Annotation: The Spanish American War is very important. People in the war lost there lifes just for fighting for freedom. On February 15, 1898 USS maine in the Hacana Harbor. I didn't know that Cuba was engaged in the war for insependence that means alot. They were trying to fight their right for freedom and i dont blame them. The Treaty of Paris was the end of the war and the last war was the most dangerous war. The Spanish American War began in 1898 as a direct result of an incident that occurred in Havana harbor. On February 15, 1898, an explosion occurred on the USS Maine that caused the deaths of over 250 American sailors. Even though later investigations have shown that the explosion was an accident in the boiler room of the ship, public furor arose and pushed the country to war because of what was believed at the time to be Spanish sabotage. Here are the essentials of the war that ensued.Yellow journalism is a term coined by the New York Times that refers to the sensationalism that had become common in the newspapers of William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. In terms of the Spanish-American War, the press had been sensationalizing the Cuban revolutionary war that had been occurring for some time. The press exaggerated what was happening and how the Spanish were treating the Cuban prisoners. The stories were based on truth but written with incendiary language causing emotional and often heated responses amongst readers. This would become very important as the United States moved towards war.2. Remember the Maine!On February 15, 1898, an explosion occurred on the USS Maine in Havana Harbor. At that time, Cuba was ruled by Spain and Cuban rebels were engaged in a war for independence. Relations between America and Spain were strained. When 266 Americans were killed in the explosion, many Americans, especially in the press, started claiming that the event was a sign of sabotage on the part of Spain. "Remember the Maine!" was a popular cry. President William McKinley reacted by demanding that among other things Spain give Cuba its independence. When they did not comply, McKinley bent to popular pressure in light of the impending presidential election and went to Congress to ask for a declaration of war.3. Teller AmendmentWhen William McKinley approached Congress to declare war against Spain, they agreed only if Cuba was promised independence. The Teller Amendment was passed with this in mind and helped to justify the war.4. Fighting in the PhilippinesThe Assistant Secretary of the Navy under McKinley was Theodore Roosevelt. He went beyond his orders and had Commodore George Dewey take the Philippines from Spain. Dewey was able to surprise the Spanish fleet and take Manila Bay without a fight. Meanwhile, Filipino rebel forces led by Emilio Aguinaldo had been attempting to defeat the Spanish and continued their fight on land. Once America won against the Spanish and the Philippines were ceded to the U.S., Aguinaldo continued to fight against the U.S.5. San Juan Hill and the Rough RidersTheodore Roosevelt volunteered to be part of the military and commanded the "Rough Riders." He and his men led the charge up San Juan Hill which was located outside of Santiago. This and other fighting resulted in the taking of Cuba from the Spanish.6. Treaty of Paris Ends the Spanish American WarThe Treaty of Paris officially ended the Spanish American War in 1898. The war had lasted six months. The treaty resulted in Puerto Rico and Guam falling under American control, Cuba gaining its independence, and America controlling the Philippines in exchange for 20 million dollars.7. Platt AmendmentAt the end of the Spanish-American War, the Teller Amendment demanded that the U.S. would give Cuba its independence. The Platt Amendment, however, was passed as part of the Cuban constitution. This gave the U. S. Guantanamo Bay as a permanent military base.
(1898), conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. The war originated...
sheldon willis's insight:
Conflict between the United States and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas and resulted in U.S. acquisition of territories in the western Pacific and Latin America. The war originated...
Annotation: He was the first U.S volunteer who was a Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Cuba was the main group in the war really putting force in effort and fighting for there freedom. Spain declared was in the united states which was a big shocker.One thing that pointed out was the that Roosevelt had lack experiences.
The First United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment was organized by Theodore Roosevelt and Leonard Wood, M.D.
TR, who was Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration, and a leading advocate of the liberation of Cuba, the Spanish colony then fighting for its independence, asked the Department of War permission to raise a regiment after Spain declared war on the United States on April 24, 1898. Wood, an army doctor who had won the Medal of Honor fighting the Apaches in the 1880s, was President William McKinley's physician, and a close friend of Theodore Roosevelt
Because he lacked military experience, Roosevelt suggested that Leonard Wood be given command of the volunteer cavalry regiment; and accordingly Wood became colonel, and TR was made lieutenant colonel, of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, soon popularly known as the "Rough Riders.".
The regiment, consisting of over 1,250 men, from all over the United States was mainly composed of cowboys, Indians, and other Wild West types, and Ivy League athletes and aristocratic sportsmen from the East. What did these two very different groups have in common ?
They could ride and shoot and were in shape, and thus could be ready for war with little training. The regiment was assembled at San Antonio, Texas in May, and shipped out to Cuba from Tampa, Florida-minus the horses-on June 14, 1898.
Rough Riders with Colonel Roosevelt at San Juan Heights, 1898
The Rough Riders were landed at Daiquiri, Cuba on June 22, and saw their first action in the Battle of Las Guasimas on June 24. The Rough Riders were part of the large American force that assembled for the assault on the Spanish fortifications protecting the city of Santiago. On the night of June 30, the eve of the big battle, Colonel Leonard Wood was promoted in the field to Brigadier General and Theodore Roosevelt was made Colonel of the Rough Riders.
On July 1, 1898 TR on horseback led the Rough Riders and elements of the Ninth and Tenth Regiments of regulars, African-American "buffalo soldiers," and other units up Kettle Hill. After that hill was captured, TR, now on foot, led a second charge up the San Juan Heights.This was what TR called his "crowded hour," his great moment.
After the capture of San Juan heights, overlooking Santiago, the city surrendered, and the war was virtually over. The toll from tropical diseases soon became worse than the losses in battle, and Roosevelt and other officers called for the American troops to be brought home quickly in order to save lives. The Rough Riders were shipped to Montauk, at the end of Long Island, and there the much-publicized and celebrated regiment was mustered out on September 16, 1898, after 137 days of service in the Army.
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt at Camp in Montauk Point, Long Island, New York where the Rough Riders spent time in quarantine after returning from Cuba.
Virgil Carrington Jones, in his book Roosevelt's Rough Riders (1971), writes of Roosevelt's regiment: "In the period of about four and a half months they were together, 37 percent of those who got to Cuba were casualties. Better than one out of every three were killed, wounded, or stricken by disease. It was the highest casualty rate of any American unit that took part in the Spanish-American War campaign."
Annotation: The U.S declared war in spain. Which caused alot of drama during the war. Spains has control over cuba. Jose rizal is a member of the spanish insistence on promoting only pure blooded spaniards. I beieve that spain had more control in the war but spain did lose control over the remains of itd overseas empire including Cuba, Puerto Rico the Philippines Gums and the other islands that they had control.
The Battleship Maine Photographic History of the Spanish American War, p. 36.
On April 25, 1898 the United States declared war on Spain following the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. As a result Spain lost its control over the remains of its overseas empire -- Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines Islands, Guam, and other islands.
Beginning in 1492, Spain was the first European nation to sail westward across the Atlantic Ocean, explore, and colonize the Amerindian nations of the Western Hemisphere. At its greatest extent, the empire that resulted from this exploration extended from Virginia on the eastern coast of the United States south to Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America excluding Brazil and westward to California and Alaska. Across the Pacific, it included the Philippines and other island groups. By 1825 much of this empire had fallen into other hands and in that year, Spain acknowledged the independence of its possessions in the present-day United States (then under Mexican control) and south to the tip of South America. The only remnants that remained in the empire in the Western Hemisphere were Cuba and Puerto Rico and across the Pacific in Philippines Islands, and the Carolina, Marshall, and Mariana Islands (including Guam) in Micronesia. Following the liberation from Spain of mainland Latin America, Cuba was the first to initiate its own struggle for independence. During the years from 1868-1878, Cubans personified by guerrilla fighters known as mambises fought for autonomy from Spain. That war concluded with a treaty that was never enforced. In the 1890's Cubans began to agitate once again for their freedom from Spain. The moral leader of this struggle was José Martí, known as "El Apóstol," who established the Cuban Revolutionary Party on January 5, 1892 in the United States. Following the grito de Baire, the call to arms on February 24, 1895, Martí returned to Cuba and participated in the first weeks of armed struggle when he was killed on May 19, 1895.
The Philippines too was beginning to grow restive with Spanish rule. José Rizal, a member of a wealthy mestizo family, resented that his upper mobility was limited by Spanish insistence on promoting only "pure-blooded" Spaniards. He began his political career at the University of Madrid in 1882 where he became the leader of Filipino students there. For the next ten years he traveled in Europe and wrote several novels considered seditious by Filipino and Church authorities. He returned to Manila in 1892 and founded the Liga Filipina, a political group dedicated to peaceful change. He was rapidly exiled to Mindanao. During his absence, Andrés Bonifacio founded Katipunan, dedicated to the violent overthrow of Spanish rule. On August 26, 1896, after learning that the Katipunan had been betrayed, Bonifacio issued the Grito de Balintawak, a call for Filipinos to revolt. Bonifacio was succeeded as head of the Philippine revolution byEmilio Aguinaldo y Famy, who had his predecessor arrested and executed on May 10, 1897. Aguinaldo negotiated a deal with the Spaniards who exiled him to Hong Kong with 400,000 pesos that he subsequently used to buy weapons to resume the fight.
During the 1880s and 1890s, Puerto Ricans developed many different political parties, some of which sought independence for the island while others, headquartered like their Cuban counterparts in New York, preferred to ally with the United States. Spain proclaimed the autonomy of Puerto Rico on November 25, 1897, although the news did not reach the island until January 1898 and a new government established on February 12, 1898.U.S. interest in purchasing Cuba had begun long before 1898. Following the Ten Years War, American sugar interests bought up large tracts of land in Cuba. Alterations in the U.S. sugar tariff favoring home-grown beet sugar helped foment the rekindling of revolutionary fervor in 1895. By that time the U.S. had more than $50 million invested in Cuba and annual trade, mostly in sugar, was worth twice that much. Fervor for war had been growing in the United States, despite President Grover Cleveland's proclamation of neutrality on June 12, 1895. But sentiment to enter the conflict grew in the United States when General Valeriano Weyler began implementing a policy of Reconcentration that moved the population into central locations guarded by Spanish troops and placed the entire country under martial law in February 1896. By December 7, President Cleveland reversed himself declaring that the United States might intervene should Spain fail to end the crisis in Cuba. President William McKinley, inaugurated on March 4, 1897, was even more anxious to become involved, particularly after the New York Journal published a copy of a letter from Spanish Foreign Minister Enrique Dupuy de Lôme criticizing the American President on February 9, 1898. Events moved swiftly after the explosion aboard the U.S.S. Maine on February 15. On March 9, Congress passed a law allocating fifty million dollars to build up military strength. On March 28, the U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry finds that a mine blew up the Maine. On April 21 President McKinley orders a blockade of Cuba and four days later the U.S. declares war.
Following its declaration of war against Spain issued on April 25, 1898, the United States added the Teller Amendmentasserting that it would not attempt to exercise hegemony over Cuba. Two days later Commodore George Dewey sailed from Hong Kong with Emilio Aguinaldo on board. Fighting began in the Phillipines Islands at the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1 where Commodore George Dewey reportedly exclaimed, "You may fire when ready, Gridley," and the Spanish fleet under Rear Admiral Patricio Montojo was destroyed. However, Dewey did not have enough manpower to capture Manila so Aguinaldo's guerrillas maintained their operations until 15,000 U.S. troops arrived at the end of July. On the way, the cruiser Charleston stopped at Guam and accepted its surrender from its Spanish governor who was unaware his nation was at war. Although a peace protocol was signed by the two belligerents on August 12, Commodore Dewey and Maj. Gen. Wesley Merritt, leader of the army troops, assaulted Manila the very next day, unaware that peace had been declared.
In late April, Andrew Summers Rowan made contact with Cuban General Calixto García who supplied him with maps, intelligence, and a core of rebel officers to coordinate U.S. efforts on the island. The U.S. North Atlantic Squadron left Key West for Cuba on April 22 following the frightening news that the Spanish home fleet commanded by Admiral Pascual Cervera had left Cadiz and entered Santiago, having slipped by U.S. ships commanded by William T. Sampsonand Winfield Scott Schley. They arrived in Cuba in late May.
War actually began for the U.S. in Cuba in June when the Marines captured Guantánamo Bay and 17,000 troops landed at Siboney and Daiquirí, east of Santiago de Cuba, the second largest city on the island. At that time Spanish troops stationed on the island included 150,000 regulars and 40,000 irregulars and volunteers while rebels inside Cuba numbered as many as 50,000. Total U.S. army strength at the time totalled 26,000, requiring the passage of the Mobilization Act of April 22 that allowed for an army of at first 125,000 volunteers (later increased to 200,000) and a regular army of 65,000. On June 22, U.S. troops landed at Daiquiri where they were joined by Calixto García and about 5,000 revolutionaries.
U.S. troops attacked the San Juan heights on July 1, 1898. Dismounted troopers, including the African-American Ninth and Tenth cavalries and the Rough Riders commanded by Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt went up against Kettle Hill while the forces led by Brigadier General Jacob Kent charged up San Juan Hill and pushed Spanish troops further inland while inflicting 1,700 casualties. While U.S. commanders were deciding on a further course of action, Admiral Cervera left port only to be defeated by Schley. On July 16, the Spaniards agreed to the unconditional surrender of the 23,500 troops around the city. A few days later, Major General Nelson Miles sailed from Guantánamo to Puerto Rico. His forces landed near Ponce and marched to San Juan with virtually no opposition.
Representatives of Spain and the United States signed a peace treaty in Paris on December 10, 1898, which established the independence of Cuba, ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States, and allowed the victorious power to purchase the Philippines Islands from Spain for $20 million. The war had cost the United States $250 million and 3,000 lives, of whom 90% had perished from infectious diseases.
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