LEDLEY KING ARTICLE
Ledley King who has had a successful carrer in football spoke to The Mail newspaper about his knee injury that turned him into a man alone. His carrer that has spanned from 1999 to 2012 has had its ups and downs for him. One of his memories he recalls are winning the FA Cup with Tottenham Hotspurs in 2008 but his downfall was the injury that occured at his left knee when he was around 25-26 years of age. He talks about how this injury restricted his ability to train regular and play on a weekly basis. He states that the injury did make lose motivation leading him to making himself think that football is about brains and intelligence which he admits did help him carry on with his carrer. Ledley King also talks about when playing football matches the injury restricted him with what he could do with his leg saying he could just bend the knee to ninety degrees as well as he would have to take precautions for what he told do while playing football matches.
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INJURY
The main aspects of physiological injuries are that we get injured by two main factors intrinsic these are injurys cause by ourselves by not warming up properly or using equipment inappropriately. And extrinsic injrys these are caused by outside aspects out of your control such as bad playing conditions or clothing that the club has given you which is inappropriate.
Ledley Kings injury was intrinsic because he could turn my to every training session due to various other commitments meaning his fitness levels would be considerably low making him prone to injury.
When Ledley King got injured this would be the first stage he'd go through this would be from when the injuy would occur to up to a week.
On the impact of an injury the immediate response is inflammination in the area of where the injury has occured. The main responses of this are to promote the protection of the body as well as the renewal of natural tissue.
Tissue injury is the first stage this is mainly due to the fact of overusing a muscle or bones as well as falling over awkwardly or a collision from a tackle. Usually you will see a bruise near or at the area of the injury.
In the second stage it's own as the Release of Chemicals. On the impact of the injury the body releases various chemicals this is some of the chemicals kinins, prostaglandin and histamine. All of theseee chemicals work together to increase vasodilatation. This is done so it increases blood flow to that injured area as well as it attracts some of the bodies natural defences.
The third stage of this process is the Leukocyte Migration this is when the body starts to send white blood cells to the injured area. There are two types in this process macrophages and neutrophils. Neutrophils are there so they can destroy the bad bacteria these are start to the injured area. Macrophanges main priority is to aid the healing process and eat dead cells this process could last up to a few weeks.
- TISSUE HEALING
The second stage that Ledley King would go through would take up to eight to twenty one days.
The first stage of tissue healing is the Collagenation this occurs towards the end of the inflammination process. Macrophanges work to keep the damages area protected from bad bacteria this happens while fibroblasts construct multiple collagen matrixs this will act as the new framework of tissue.
The next stage would be Angiogensis. This is when new cappillaries start to get produced once done. The blood flow through the capillaries this allows the tissue cells to re grow.
The third stage is Profileration. This stage of tissue healing could last up to four weeks this where two tissues are sustained these are specific tissues (such as muscle cells) and granulation tissues. If the granulation isn’t removed then it will form a scar this allow less movement in that area.
For Ledley King this would be the last stage of inflammatory this could last from twenty two days to even years.
The stage here is called Remodelling. This stage is when the body starts to create new tissue for the injured area allowing it to function as it did before this process could take up to months or even years to complete due to its slow steady progress. As it remodels the cells and protein fibres will arrange into the best suited way possible.
A sprain is when a ligament is torn, twisted or stretched this is due to the excessive amount of force applied.
A first degree injury of a sprain when only a few ligaments are torn at the joint wont be able to walk like you would normally do as well swelling will occur, inflammation and pain this could take up to a few days to heal.
A second degree injury is when there is more extensive damage to the ligament and swelling occurs you find it more difficult to walk, tenderness and bruising this could take up to a few weeks to heal.
Finally a third degree injury is when there is complete rupture of the ligaments, swelling and possible dislocation you'll find it very difficult to walk or not being able to walk there would still be pain around the joint but it would of calmed down over a time this could take from months to even years to heal.
A sporting example is when in football your football boot gets stuck in the grass and when you turn you twist your knee. This could cause complete tear of the ligaments at the joint.
A strain is an injury that occurs at the tendon when its torn, stretched or twisted.
A first degree injury is damage to a few muscle fibres this will mean you may not be able to walk quite as well as you did before, swelling will occur around the joint as well as inflammation, muscle spasm may occur here you will be out for a few days.
A second degree injury is when there is a more extensive damage to the muscle fibres you may find it very difficult to walk, bruising and muscle spasm could also occur here it could take up to a few weeks to be fully recovered.
A third degree injury is when the muscle fibres are completely ruptured you'll be unable to walk, fully ruptured ligaments, very little movement and this take up to months or even years to fully recover.
A sporting example of this is when you’re playing football and you haven’t warmed up properly then your muscle tears this could cause complete tear of the muscle fibres.
It's possible that Ledley Kings injury could of been a sprain seeing that he mentions in his article that he allows had problems with pain in his knee not on any muslce around the knee.
This type of injury is when the bleeding occurs outside of the muscle tissue this could be because of a deep cut from spiked studs in rugby or football.
This is when the bleeding occurs inside of the muscle tissue this could happen because of severe bruising due to being knocked into really hard.
PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INJURY
After Ledley Kings injury it is certain that he would have psychological factors when he gets injury and when he has treatment these are some of the things he would experience in both of those scenarios.
This is when you feel fear, apprehension and worry in your life. You feel stressed out as well as having a high heart rate making you feel worried and distraught. You may suffer this in early stages of the injury it’s self this would be a response to the injury.
This could mean that the athlete may be scared of certain things that doctors use such as needles but as well as what type of treatmentand how bad the injury is. This is normally happens at the start of treatment.
The definition of this is feeling down and unhappy as well as not willing to do many things. This could make you have mixed feelings about the injury and whether you’ll feel up to participating in the sport again. This would happen as a late stage in the injury.
Anger is when you are at a mild irritation to fury and rage this could also include physical anger such high heart rate, blood pressure and increased adrenaline levels. This could lead to mood swings with various people such as work colleagues and team mates. This would happen after anxiety normally.
This is when you are feeling annoyed with something or someone. This is when you become less likely to talk to people that can help you and you may become angry with someone else or yourself this wouldusually happen after anger.
The athlete could be frustrated because he has got himself injured when he could of still been playing for the rest of the season or competition. This would happen shortly after anxiety.
- ISOLATION FROM 'TEAM' MATES
This is when you feel lonely or restricted to being with people. This could lead to being unhappy, depressed and less social unlike before. This would normally happen long term in an injury.
PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO TREATMENT
- NEED FOR ATHLETE MOTIVATION
This is when you are less willing to do something. This could mean that the athlete may decide to give up on his or her sport depending on the lenght of injury. This would happen after treatment has been finished on the athlete.
- NEED FOR/USE OF GOAL-SETTING
This is when you're given a set of goals to reach for until your back to full fitness. The athlete may get less motivated to do this because he may have to go through a lot of time just to get back to his normal fitness and this could take years. This would happen after the need for the athlete to be motivated
IMMEDIATE/MID/LATE STAGES OF INJURY
- IMMEDIATE (0-7 days)
- MID (8-21 days)
Need for Athlete motivation
- LATE (22 days to years)
Isolation from Team mates
Need for/use of goal setting
It’s when the platelets form up to the cut at the skin to create scab to protect it from diseases after a while this scab will fall of and a new layer of skin underneath would be created.
This is to prevent blood lose or diseases getting into the body that can harm you.
When an area skin gets injured or damaged it gets replaced by scar tissue it is made of up of three specific types these are dermis, epidermis and hypodermis. At first the dermis forms around the wound to make a blood clot. After this they then send fibroblasts to the wounded area this starts to break down the blood cot and starts to rebuild the skin tissue.
The reason to why scar tissue is important in the remodelling stage is because it realigns the scar tissue fibres, as well as allows the injured area in the future to cope with more increased stress and tension.