Researchers use induced pluripotent stem cells to model Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:
Researchers from Researchers from the University of California - San Francisco developed an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) patient. In this rare disease, muscles and tendons progressively turn into bone. When differentiated into bone tissue, FOP iPS cells exhibited an increase in mineralization and enhanced chondrogenesis in vitro.
In this open-access paper, Saito et al. generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from embryonic fibroblasts of Col2a1-GFP transgenic mice, by transducing them with a viral cocktail of the iPSC factor genes Klf4, Sox2, Oct4, and c-Myc. The resulting iPSCs were...(click the picture)
Summary: "The face distinguishes one person from another. Postnatal orofacial tissues harbor rare cells that exhibit stem cell properties. Despite unmet clinical needs for reconstruction of tissues lost in congenital anomalies, infections, trauma, or tumor resection, how orofacial stem/progenitor cells contribute to tissue development, pathogenesis, and regeneration is largely obscure. This perspective article critically analyzes the current status of our understanding of orofacial stem/progenitor cells, identifies gaps in our knowledge, and highlights pathways for the development of regenerative therapies".
Jacob Blumenthal's insight:
This is a free review from Cell Stem Cell describing stem cells in the face. It was first published in September 2012, and is now available as part of the Featured Five review collection.
To learn more about the embryonic development of the head mesenchyme and the bones:
Cartilage injury and lack of cartilage regeneration often lead to osteoarthritis, which involves degradation of joint components, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone. In a new open-access paper published in Stem Cell Reports, the authors explored the developmental cues governing articular cartilage geneartion in-vivo. They followed the developmental progression of primordial mesenchymal cells towards...(click on the image/link to read the full story).
Researchers from McMaster university, Canada published a paper in Cell Stem Cell journal, discussing the regional localization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) withing the bone marrow. They found that HSC tend to localize to endosteal regions of the trabecular bone area (TBA). These cells have superior regenerative and self-renewal capacity and are molecularly distinct from those localizing to the long bone area (LBA).
This important paper, reveals that bone marrow localization is important to define the functional propeties of HSCs.
Abstract: "The maintenance of a critical threshold concentration of TGF-β for a given period of time is crucial for the onset and maintenance of chondrogenesis. Thus, the development of scaffolds that provide temporal and/or spatial control of TGF-β bioavailability has appeal as a mechanism to induce the chondrogenesis of stem cells in vitro and in vivo for articular cartilage repair. In the past decade, many types of scaffolds have been designed to advance this goal: hydrogels based on polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid, alginate; protein-based hydrogels such as fibrin, gelatin, collagens; biopolymeric gels and synthetic polymers; and solid and hybrid composite (hydrogel/solid) scaffolds. Here, we review the progress in developing strategies to deliver TGF-β from scaffolds with the aim of enhancing chondrogenesis. In the future, such scaffolds could prove critical for tissue engineering cartilage, both in vitro and in vivo".
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