We found that social networks have clusters of happy and unhappy people within them that reach out to three degrees of separation. A person's happiness is related to the happiness of their friends, their friends' friends, and their friends' friends' friends—that is, to people well beyond their social horizon. We found that happy people tend to be located in the center of their social networks and to be located in large clusters of other happy people. And we found that each additional happy friend increases a person's probability of being happy by about 9%.
About ten or so people — mostly strangers — gathered at Earthfare Friday evening Nov. 15 to practice what Cathy Holt, group leader and author of HeartSpeak: Listening and Speaking from the Heart, calls a “scarce commodity.” They were there to give and receive empathy.
Cathy Holt has been leading practice groups for HeartSpeak (non-violent communication) in private groups and schools for years, and has recently published a mini-booklet of the same name. Holt says that empathy can be defined as, “essentially being able to reflect back the feelings and the needs that you are guessing the other person might have.” Furthermore, the “guess” as to what the other person is feeling doesn’t have to be correct for the empathy to work.
We believe that it is important for health care providers to be able to empathize with their patients. We believe this because the datatells us that providers with higher levels of empathy are associated with better patient outcomes. However, we also believe this because as patients ourselves, we feel better cared for when our providers show that they understand us.
For patients with complex lives and complex health needs, empathy is even more important.
Maslow created a hierarchy of needs for the individual.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is a popular way of thinking about people's needs. Published by psychologist Abraham Maslow in his 1943 article, "A Theory of Human Motivation," this theory contends that as humans strive to meet our most basic needs, we also seek to satisfy a higher set of needs.
Maslow presents this set of needs as a hierarchy, consisting of:
Physiological/bodily needs.Safety needs.Love/belonging needs.Self-esteem.Self-actualization (the desire to be "all that you can be").
The theory argues that the most fundamental level starts with the physiological need for food, water and shelter.
This is followed by security and social needs.
Maslow believed that the higher level needs, such as self-esteem and self-fulfillment, could only be met after the lower level needs had been satisfied.
Using the need hierarchy frame and a specific software, Sarma and van der Hoek 2004 got an insight into what are the fundamental needs for a team to function, what makes the team cohesive and how can the team be made more efficient.
They createed a hierarchy comprising of the deficiency needs and the growth needs.
The first four layers are namely fundamental needs, safety needs, belonging needs and Esteem needs.
Once the needs at a particular level are satisfied the team needs to fulfill the needs at the higher level.
Once all the deficiency needs are satisfied the team is free to address its growth needs and reach self-actualization.
As the requirements of an individual in a society are different from the collaboration requirements of a software development team the specific needs in a layer are different than that of the individual.
Maslow placed the needs in a hierarchy such that only after the needs of a layer are satisfied would an individual care about the needs in the next layer.
The five layers in our hierarchy of collaboration needs for a team are illustrated within their paper...
Using Maslow's insight Sarma and van der Hoek 2004 created a hierarchy of needs for the team. In their paper they map the needs of a software development team to the need layers that Maslow prescribed for the individual.
In creating this mapping they come across an interesting observation that most collaborative tools focus on enhancing the efficiency of the team and de- pend on collocation to create team cohesiveness...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs relates to organizational theory and behavior because it explores a worker’s motivation.
Some people are prepared to work just for money, because of friends, or the fact that they are respected by others and recognized for their good work.
➳ The Limitations of Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs:
Five important Limitations about maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory:
1. The Theory is lacking about the motivators of extrinsically driven individuals...
2. Difficult for manager to identify the need level for employees...
3. The Most Powerful unsatisfied Need provides the most motivation...
This is often due to the fact that different individuals are driven to satisfy different needs at a certain time...
4. The theory is not empirically supported...
The definition of empirical is ‘something that can be proven or verified through studies or experiments’...
5. Basic Needs may not need to be satisfied to acknowledge higher needs...
Based on the theory, we assume that if an individual that is lacking in basic amenities or in a questionable working environment, he/she will never unlock the higher needs in the hierarchy....
The Maslow's hierarchy of needs, not only provides a set of techniques for subtly coercing higher productivity from employees, but alsofosters a new culture in the workplace, one that leads to fulfilled workers, in which productivity is an advantageous fringe benefit.
The pyramid can be revised and expanded to include aesthetic needs, cognitive needs, and the need to find meaning.
An understanding of these needs and the value of fulfilling them in the workplace may add immeasurable long-term benefits in employee well being, and therefore employee productivity and retention.
>> Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: General Considerations
✿ Physiological Needs:
Once an employee's immediate living needs are taken care of, he or she is likely to begin thinking about safety and security needs...
✿ Safety Needs:
When an employee feels safe, he or she will seek to become a contributing member of the community of employees.
✿ Belonging and Social Needs:
Once the employee feels valued, he or she will seek to grow in competence and self-esteem...
✿ Esteem Needs:
Once an employee begins to feel good about him or herself, that employee will want to continue to grow...
✿ Cognitive Needs:
When an employee is continuously learning and growing, he or she will begin to organize this knowledge, often in new and creative ways...
✿ Aesthetic Needs:
The employee’s work now has the potential to become a means of self-expression....
✿ Self-actualization Needs
Once a person feels that he or she has achieved his or her potential, that person will begin to feel a need for a connection with something greater...
✿ Need for Transcendence:
When an employee's work is imbued with grander meaning, he or she will be less likely to indulge in short-term unethical behavior.
The employee will also be internally motivated to keep doing good work, with continuous improvement....
Capital University’s non-credit Empathy Experiment immerses students in the plight of the working poor to promote understanding.
The banner on the side of the Capital University music conservatory has an outline of a sneaker and asks, “They walked a mile in someone else’s shoes. How much did they learn?”
Inside the hall in Columbus, Ohio, a few hundred people wait to find out. They are here this evening late in April for the concluding event of the Empathy Experiment — an experiment not in an empirical sense, but in teaching empathy.
Stress. It makes your heart pound, your breathing quicken and your forehead sweat. But while stress has been made into a public health enemy, new research suggests that stress may only be bad for you if you believe that to be the case.
Daniel Goleman’s new book, Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence, takes the idea even further. Understanding his “Empathy Triad” may help you become not only a better persuader but maybe even a better person as well.
Goleman’s empathy triad comprises three forms of attention: cognitive empathy, emotional empathy, and empathetic caring.
Cognitive empathy is the closest to what I call outside-in thinking. Essentially, it’s paying attention to the other person’s thought processes and emotions, of knowing what they’re thinking and feeling, and being able to incorporate that into your persuasive approach. Another term for it is perspective taking, which is the ability to see the situation from the point of view of another person. It’s a skill that may be unique to humans, and begins to develop around the time we are three years old and ends only when we attain positions of power.
This map visualizes the results of a new study of depression rates. Depression is the second leading cause of disability worldwide, diagnosed in 4% of the human population, and map allows you to compare rates of depression diagnosis across countries.
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