causes, treatment of diabetes | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Scientists have generated patient-specific beta cells, or insulin-producing cells, that accurately reflect the features of maturity-onset diabetes of the young.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Abstract: Diabetes is a disorder characterized by loss of β cell mass and/or β cell function, leading to deficiency of insulin relative to metabolic need. To determine whether stem cell–derived β cells recapitulate molecular-physiological phenotypes of a diabetic subject, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from subjects with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2), which is characterized by heterozygous loss of function of the gene encoding glucokinase (GCK). These stem cells differentiated into β cells with efficiency comparable to that of controls and expressed markers of mature β cells, including urocortin-3 and zinc transporter 8, upon transplantation into mice. While insulin secretion in response to arginine or other secretagogues was identical to that in cells from healthy controls, GCK mutant β cells required higher glucose levels to stimulate insulin secretion. Importantly, this glucose-specific phenotype was fully reverted upon gene sequence correction by homologous recombination. Our results demonstrate that iPSC-derived β cells reflect β cell–autonomous phenotypes of MODY2 subjects, providing a platform for mechanistic analysis of specific genotypes on β cell function.

Link: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/67638

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Human stem cells used to reveal mechanisms of beta-cell failure in diabetes

Human stem cells used to reveal mechanisms of beta-cell failure in diabetes | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers derived induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from skin cells taken from patients with a rare form of diabetes -- Wolfram syndrome. Then they differentiated these iPS cells into beta-like cells, and found that the derived cells failed to secrete insulin due to  protein-folding, or endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  stress. By adding 4-phenyl butyric acid, the cells regain the ability to secrete insulin.

This paper is a good example to the ability to use iPS cells as iin-vitro disease models, to gain insight into disease-related molecular mechanisms and to screen for potential drugs.

http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2013/11/07/db13-0717.abstract

 

To learn about the embryonic development of the Pancreas, and related stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/pancreas

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Mini-pancreas grown from stem cells has implications for future insulin delivery

Mini-pancreas grown from stem cells has implications for future insulin delivery | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In a paper, published in Development journal, researchers from the  Danish Stem Cell Centre have shown that they can culture mouse pancreatic cells into expanded, branched structures in a 3D culture.

By manipulating the medium composition they  generated either hollow spheres, which are mainly composed of pancreatic progenitors, or complex organoids that spontaneously undergo pancreatic morphogenesis and differentiation.

Manipulation and improvement of  culture and expansion techniques 

 could lead to a more efficient and  developed method of creating insulin-releasing beta cells, which will eventually be used for cell therapy of diabetes.

http://dev.biologists.org/content/140/21/4452.full

 

To learn about pancreatic development:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/pancreas

 

To learn about stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

 

 

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, October 16, 2013 2:04 PM

Another wonder result from tissue engineering!

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Diabetes treatment discovery by Harvard scientists Douglas Melton and Peng Yi | Harvard Magazine

Diabetes treatment discovery by Harvard scientists Douglas Melton and Peng Yi | Harvard Magazine | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Hormone found by Harvard's Melton and Yi has the potential to change the way Type 2 diabetes is treated
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is an exciting discovery!  In adults, pancreatic β cells are generated primarily by self-duplication. The researchers report on a mouse model of insulin resistance that induces dramatic pancreatic β cell proliferation and β cell mass expansion. Using this model, the researchers identified a hormone, betatrophin, that is primarily expressed in liver and fat. The discovery of the betatrophin hormone may lead to the development of therapy to diabetes in the future.

Link to the paper: http://www.cell.com/abstract/S0092-8674(13)00449-2

Link to a movie: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lk4DDlct__4&feature=youtu.be

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Francisco J. Menéndez González's curator insight, May 3, 2013 5:02 AM

Betatropina, the hope for type 2 diabetics......