Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement
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Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement
Que disent les textes de sociologues, politicologues et philosophes sur notre société ? Ce Scoop.it se veut le complément de mon topic "Web 2.0 et société" et traitera des sujets aussi bien technologiques que non-technologiques. Social Network research and studies | Articles on the evolution of our society, whether or not related to technology | Food for thought.
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Socialogy: Interview with Nilofer Merchant

Socialogy: Interview with Nilofer Merchant | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
I first met Nilofer at a conference where she knocked me over with her observations about the changing world of business. And since then I have returned to her writings at the Harvard Business Review and other publications as a source of new ideas.
BeerBergman's insight:

Nothing really new here, but an interesting interview, juxtaposing the current/new ideas about the future of work. A must read. Excerpt.

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"As “work” is increasingly freed from “a job”, you need to build connections and community based on interests, capabilities, and of course your passions and NOT on a view to get to “the top”. The top of some big behemoth organization is not the only way to power; increasingly, power is a function of how you know to get things done."

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Most Influential Emotions on Social Networks Revealed | MIT Technology Review

Most Influential Emotions on Social Networks Revealed  | MIT Technology Review | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
Anger spreads faster and more broadly than joy, say computer scientists who have analysed sentiment on the Chinese Twitter-like service Weibo.
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BeerBergman's curator insight, September 18, 2013 1:01 PM

Interesting. And now we are waiting a Western analysis based on Tweets... A must-read. 

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"The moral of the story is that when it comes to the spread of information, anger is more powerful than other emotions."

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Why Your Friends Have More Friends Than You Do

Why Your Friends Have More Friends Than You Do | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
And why your girlfriend is a whore
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Sampling bias - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others. It results in a biased sample, a non-random sample[1] of a population (or non-human factors) in which all individuals, or instances, were not equally likely to have been selected.[2] If this is not accounted for, results can be erroneously attributed to the phenomenon under study rather than to the method of sampling.

Medical sources sometimes refer to sampling bias as ascertainment bias.[3][4] Ascertainment bias has basically the same definition,[5][6] but is still sometimes classified as a separate type of bias.[5]

Sampling bias is mostly classified as a subtype of selection bias,[7] sometimes specifically termed sample selection bias,[8][9][10] but some classify it as a separate type of bias.[11] A distinction, albeit not universally accepted, of sampling bias is that it undermines the external validity of a test (the ability of its results to be generalized to the rest of the population), while selection bias mainly addresses internal validity for differences or similarities found in the sample at hand. In this sense, errors occurring in the process of gathering the sample or cohort cause sampling bias, while errors in any process thereafter cause selection bias.

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Stephen Wolfram Blog : Data Science of the Facebook World

Stephen Wolfram Blog : Data Science of the Facebook World | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
Stephen Wolfram shares interesting Facebook data analysis finds from the Data Donor program of Wolfram|Alpha Personal Analytics for Facebook.
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BeerBergman's curator insight, May 30, 2013 5:04 PM

Nos données privées... à quel point sont-ils différentes des données privées des autres ? A croire Wolfram, nos histoires se ressemblent et il décrit dans cet article, très intéressant, comment on peut observer les données mesurées. A lire. Extrait,

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"For everyone there’ll be a different detailed story behind the structure of their cluster diagram. And one might think this would mean that there could never be a general theory of such things. At some level it’s a bit like trying to find a general theory of human history, or a general theory of the progression of biological evolution. But what’s interesting now about the Facebook world is that it gives us so much more data from which to form theories."

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"Some of this is rather depressingly stereotypical. And most of it isn’t terribly surprising to anyone who’s known a reasonable diversity of people of different ages. But what to me is remarkable is how we can see everything laid out in such quantitative detail in the pictures above—kind of a signature of people’s thinking as they go through life."

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ORIENTATION POUR TOUS !: L'analyse des réseaux sociaux comme outil d'analyse des trajectoires individuelles : pistes de conception

ORIENTATION POUR TOUS !: L'analyse des réseaux sociaux comme outil d'analyse des trajectoires individuelles : pistes de conception | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
BeerBergman's insight:

Bonne explication de ce que c'est l'analyse structurelle des réseaux sociaux. A lire. Extrait.

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"L’analyse de réseau constitue à la fois un cadre d'analyse, une discipline et une méthode d’enquête opérant sur les relations d’une structure liée d’acteurs, d’individus et de groupes, dont les dynamiques interpersonnelles sont issues de règles et de normes implicites et permettent  d’appréhender les actions."

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Exploring and Defining Influence: A New Study - Brian Solis

Exploring and Defining Influence: A New Study - Brian Solis | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
BeerBergman's insight:

Even though not really recent, interesting study on how and why people thing others / brands are influencial. 

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Sharing Makes us Feel Good, a Monkey Brain Shows Us

Sharing Makes us Feel Good, a Monkey Brain Shows Us | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
Research on monkeys shows that even humans are happy when giving something away. You can use that in your Social Media campaigns.
BeerBergman's insight:

Article intéressant sur les bienfaits du partage... pour celui qui partage ét pour celui avec qui quelque chose ou de l'information a été partagé. Ce sont des conclusions timides d'une étude sur le fonctionnement neurologique des singes au moment de partager. Pour conclure : le partage devrait être destiné à faire bénéficier quelqu'un de cet acte. Arrêtez donc vos campagnes 'partagez et gagnez' et remplaçez-les par 'partagez et dites-nous à qui vous voudriez offrir ce voyage'. Mieux vaut bien ciblez vos publics :-)!

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Conseil Web Social » Réseaux sociaux, nouveaux corps intermédiaires ?

Conseil Web Social » Réseaux sociaux, nouveaux corps intermédiaires ? | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it

Article de Vincent Berthelot, en fait une interrogation sur le rôle des réseaux sociaux dans l'entreprise et en quoi ils changent la relation entre les organisations syndicales et l'entreprise. A lire. Extrait.

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"C’est dans ce contexte que l’on « re »-découvre que l’engagement des salariés peut être une source de performance et de productivité voire devenir L’avantage concurrentiel.

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Mais cette recherche d’une nouvelle martingale nécessite de s’interroger sur les clefs de l’engagement des salariés et des indicateurs de son niveau. A l’inverse on peut aussi chercher à connaître les sources de démotivation et d’insatisfaction.

C’est sur ce créneau que se lance Yammer dans un partenariat avec Kanjoya, société spécialisée dans l’analyse des sentiments en ligne pour ne faire ni plus ni moins que du diagnostic social en temps réel.

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Un réseau social d’entreprise adossé à de tels outils apporte un complément à l’analyse du climat social en se basant sur l’expression directe des salariés qui s’expriment par ce biais et non pas sur les remontés des différents acteurs au contact et en particulier des managers et des représentants syndicaux.

Read more: http://www.conseilwebsocial.com/index.php/2012/reseaux-sociaux-nouveaux-corps-intermediaires/#ixzz2CEDlD1j8"

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The quantified self movement: some sociological perspectives

The quantified self movement: some sociological perspectives | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
The concepts of ‘self-tracking’ and the ‘quantified self’ have recently begun to emerge in discussions of how best to optimise one’s life. These concepts refer to the practice of gathering data abo...

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"Yet from a sociological perspective a number of interesting questions about the quest to achieve ‘self-knowledge through numbers’ arise, including the following: What types of people are attracted to self-tracking? How do they use the data they produce? How are concepts of the body, self, social relationships, health and happiness both configured and negotiated via these data? How do members of their social networks respond to the sharing of data produced through this self-surveillance? How do self-trackers’ doctors or therapists make use of the data they produce? What the implications of shared data derived from self-tracking for patient empowerment? How does the digital device construct reality for its user, how it is incorporated into the routines of everyday life, how does it shape social encounters, how does it present users to others and to themselves? There is much more here to investigate in relation to the attempt to achieve ‘self-knowledge through numbers’."

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2ème histoire #ET8 : Maud et la théorie de Barry Wellman

2ème histoire #ET8 : Maud et la théorie de Barry Wellman | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it

Cette deuxième histoire dans la série “Les identités physiques et numériques – #ET8” est plus une tentative de décrire un contexte – celui d’évolution et d’innovation dans les métiers du tourisme et dans le comportement des cibles – qu’une vraie histoire. Mais elle me semble nécessaire pour décrire le contexte de ce qui suivra.

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Autrefois, dans un passé pas si lointain… quand un touriste ou un prospect appelait l’Office de Tourisme, les deux interlocuteurs pouvaient se former une image mentale du contexte : le touriste, chez lui, à sa table de cuisine ou sur le sofa, en train de préparer son voyage. L’agent d’accueil (brrrr) à l’Office de Tourisme derrière le comptoir, avec toute une panoplie de brochures et son site web affiché sur l’écran, pour une recherche instantanée dans sa base de données, pour répondre aux questions du prospect.

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Connected lives (wellman /Hogan, 2005)

Connected lives (arry Wellman, 2005) : the project is a paper to read for anyone who is interested in personal social networks. 

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PLOS ONE: Personality, Gender, and Age in the Language of Social Media: The Open-Vocabulary Approach

PLOS ONE: Personality, Gender, and Age in the Language of Social Media: The Open-Vocabulary Approach | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Allies and Acquaintances: Two Key Types of Professional Relationships

Allies and Acquaintances: Two Key Types of Professional Relationships | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
As I wrote in my previous post, each type of relationship in your life is different. Today, we’re going to focus on two types of relationships that especially matter in a professional context:
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Centrality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Within the scope of graph theory and network analysis, there are various types of measures of the centrality of a vertex within a graph that determine the relative importance of a vertex within the graph (e.g. how influential a person is within a social network, or, in the theory of space syntax, how important a room is within a building or how well-used a road is within an urban network). Many of the centrality concepts were first developed in social network analysis, and many of the terms used to measure centrality reflect their sociological origin.[1]

There are four measures of centrality that are widely used in network analysis: degree centrality, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector centrality. For a review as well as generalizations to weighted networks, see Opsahl et al. (2010).[2]

Historically first and conceptually simplest is degree centrality, which is defined as the number of links incident upon a node (i.e., the number of ties that a node has). The degree can be interpreted in terms of the immediate risk of a node for catching whatever is flowing through the network (such as a virus, or some information). In the case of a directed network (where ties have direction), we usually define two separate measures of degree centrality, namely indegree and outdegree. Accordingly, indegree is a count of the number of ties directed to the node and outdegree is the number of ties that the node directs to others. When ties are associated to some positive aspects such as friendship or collaboration, indegree is often interpreted as a form of popularity, and outdegree as gregariousness.

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Friendship paradox - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The friendship paradox is the phenomenon first observed by the sociologist Scott L. Feld in 1991 that most people have fewer friends than their friends have, on average.[1] It can be explained as a form of sampling bias in which people with greater numbers of friends have an increased likelihood of being observed among one's own friends. In contradiction to this, most people believe that they have more friends than their friends have.[2]

The same observation can be applied more generally to social networks defined by other relations than friendship: for instance, most people's sexual partners have (on the average) a greater number of sexual partners than they have.[3][4]

In spite of its apparently paradoxical nature, the phenomenon is real, and can be explained as a consequence of the general mathematical properties of social networks. The mathematics behind this are directly related to the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality and the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality.

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[1304.3480] Friendship Paradox Redux: Your Friends Are More Interesting Than You

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Cornell University Library

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Why are your friends more popular than you?

Why are your friends more popular than you? | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
DO YOU ever feel like your friends are more popular than you are? That may be because it is true—for nearly everyone. This odd result, dubbed the "friendship...
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Heatmaps in gnuplot and Stata | Sociology, Statistics and Software

Heatmaps in gnuplot and Stata | Sociology, Statistics and Software | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
BeerBergman's insight:

Now, I must admit I do not understand all of it, but wanted to keep the website for later study and perhaps one of the readers of this Scoop.it can make sense out of this information :-).

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Neuronal reference frames for social decisions in primate frontal cortex

Neuronal reference frames for social decisions in primate frontal cortex | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
Social decisions are crucial for the success of individuals and the groups that they comprise.
BeerBergman's insight:

Le lien vers l'étude, avec seulement la première page lisible, et payant pour lire l'article entier. Pour ceux qui comprennent et veulent vérifier :-).

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SCIENCES PO CONFÉRENCE: Intelligence économique, redéfinir les pouvoirs | Le Mauricien

SCIENCES PO CONFÉRENCE: Intelligence économique, redéfinir les pouvoirs | Le Mauricien | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it
BeerBergman's insight:

Résumé d'une conférence de Stéphane Boudrandi, directeur du développement à Sciences Po Aix, sur l'intelligence économique et la redéfinition des pouvoirs. Je le poste ici, car il y a implicitement un lien étroit avec les technologies de la société numérique. Article à lire. Extrait.

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"Au final, la conférence présentée par Stéphane Boudrandi aura permis d’établir que l’économie présente des aptitudes vastes qui combinent de plus en plus avec des intuitions sociologiques, mathématiques, stratégiques, militaires. Et qu’il est fondamental de protéger des données autant que l’on tente de préserver les frontières de l’exode des cerveaux. Ce que l’on en retient : qu’être économiquement intelligent n’est pas qu’une question de chiffres, mais une question de comportement également. D’où la question : peut-on parler d’intelligences multiples, là aussi ?"

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Ramesh Srinivasan "Considering how digital culture enables a multiplicity of knowledges" (Lift09 EN)

What would a diverse, complex world brain look like? Considering how digital culture enables a multiplicity of knowledges.
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The Diversity-Bandwidth Tradeoff by Sinan Aral, Marshall Van Alstyne :: SSRN

The Diversity-Bandwidth Tradeoff by Sinan Aral, Marshall Van Alstyne :: SSRN | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it

"The authors propose that a tradeoff between network diversity and communications bandwidth regulates the degree to which social networks deliver non-redundant information to actors in brokerage positions. As the structural diversity of a network increases, the bandwidth of the communication channels in that network decrease, creating countervailing effects on the receipt of novel information. This tradeoff occurs because more diverse networks, presumed to provide more information novelty, typically contain weaker ties across which less novel information flows due to limited interaction. Information advantages to brokerage positions then depend on (a) whether the information overlap among alters is small enough to justify bridging structural holes, (b) whether the size of the topic space known to alters is large enough to consistently provide novelty, and (c) whether the knowledge stock of alters refreshes enough over time to justify updating what was previously known. The authors test these arguments by combining social network and performance data with direct observation of the information content flowing through email at a medium sized executive recruiting firm. They find that brokers with bridging ties to disparate parts of a social network can have disadvantaged access to novel information because their lower bandwidth communication curbs the total volume of novelty they receive. These analyses unpack the mechanisms that enable information advantages in networks and serve as ‘proof-of-concept’ for using email content data to analyze relationships among information flows, networks and social capital.

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Note: Previously titled "Network Structure & Information Advantage"

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Comment nous arrive l’information ? Prendre la mesure des liens faibles

Comment nous arrive l’information ? Prendre la mesure des liens faibles | Sciences sociales et la société en mouvement | Scoop.it

La lecture de la semaine, il s'agit - ça faisait longtemps -, de l'éditorial de Clive Thompson dans le magazine américain Wired. Il lance quelques pistes de réflexion pas inintéressantes au sujet une question souvent posée sur les réseaux : comment nous arrive l'information ? Le titre de son papier Buddy System, "le système pote".


Via Marina Muller
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