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Nose Rebuilt With Cartilage Grown From Patient's Own Body

Nose Rebuilt With Cartilage Grown From Patient's Own Body | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from Swiss have successfully performed nose reconstruction surgery with cartilage grown from the patient’s own tissue. First, the researchers isolated small biopsies from the nose of patients who suffer from severe nose defects from skin cancer surgery. Then, cartilage cells were isolated from this biopsies and cultured in-vitro. At the end of the expansion period, the samples had grown to 40 times their original size. The cultured tissues were then shaped according to the patient’s defect and implanted back to the patients.

The results were published in the Lancet journal: 

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(14)60544-4/abstract


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A combinatorial cell-laden gel microarray for inducing osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells : Scientific Reports

A combinatorial cell-laden gel microarray for inducing osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells : Scientific Reports | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In this open-access paper, the authors describe a novel method of screening for  microenvironments that direct  osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. 

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140129/srep03896/full/srep03896.html


Learn more about mesenchymal stem cells:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/mesenchymal-stem-cells

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UCLA stem cell researchers track early development of human articular cartilage

Stem cell researchers from UCLA's Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research have published the first study to identify the origin cells and track the early development of human articular cartilage, providing what...
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from UCLA found that  recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is a more efficient way to generate articular cartilage thenusin adult stem/progenitor cells. They published their findins in "Stem Cell Reports": http://www.cell.com/stem-cell-reports/abstract/S2213-6711(13)00124-0


To learn about the embryonic development of articular cartilage:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/cartilage


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Christopher Duntsch's curator insight, December 13, 2013 9:28 PM

Foundation building, a valid, solid, and smart approach to building a genomic, epigenetic / TF factor and gene target cohesive model, stem cell and progenitor and cell biology paradigm, cell proliferation, migration, maturation, differentiation biologic, and all the intracellular and extracellular machinery that take a chaotic mass of cells and polymers and matrix and the like, and pull it together into ever increasing layers of organization best known as tissue fabrication.


This occurs as a first step to a complex end. Biomechanical forces, ECM and Cell Cell contact, polymer matrix biology, morphogens, and neighboring cells and tissues, all are a player in this. From pre-tissue a tissue forms, but not fully mature, certainly not functional, until much more occurs  Tissue remodeling, and structure function development of the first product of the effort described above are both needed and strategically part of the biology. 


Recreating said modeling as above, for cartilage development, whether static, structural, dynamic, or functional, will be an equally difficult and equally important first step for stem cell biology and cell biology of cartilage development into first tissue then structure and function. A first step nonetheless, but a milestone that cannot be bypassed.  That being a developmental biology model, integration of stem cell biology, and extrapolating from cells and molecular machines, to a full understanding at all levels what transpired to create the tissue or organ in question with its architecture, function, and purpose.


This may sound a like a lot to do about nothing, but while this is a foundation for next gen therapeutics, the translation from in vivo foundational studies and knowledge derived therein, to a stem cell based tissue engineered regenerative product of real substance, safety, efficacy  practicality, etc, once done well, is the single biggest challenge the stem cell biologist and tissue engineering scientist face in every aspect of animal biology at every level, in healthy and disease, in young and in old.


And why might that be. The answer why does not need to be sought long to be given. It is a simple matter to observe that a true in vitro 3D complex functional stem cell based biologic device with matrix biology and tissue engineering integrated into the system, and at the same time the overlay of cell biology paradigms that serve to lead the way for all yet do not exist until understood,  architected, and implemented by the scientist.


Only for these UCLA researchers and others now and that follow, they do not have the advantage of God's infinite science, nor that of the uncountable mistakes that occurred as building blocks of randomness came together every 600th time they interacted, and over 4 billion years, eventually created unimaginable intelligent design.  Indeed, the challenge is taking what has been learned, and what is known as well, and combining that with technologies and biomaterials from the tissue of interest, from surrogate molecules and matrix biology (both living, synthetic  and inert), and combining all into a 3D structure static and dynamical properties, architecture that gives function by design, and as above, the overlay of a near invisible yet all powerful cell biology protocol set that is the driver of the machine.

 

Compared to the foundational and translational studies that are so complex, slow to develop, and slow to translate, I think we will see a rapid acceleration in scientific and medical breakthroughs as the milestones of the first two phases slowly are reached.  However, this is more likely if there efforts parallel the scientific methods and a team effort for all those academic and commercial, scientific and clinical.  If the intent and drive is there, and the research is done well, then the final key biologic is that of the in vitro transition phase. Meaning integrating the biology of the biotechnology created into the human condition for disease or other clinical purpose should be similar to the inherent self driven and all knowing developmental biology of the foundation.


The nobel prize medicine here is in two areas, the early discovery science of the foundation, and all aspects of in vitro translation to human application.  That is something most don't quite grasp in the current day.

 

Christopher Duntsch, MD, PhD

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Cell Stem Cell - Stem Cells in the Face: Tooth Regeneration and Beyond

Cell Stem Cell - Stem Cells in the Face: Tooth Regeneration and Beyond | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it

Summary: "The face distinguishes one person from another. Postnatal orofacial tissues harbor rare cells that exhibit stem cell properties. Despite unmet clinical needs for reconstruction of tissues lost in congenital anomalies, infections, trauma, or tumor resection, how orofacial stem/progenitor cells contribute to tissue development, pathogenesis, and regeneration is largely obscure. This perspective article critically analyzes the current status of our understanding of orofacial stem/progenitor cells, identifies gaps in our knowledge, and highlights pathways for the development of regenerative therapies".

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This is a free review from Cell Stem Cell describing stem cells in the face. It was first published in September 2012, and is now available as part of the Featured Five review collection.

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To learn more about the embryonic development of the head mesenchyme and the bones:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/head-mesenchyme

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/bone

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For stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

 

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TGF-β-releasing scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering | Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Abstract: "The maintenance of a critical threshold concentration of TGF-β for a given period of time is crucial for the onset and maintenance of chondrogenesis. Thus, the development of scaffolds that provide temporal and/or spatial control of TGF-β bioavailability has appeal as a mechanism to induce the chondrogenesis of stem cells in vitro and in vivo for articular cartilage repair. In the past decade, many types of scaffolds have been designed to advance this goal: hydrogels based on polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid, alginate; protein-based hydrogels such as fibrin, gelatin, collagens; biopolymeric gels and synthetic polymers; and solid and hybrid composite (hydrogel/solid) scaffolds. Here, we review the progress in developing strategies to deliver TGF-β from scaffolds with the aim of enhancing chondrogenesis. In the future, such scaffolds could prove critical for tissue engineering cartilage, both in vitro and in vivo".

-----------------Commercial Section-------------------

To learn more about chondrogenic differentiation products:

http://bioreagents.lifemapsc.com/collections/differentiation-kits

http://bioreagents.lifemapsc.com/collections/purestem-packages

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3D printer and living "ink" create cartilage

Lawrence Bonassar, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering, describes a cutting-edge process he has developed in which he uses a 3D Printer and ...
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Gene Therapy Might Grow Replacement Tissue Inside the Body | Duke Pratt School of Engineering

Gene Therapy Might Grow Replacement Tissue Inside the Body | Duke Pratt School of Engineering | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from Duke combined synthetic scaffolds with viral gene delivery techniques to generate cartilage-secreting human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The researchers first immobilized lentivirus to poly(ε-caprolactone) films. Then they demonstrated that scaffold-mediated gene delivery of transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3), using a 3D woven poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold, promoted  cartilaginous ECM production by hMSCs.

Full paper: 

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/02/13/1321744111.abstract

 

Learn about cartilage development and related stem cell differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/cartilage

 

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Mimicking Developmental Chondrogenesis to Generate Chondrocytes In-Vitro

Mimicking Developmental Chondrogenesis to Generate Chondrocytes In-Vitro | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Cartilage injury and lack of cartilage regeneration often lead to osteoarthritis, which involves degradation of joint components, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone. In a new open-access paper published in Stem Cell Reports, the authors explored the developmental cues governing articular cartilage geneartion in-vivo. They followed the developmental progression of primordial mesenchymal cells towards...(click on the image/link to read the full story).

http://us4.campaign-archive1.com/?u=985051700e9649000fa0c0d4a&id=77ce89ebff&e=aeb607fc5e

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Direct Induction of Chondrogenic Cells from Human Dermal Fibroblast Culture

Direct Induction of Chondrogenic Cells from Human Dermal Fibroblast Culture | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In a paper poublished today in Plos ONE, Outani et al, describe a new method for direct reprogramming of skin fibroblasts into chondrogenic cells. They introduced 3 genes: c-MYC, KLF4, and SOX9 into mouse dermal fibroblasts and turned them into cartilage chondrogenic cells (iChon). The induced cells expressed chondrocyte-specific markers, and formed cartilage upon transplantation into nude mice.

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0077365

 

To learn about SOX9 gene expression:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/gene-expression-signals/gene-search?q=sox9#results

 

To learn about the embryonic development of cartilage:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/cartilage

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, October 16, 2013 11:46 PM

Again!. Every day brings a brighter promise in this field.

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Artificial human-like ear grown in lab

Artificial human-like ear grown in lab | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Plastic surgeons in the US say they have moved a step closer to being able to grow a complete human ear from a patient's cells.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Scientist were able to grow a human-like ear made from animal tissue on a titanium scaffold. The ear geometry was redesigned to achieve a more accurate aesthetic result when implanted subcutaneously in a nude rat model. A non-invasive method was developed to assess size and shape changes of the engineered ear in three dimensions. Computer models of the titanium framework were obtained from CT scans before and after implantation This work is another step towards the design "real" artificial organs.

 

http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/10/87/20130413

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New way to improve stem cells' cartilage formation

New way to improve stem cells' cartilage formation | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Bioengineers are interested in finding innovative ways to grow new cartilage from a patient's own stem cells, and, thanks to a new study, such a treatment is a step closer to reality.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Link to the paper "Hydrogels that mimic developmentally relevant matrix and N-cadherin interactions enhance MSC chondrogenesis"

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/05/30/1214100110

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