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Sending Red Light Through The Skull To Influence Brain Activity Using Red-Shifted Cruxhalorhodopsin named Jaws

Sending Red Light Through The Skull To Influence Brain Activity Using Red-Shifted Cruxhalorhodopsin named Jaws | STEAM | Scoop.it
Genetically engineered protein responds remotely to red light.

 

A team of biological engineers has developed a light-sensitive protein that permits scientists to control activity inside the brains of mice from outside the rodents’ skulls. The protein, called Jaws, promises to expand scientists’ ability to study brain activity in experimental animals and -- eventually -- humans. Ultimately, it holds the prospect of facilitating treatment of human conditions such as epilepsy.


Researchers are also using the protein to treat eye disease in experimental animals. Here, an immediate goal is therapy for certain eye ailments in humans.


Scientists use optogenetics, as the technology is known, to study the behavior and pathology of experimental animals’ brains by shining light on proteins known as opsins. Introduced into the brain aboard viruses, the opsins respond to the light by suppressing or stimulating electrical signals in brain cells. Optogenetic inhibition of the electrical activity of neurons enables the causal assessment of their contributions to brain functions. Red light penetrates deeper into tissue than other visible wavelengths. The red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red light–induced photocurrents three times those of earlier silencers. Jaws exhibits robust inhibition of sensory-evoked neural activity in the cortex and results in strong light responses when used in retinas of retinitis pigmentosa model mice.


The opsins normally used in brain studies are sensitive to blue, green, or yellow light. Because bodily tissue absorbs those colors easily, the sources of such light must lie inside the brain. Typically, the light is delivered through an optical fiber implanted in an experimental animal’s brain. Jaws can noninvasively mediate transcranial optical inhibition of neurons deep in the brains of awake mice. The noninvasive optogenetic inhibition opened up by Jaws enables a variety of important neuroscience experiments and offers a powerful general-use chloride pump for basic and applied neuroscience.


A team led by Ed Boyden, associate professor of biological engineering and brain and cognitive sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, reporting in Nature Neuroscience, demonstrated that red light shone from outside a mouse’s head can influence the Jaws protein up to three millimeters deep inside the brain. In fact, Boyden said, "we think the light goes further into the brain." A mouse’s brain is only about four millimeters thick.


"This is a huge advance, in that it allows for much deeper penetration of effective light," said David Lyon, an associate professor of anatomy and neurobiology at the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine. Lyon was not involved in the research on Jaws.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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STEAM is the new STEM: workshop gives Yavapai County teachers crash course ... - Prescott Daily Courier

Prescott Daily Courier
STEAM is the new STEM: workshop gives Yavapai County teachers crash course ...
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AACC professor selected for national STEM award - Eye On Annapolis

AACC professor selected for national STEM award - Eye On Annapolis | STEAM | Scoop.it
ALYCIA MARSHALL, Ph.D.Department chair and professor of mathematics at Anne Arundel Community CollegeOne of Insight into Diversity’s 100 Inspiring Women in STEM Alycia A.
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#ItWasNeverADress Conference urges girls to try STEAM - AZCentral.com - azcentral.com

#ItWasNeverADress Conference urges girls to try STEAM - AZCentral.com - azcentral.com | STEAM | Scoop.it
#ItWasNeverADress Conference aimed to inspire young women to explore traditionally male-dominated STEAM fields.
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Hood College camp adds arts into the engineering, tech world - Frederick News Post (subscription)

Hood College camp adds arts into the engineering, tech world - Frederick News Post (subscription) | STEAM | Scoop.it
Frederick News Post (subscription) Hood College camp adds arts into the engineering, tech world Frederick News Post (subscription) Children at Hood College's STEAM summer camp, focusing on science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics,...
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Rejecting STEM-only mindset, Rowan offers program that includes arts learning - NJ.com

Rejecting STEM-only mindset, Rowan offers program that includes arts learning - NJ.com | STEAM | Scoop.it
An increasingly contentious debate continues to rouse the academia community as to whether educators should spend time teaching students arts and humanities or focus more on career-geared studies like science and mathematics.
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Museum encourages girls to explore Engineering with special clas - 12 News - 12NewsNow.Com

Museum encourages girls to explore Engineering with special clas - 12 News - 12NewsNow.Com | STEAM | Scoop.it
Summer camps are in full swing in Beaumont and while many Southeast Texas youth are busy learning new skills, making friends and getting creative, the Beaumont Children's Museum this week is holdin...
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Complete Reuse of Post-Consumer Tyres in Concrete - Engineering at Sheffield News - Faculty of Engineering - Faculties - The University of Sheffield

Complete Reuse of Post-Consumer Tyres in Concrete - Engineering at Sheffield News - Faculty of Engineering - Faculties - The University of Sheffield | STEAM | Scoop.it
Tyres can be reused in concrete to make buildings greener, tougher and more earthquake-resistant http://t.co/p79K3XBvk1 via @sheffielduni
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Students learning how to make drones - News - recordonline.com - Middletown ... - Times Herald-Record

Students learning how to make drones - News - recordonline.com - Middletown ... - Times Herald-Record | STEAM | Scoop.it
KINGSTON- The hottest new summer high school program took off on Thursday at the Hudson Valley Pathways Academy in Kingston - drones 3-D printing.Forty
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Incredible!!

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Seahorse Tail Inspires New Engineering Technique - Immortal News

Seahorse Tail Inspires New Engineering Technique - Immortal News | STEAM | Scoop.it
We see limbs every day, whether they are our own or the limbs of animals. When we see something every..
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The Middle School S.T.E.A.M. Expo

Turning Point's annual STEAM Expo is a festival of creativity, invention, and artistic expression. Students participate in a variety of Science, Technology, ...
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What a great and SMART kid!

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St. Patrick adding art and religion to STEM to create STREAM - Herald & Review

St. Patrick adding art and religion to STEM to create STREAM - Herald & Review | STEAM | Scoop.it
DECATUR – Third-grade students at St. Patrick School were given one task and no directions.
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STEAM plays critical role in CO's STEM-focused workforce - 9NEWS.com

STEAM plays critical role in CO's STEM-focused workforce - 9NEWS.com | STEAM | Scoop.it
Much of Colorado's economic future depends on a coordinated effort between K-12, universities, governments and businesses to produce a quality, educated workforce.
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Are girl-focused engineering toys reinforcing gender stereotypes?

Are girl-focused engineering toys reinforcing gender stereotypes? | STEAM | Scoop.it
Another startup touting educational toys for girls recently wrapped a Kickstarter campaign and is likely on its way toward a formal launch.
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12 TV show pitches centered around a female engineering hero

12 TV show pitches centered around a female engineering hero | STEAM | Scoop.it
12 artists will take to The Paley Center in Beverly Hills to pitch their ideas for a TV show starring a female engineer as a protagonist.
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Google Geek Street Fair Brings STEAM to Chicago Kids - US News - U.S. News & World Report

U.S. News & World Report
Google Geek Street Fair Brings STEAM to Chicago Kids - US News
U.S.
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The Future is STEAM-Y, But what about Inclusion? | Nettrice Gaskins | TEDxFenway

Dr. Nettrice Gaskins has spent years exploring culturally responsive, arts-based approaches to STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Math).
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High schoolers use their noodles at engineering summer program - Washington Post

High schoolers use their noodles at engineering summer program - Washington Post | STEAM | Scoop.it
In the session’s highlight event, teens build bridges of uncooked spaghetti to test some weighty theories.
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Campbell County Schools teams with NASA on STEAM initiatives - Cincinnati Enquirer - Cincinnati.com

Campbell County Schools teams with NASA on STEAM initiatives - Cincinnati Enquirer - Cincinnati.com | STEAM | Scoop.it
Campbell County Schools has partnered with NASA to bolster STEAM curriculum.
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Love NASA's involvement!

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Students Showcase Creativity During Summer Scholars STEM Program - Newsplex - The Charlottesville Newsplex

Students Showcase Creativity During Summer Scholars STEM Program - Newsplex - The Charlottesville Newsplex | STEAM | Scoop.it
For five weeks, 20 Albemarle High School students put on their thinking caps, challenging themselves to build, problem solve, and create during the Summer Scholars STEM Program.
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Kids summer camp merges art and science at Notre Dame - WNDU.com - WNDU-TV

Kids summer camp merges art and science at Notre Dame - WNDU.com - WNDU-TV | STEAM | Scoop.it
'Art 2 Science' is a hands-on, project-based STEM camp for elementary students.
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Five-Minute Film Festival: Arts Integration Turns STEM to STEAM

Five-Minute Film Festival: Arts Integration Turns STEM to STEAM | STEAM | Scoop.it
Intrigued by the idea of adding the arts to STEM education? This video playlist highlights programs and projects around the country that are exploring STEAM learning.
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State awards $2 million grant to help STEM students in need - The Saratogian

State awards $2 million grant to help STEM students in need - The Saratogian | STEAM | Scoop.it
The Sage Colleges have been awarded a New York State Education Department Collegiate Science and Technology Entry Program (CSTEP) grant, intended to support minority and economically disadvantaged students.
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Tackling challenges at the intersection of engineering and sports - MIT News

Tackling challenges at the intersection of engineering and sports - MIT News | STEAM | Scoop.it
Sports companies connect with engineering students and faculty at the second annual STE@M Day.
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NCSU, NCCU to offer dual physics, electrical engineering degree - News & Observer

NCSU, NCCU to offer dual physics, electrical engineering degree - News & Observer | STEAM | Scoop.it
N.C. Central and N.C. State universities will offer a dual-degree program in physics and electrical engineering. The schools hope it will open doors in the fields to underrepresented minorities.
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Scheckelhoff: From STEM to STEAM - Richmond Times-Dispatch

Scheckelhoff: From STEM to STEAM - Richmond Times-Dispatch | STEAM | Scoop.it
As educators, we must equip our students with the knowledge and tools necessary to communicate, create, design and think critically in an ever-changing world. The classrooms of today and tomorrow are very different from those of previous generations.
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