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Stem Cell Reports - Modeling Hippocampal Neurogenesis Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers from  the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have developed a novel protocol for generation of hippocampal granule neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) via the formation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs). These hESC-derived NPCs were further transplanted into the dentate gyrus (DG) region of NOD-SCID where they exhibited a remarkable ability to integrate into the mice DG.

Full open-access paper: http://www.cell.com/stem-cell-reports/abstract/S2213-6711(14)00026-5?switch=standard#Summary

 

Learn about brain development and neuronal differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells: http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/brain

 

 

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Grow a new brain: First steps to lab-made grey matter - New Scientist

Grow a new brain: First steps to lab-made grey matter -  New Scientist | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Make a gelatin scaffold, add a pinch of brain tissue with the cells removed, followed by stem cells – and watch the neurons grow
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

This article describes  a new method for  neural tissue engineering. In a proof of concept study, the authors seed  mesenchymal stem  cells in a gelatin scaffold which also contains a decellularized brain tissue.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961213013045

 

 

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Brain in-a-dish: Stem cells mimic human brain

Brain in-a-dish: Stem cells mimic human brain | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
'With the right mix of nutrients and a little bit of coaxing, human stem cells derived from skin can assemble spontaneously into brain-like chunks of tissue. Researchers provide the first description and application of these ‘mini-brains’ today in Nature
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers have previously used human stem cells to grow structures resembling the eye and even tissue layers similar to the brain's cortex. But in the latest advance, scientists developed bigger and more complex neural-tissue clumps by first growing the stem cells on a synthetic gel that resembled natural connective tissues found in the brain and elsewhere in the body. Then, they plopped the nascent clumps into a spinning bath to infuse the tissue with nutrients and oxygen.

Although they are not a "brain", these 3D neural clumps will allow to study cell-interactions and perhaps even neural circuits and to mimic neural development, better than any 2D neural culture.


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To learn more about brain development and related stem cells differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/brain


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Stem cells found to cure epilepsy in mice - World Science - World Science

Fars News Agency
Stem cells found to cure epilepsy in mice - World Science
World Science
Stem cells found to cure epilepsy in mice. May 6, 2013. Courtesy of UCSF and World Science staff.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Re­search­ers transplant  em­bry­on­ic stem cells-derived GABA progenitor cells, in­to the hip­po­cam­pus, a brain re­gion as­so­ci­at­ed with seizures, as well as learn­ing and mem­o­ry. They report that the transplanted cells expressed interneurons genes and proteins and differentiated into functional inhibitory neurons.

A link to the abstract: http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nn.3392.html

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Antibody transforms stem cells directly into brain cells

Antibody transforms stem cells directly into brain cells | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
In a serendipitous discovery, scientists have found a way to turn bone marrow stem cells directly into brain cells.
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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, April 23, 2013 7:54 AM

Changing cells of marrow lineage into cells of neural lineage -- a direct identity switch termed "transdifferentiation" -- just by activating a single receptor is a noteworthy achievement. Scientists do have methods for turning marrow stem cells into other adult cell types, but these methods typically require a radical and risky deprogramming of marrow cells to an embryonic-like stem-cell state, followed by a complex series of molecular nudges toward a given adult cell fate.

 

The link to the news release:

http://www.scripps.edu/news/press/2013/20130422lerner.html

 

The researchers discovered the method while looking for lab-grown antibodies that can activate a growth-stimulating receptor on marrow cells. To their surprise, I imagine, one antibody turned out to activate the receptor in a way that directly induces marrow stem cells—which normally develop into white blood cells—to become neural progenitor cells, a type of almost-mature brain cell.

 

Current cell-therapy methods typically assume that a patient’s cells will be harvested, then reprogrammed and multiplied in a lab dish before being re-introduced into the patient. In principle, according to Lerner, an antibody such as the one they have discovered could be injected directly into the bloodstream of a sick patient. From the bloodstream it would find its way to the marrow, and, for example, convert some marrow stem cells into neural progenitor cells. “Those neural progenitors would infiltrate the brain, find areas of damage and help repair them,” he said.

Jacob Blumenthal's comment, April 23, 2013 11:19 PM
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/04/23/1306263110.abstract
Carlos Garcia Pando's comment, April 24, 2013 12:33 AM
Thanks, Jacob
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Living brain cells made from patients’ biobanked brain tissue

Living brain cells made from patients’ biobanked brain tissue | Stem Cells & Tissue Engineering | Scoop.it
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

In a collaborative effort between scientists at The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, and scientists from Columbia University Medical Center,  induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells lines were successfully generated from non-cryoprotected brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This process will allow neurobiologists to follow the development of AD, and perhaps to identify early cellular markers of the disease, before AD clinically symptoms are displayed.

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Fred 'Rusty' Gage - How Neurons Are Born - YouTube

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Rusty Gage describes the history of the discovery of adult neurogenesis, including his group's role in it, his current work studying neurogenesis using stem cells and how that ties into aging, and discusses current theories of memory reconsolidation.

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Highly efficient differentiation of neural precursors from human embryonic stem cells and benefits of transplantation after ischemic stroke in mice -Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

Researchers diffrentiate human embryonic stem cells into neuronal progenitors using small molecules in smad-inhibition protocol. These neuronal progenitors differentiate in-vitro into neuronal cells. In addition, they differentiated in-vivo upon transplantation into a murine stroke model.

The paper's provosional PDF file can be downloaded from the journal's site.

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To learn about the embryonic development of the brain:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/in-vivo-development/brain

 

For stem cells neuronal differentiation protocols:

http://discovery.lifemapsc.com/stem-cell-differentiation/protocols

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Cell Stem Cell - Directed Differentiation and Functional Maturation of Cortical Interneurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Jacob Blumenthal's insight:

The authors demonstrate the highly efficient derivation of human cortical interneurons using an NKX2.1::GFP human embryonic stem cell reporter line. This study lays the foundation for studying cortical interneurons involvement in human disease pathology.

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