Que disent les textes de sociologues, politicologues et philosophes sur notre société ? Ce Scoop.it se veut le complément de mon topic "Web 2.0 et société" et traitera des sujets aussi bien technologiques que non-technologiques.
Social Network research and studies | Articles on the evolution of our society, whether or not related to technology | Food for thought.
On psychology of ownership and our problem with SOPA and ACTA - Deutsche Version...
"Psychology of ownership
But could it be that this psychology of ownership is a construct of modern society more than a trait we are born with? Don't we have great difficulty to develop a psychology of ownership for these virtual, digital, intangible goods? For instance, for our music files, clickstreams, Facebook profiles, communications- and location data? Maybe we are built for the haptic experience?"
Vous parcourez peut-être ces lignes parce que vous venez de lire le billet publié dans Le Monde, à la une du cahier « Sciences & Technos » du samedi 12 novembre 2011, et que vous avez voulu en savoir un...
Billet assez complet de Pierre Mercklé sur les recherches en réseaux sociaux et classes sociales. A lire, surtout pendant cette période électorale :-)!
Today, Facebook is publishing a study that disproves some hoary conventional wisdom about the Web. According to this new research, the online echo chamber doesn’t exist. This is of particular interest to me.
Another article (January 17, 2012) on the famous research project on the influence of weak and strong ties through Facebook for your information) consumption. A must-read!
Godwin's law. Reaction by Mike Godwin on Wired.com. A lire.
"I developed Godwin's Law of Nazi Analogies: As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches one.
I seeded Godwin's Law in any newsgroup or topic where I saw a gratuitous Nazi reference. Soon, to my surprise, other people were citing it - the counter-meme was reproducing on its own! And it mutated like a meme, generating corollaries like the following:
- Gordon's Restatement of Newman's Corollary to Godwin's Law: Libertarianism (pro, con, and internal faction fights) is the primordial net.news discussion topic. Any time the debate shifts somewhere else, it must eventually return to this fuel source. - Morgan's Corollary to Godwin's Law: As soon as such a comparison occurs, someone will start a Nazi-discussion thread on alt.censorship. - Sircar's Corollary: If the Usenet discussion touches on homosexuality or Heinlein, Nazis or Hitler are mentioned within three days. - Van der Leun's Corollary: As global connectivity improves, the probability of actual Nazis being on the Net approaches one. - Miller's Paradox: As a network evolves, the number of Nazi comparisons not forestalled by citation to Godwin's Law converges to zero.
*** In time, discussions in the seeded newsgroups and discussions seemed to show a lower incidence of the Nazi-comparison meme. And the counter-meme mutated into even more useful forms. (As Cuckoo's Egg author Cliff Stoll once said to me: "Godwin's Law? Isn't that the law that states that once a discussion reaches a comparison to Nazis or Hitler, its usefulness is over?") By my (admittedly low) standards, the experiment was a success.
But its success had given me much to reflect on. If it's possible to generate effective counter-memes, is there any moral imperative to do so? When we see a bad or false meme go by, should we take pains to chase it with a counter-meme? Do we have an obligation to improve our informational environment? Our social environment?"
"In this paper we investigate the attributes and relative influence of 1.6M Twitter users by tracking 74 million diffusion events that took place on the Twitter follower graph over a two month interval in 2009. Unsurprisingly, we find that the largest cascades tend to be generated by users who have been influential in the past and who have a large number of followers. We also find that URLs that were rated more interesting and/or elicited more positive feelings by workers on Mechanical Turk were more likely to spread. In spite of these intuitive results, however, we find that predictions of which particular user or URL will generate large cascades are relatively unreliable. We conclude, therefore, that wordof- mouth diffusion can only be harnessed reliably by targeting large numbers of potential influencers, thereby capturing average effects. Finally, we consider a family of hypothetical marketing strategies, defined by the relative cost of identifying versus compensating potential “influencers.”
*** We find that although under some circumstances, the most influential users are also the most cost-effective, under a wide range of plausible assumptions the most cost-effective performance can be realized using “ordinary influencers”— individuals who exert average or even less-than-average influence."
Les interrogations d'Antonio Casilli face au réseau social Snob.ru, destiné aux classes sociales spécifiques (riches, fortunés. :-) : "Ceci dit, l’existence même d’un réseau de ce type et de la culture spécifique qu’il contribue à développer, nous met face à la question de savoir quel est l’impact des médias sociaux d’Internet dans la perpétuation des inégalités sociales. Sont-ils bien des laboratoires d’intégration ou bien des déclencheurs de formes de ségrégation et de fractures sociales de plus en plus aiguës ?
Gossip is not a trivial pastime: it is essential to human social, psychological and even physical well-being.
Etude de Kate Fox (2001) sur le thème du bavardage. Intéressant. A lire. Extrait.
"The subject of gossip is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in social psychology, anthropology, evolutionary psychology, sociolinguistics and social history. Even philosophers are being drawn in to the debate. Although the word 'gossip' was originally a positive or at least neutral term (deriving from 'God-sibb' – a person related to one in God, a close friend or companion), it has more recently acquired some pejorative connotations. Yet most of the research highlights the positive social and psychological functions of gossip: facilitating relationship-building, group bonding, clarification of social position and status, reinforcing shared values, conflict resolution and so on. One moral philosopher goes so far as to claim that gossip, by enhancing our knowledge and understanding of human nature, qualifies as a 'saintly virtue'."
Damienlanfrey.net - Personal PHD website and best resource for Technology, Networks and Society...
"This paper traces how communities have changed from densely-knit “Little Boxes” to “Glocalized” networks (sparsely-knit but with clusters, linking households both locally and globally) to “Networked Individualism” (sparsely-knit, linking individuals with little regard to space)."
Science understanding of Web-based sociabilities has progressed enormously in the last decade: this should inform public policies touching on the Web, its regulation and governance.
"This is where we start seeing the outline of the society that is taking shape since the advent of online communication: neither a fuzzy nebula of isolated monads, nor meganetwork of weakly tied individuals – but a linkage of dense strongly-tied subcomponents (boxes) interweaved by long weakly-tied bridges. As online communication enables bridging on a higher level, it creates a “glocal” network, that can be described as an assemblage of small, loosely independent components – our little boxes."
In 2004, we spoke with law professor Cass Sunstein about the echo chamber effect, the phenomenon by which the explosion of information streams allows us to cherry-pick our media diet so we encounter only news that reinforces our worldview
Transcript of an interesting interview with Eli Pariser, Joseph Turow, Jacob Weisberg, Ethan Zuckerman, Clay Shirky on Cass Sunstein's premises regarding what he called the "Echo Chambers".
danah boyd on the culture of fear, in a speech that she delivered at the Social Media Week 2012 - SXSW, March 10
"My talk today rests on three foundational claims and one critical question.
Foundational Claims: 1. We live in a culture of fear. 2. The attention economy provides fertile ground for the culture of fear. 3. Social media is amping up the attention economy.
Thus, my question is simple: as technologists and designers invested in developing the future, what hath we wrought?
The goal of my talk today is to explore the role of social media in perpetuating the culture of fear. How do those using social media leverage fear? How is fear spread through social media? When and where can technology combat fear? What are the social costs of that fear?
When it comes to talking about social media, it's easy to get trapped in utopian and dystopian rhetorics. My goal is not to go down one of these rabbit holes, but rather, to critically interrogate our participation in the culture of fear. Many of you are technologists, designers, pundits, and users. How are we contributing to or combating the culture of fear? What are our responsibilities with regard to the culture of fear? What kinds of things can and should we do?"
Article portant sur l'analyse des liens hypertextes (sortants - entrants) vers des sites web d'extrème droite et l'ambiguïté sur ses positionnements politiques. Extrait.
"L’analyse cartographique du blog de Christian Vanneste témoigne donc de l’ambiguïté du positionnement idéologique du député du Nord. A l’instar des autres membres de la Droite Populaire, M. Vanneste rappelle très régulièrement son attachement aux valeurs républicaines et à la tradition gaulliste. Pourtant, les prises de position de M. Vanneste sur la carte du Web politique attestent de sa proximité avec la blogosphère d’extrême droite et confirment en creux l’ambition de la Droite Populaire de ramener dans le giron de l’UMP des électeurs aujourd’hui tentés par le vote frontiste."
Facebook Data Team a écrit un article intitulé Rethinking Information Diversity in Networks. Lisez cet article dans son intégralité ici.
Strong ties, weak ties... interesting article on a Facebook analysis of the way we consume diverse information. Extrait.
"Conclusion The information we consume and share on Facebook is actually much more diverse in nature than conventional wisdom might suggest. We are exposed to and spread more information from our distant contacts than our close friends. Since these distant contacts tend to be different from us, the bulk of information we consume and share comes from people with different perspectives. This may provide some comfort to those who worry that social networks are simply an echo chamber where people are only exposed to those who share the same opinions. Our work is among the first to rigorously quantify influence at a mass scale, and shows that online social networks can serve as an important medium for sharing new perspectives, products and world events."
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