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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Where’s Waldo? How perceptual, cognitive, and emotional brain processes cooperate during learning to categorize and find desired objects in a cluttered scene | Frontiers in Integrative ...

The Where’s Waldo problem concerns how individuals can rapidly learn to search a scene to detect, attend, recognize, and look at a valued target object in it. This article develops the ARTSCAN Search neural model to clarify how brain mechanisms across the What and Where cortical streams are coordinated to solve the Where's Waldo problem. The What stream learns positionally-invariant object representations, whereas the Where stream controls positionally-selective spatial and action representations. The model overcomes deficiencies of these computationally complementary properties through What and Where stream interactions. Where stream processes of spatial attention and predictive eye movement control modulate What stream processes whereby multiple view- and positionally-specific object categories are learned and associatively linked to view- and positionally-invariant object categories through bottom-up and attentive top-down interactions. Gain fields control the coordinate transformations that enable spatial attention and predictive eye movements to carry out this role. What stream cognitive-emotional learning processes enable the focusing of motivated attention upon the invariant object categories of desired objects. What stream cognitive names or motivational drives can prime a view- and positionally-invariant object category of a desired target object. A volitional signal can convert these primes into top-down activations that can, in turn, prime What stream view- and positionally-specific categories. When it also receives bottom-up activation from a target, such a positionally-specific category can cause an attentional shift in the Where stream to the positional representation of the target, and an eye movement can then be elicited to foveate it. These processes describe interactions among brain regions that include visual cortex, parietal cortex inferotemporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, and superior colliculus.
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Integrating intention and context: assessing social cognition in adults with Asperger syndrome | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS). Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF) and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adults diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind, empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. Executive functions did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome.
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Situated affective and social neuroscience | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

This Research Topic features several papers tapping the situated nature of emotion and social cognition processes. The volume covers a broad scope of methodologies (behavioral assessment, functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI], structural neuroimaging, event related potentials [ERPs], brain connectivity, and peripheral measures), populations (non-human animals, neurotypical participants, developmental studies, and neuropsychiatric and pathological conditions), and article types (original research, review papers, and opinion articles). Through this wide-ranging proposal, we introduce a fresh approach to the study of contextual effects in emotion and social cognition domains. We report four levels of evidence. First, we present studies examining how cognitive and neural functions are influenced by basic affective processes (interoception, motivation and reward, emotional impulsiveness, and appraisal of violent stimuli). 

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Glitch in brain’s garbage removal enhances risk of neurodegenerative diseases

Glitch in brain’s garbage removal enhances risk of neurodegenerative diseases | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
An international team of researchers identified a pathogenic mechanism that is common to several neurodegenerative diseases. The findings suggest that it may be possible to slow the progression of dementia even after the onset of symptoms.
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Cleveland Clinic researchers identify urgent need for Alzheimer’s drug development

Cleveland Clinic researchers identify urgent need for Alzheimer’s drug development | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers at the Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health have conducted the first-ever analysis of clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), revealing an urgent need to increase the number of agents entering the AD drug development...
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Compounded outcomes associated with comorbid Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease

Compounded outcomes associated with comorbid Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Anecdotal information on patients with both Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease have been confirmed by researchers using mouse models in two different studies.
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How empathic are you?

How empathic are you? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

How empathic are you? 


They are:


Cognitive Empathy – this is about really understanding others, how they see the world, what their ‘model’ of the world is. Knowing how to talk and communicate with those others in such a way that leads to better performance.


Emotional Empathy – where an immediate sense of what is going on for others is felt.


Empathic Concern – knowing how others are thinking and feeling AND is predisposed and prepared to help. 



Via Edwin Rutsch
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Delgado Lab for Social and Affective Neuroscience

Delgado Lab for Social and Affective Neuroscience | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

The Delgado Lab for Social and Affective Neuroscience investigates the interaction of emotion and cognition in the human brain during learning and decision making.


We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with physiological and behavioral measures to investigate how behavior can be shaped by rewards and punishments.


Studies range from simple processes that can be mapped on to current animal studies (e.g., learning that a stimulus predicts a reward), to more complex processes displayed during social interaction in everyday behavior (e.g., learning to trust someone during an economic exchange).

 

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Brain Scans Link Concern for Justice with Reason Not Emotion

Brain Scans Link Concern for Justice with Reason Not Emotion | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A new neuroimaging study finds those who care about justice are swayed more by reason than emotion.
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SCNL

SCNL | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Current research projects

Why do we care about others? What neurobiological mechanisms facilitate our sensitivity to others? To what extent do cognition and emotion contribute to moral behavior? How do brain mechanisms involved in social evaluations develop in children and adolescents, and how are they shaped by social context and intergroup preferences? Which dispositions, genetic polymorphisms, and neurobehavioral components are associated with successful clinical empathy and well-being in doctors? Why do individuals with psychopathy and children with callous unemotional traits lack empathy and are unconcerned about the feelings of other people? We investigate these topics with a multi-level approach (from genes to behavior) which characterizes social neuroscience.

- See more at: http://www.scnl.org/p28.php#sthash.dnOykhD5.dpuf

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Science

Science | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Don began neuroscience research in 2003 as a Junior in High School after meeting Dr. David Eagleman at a High School Science Day in San Diego.  His initial research focused on perceptual flexibility – how your perception of time and visual stimuli is not constant but instead, variable based on circumstances.  In 2008 Don completed dual degrees in Physics and Economics at Stanford University and after backpacking through South America, he moved to re-join the Eagleman Lab for Perception and Action at Baylor College of Medicine in November of 2008.  In the lab, Don uses function Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate […]
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Neurosciences
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COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE Your Brain in 15 Minutes... (Part 1 of 2)

A short video by the author of Elsevier's presigious cognitive neuroscience textbook: 'Cognition, Brain, and Consciousness: An Introduction to Cognitive Neur...

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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Research Topics

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Research Topics | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
What determines social behavior? Investigating the role of emotions, self-centered motives, and social norms.

Topic Editors:

Corrado Corradi-Dell'AcquaUniversity of Geneva, Switzerland 
Susanne LeibergUniversity of Zurich, Switzerland 
Leonie KobanUniversity of Colorado Boulder, USA 
Patrik VuilleumierUniversity Medical Center and University Hospital Geneva, Switzerland 
Ernst FehrUniversity of Zurich, Switzerland 

Human behavior and decision making is subject to social and motivational influences such as emotions, norms and self/other regarding preferences. The identification of the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying these factors is a central issue in psychology, behavioral economics and social neuroscience, with important clinical, social, and even political implications. However, despite a continuously growing interest from the scientific community, the processes underlying these factors, as well as their ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, have so far remained elusive. In this Research Topic we call for articles that will provide challenging insights and stimulate a fruitful controversy on the question of “what determines social behavior.” 

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Comedy vs. anti-science: 10 amazing videos that show how humor can make a difference

Comedy vs. anti-science: 10 amazing videos that show how humor can make a difference | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
From Colbert and Oliver to Sarah Silverman and Louis CK, comedians are torching anti-science activists with aplomb VIDEO
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Neuroscience - Memory - Learning - Mindfulness - Motivation
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Something doesn’t smell right

Something doesn’t smell right | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Harvard scientists say they’re closer to unraveling one of the most basic questions in neuroscience — how the brain encodes likes and dislikes — with the discovery of the first receptors in any species evolved to detect cadaverine and putrescine,...

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David McGavock's curator insight, January 28, 2014 2:47 PM

I'm curious about attraction  and aversion. This study investigates aversion at a very basic level. Important steps in understanding what turns us on and off.


“We don’t understand, as a field, how aversive and attractive odors are differentially processed … but identifying the receptor gives us a handle on the neural circuits that are involved. Now that we have the receptor, we can ask basic questions about aversion and attraction circuitry in general."

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Low brain protein levels associated with neurodegeneration

Low brain protein levels associated with neurodegeneration | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Persons with reduced levels of the TREM2 protein could be at greater risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease or frontotemporal dementia, according to an international study which included the participation of the...
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New strategy could uncover genes at the root of psychiatric illnesses

New strategy could uncover genes at the root of psychiatric illnesses | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Understanding the basis of psychiatric disorders has been extremely challenging because there are many genetic variants that may increase risk but are insufficient to cause disease.
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A dominant hemisphere for handedness and language?

A dominant hemisphere for handedness and language? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Through an innovative approach using a large psychometric and brain imaging database, researchers in the Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle (CNRS/CEA/Université de Bordeaux) have demonstrated that the location of language areas in the brain is...
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GABA actions and ionic plasticity in epilepsy

GABA actions and ionic plasticity in epilepsy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

[Review] Highlights:- Ionic plasticity of GABA signaling relies on short-term and long term changes in EGABA-  Cl− transport and carboanhydrases play a key role in ionic plasticity and epilepsy.

- GABAergic transmission has both seizure-suppressing and seizure-promoting effects.

- TrkB and calpain act on GABA signaling to coordinate the process of epileptogenesis.

- GABA signaling has context-specific and age-specific effects in health and disease.

- by Kaila Kai et al., Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Volume 26, June 2014, Pages 34–41


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Psychiatric Neuroimaging Division - Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA

Psychiatric Neuroimaging Division - Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Neuroimaging methods are a core component of psychiatric research. They provide a means to assay differences in brain systems that underlie psychiatric illness, treatment response, and properties of brain function that convey risk for disease.

Neuroimaging techniques used by a large percentage of clinical researchers in psychiatry include structural and functional methods based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), molecular assays using Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and electrophysiological approaches.

The psychiatric neuroimaging research program comprises a diverse group of laboratories and affiliated initiatives that seek to understand psychiatric illness using neuroimaging approaches. A strength of the program is its broad focus on a range of psychiatric disorders across laboratories, including developmental and adult-onset illnesses. A further strength of the program is that it serves as a nexus linking traditional academic departments with MGH, especially for the areas of psychology and neuroscience, which have a long-standing focus on psychiatric illness.

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Cal BRAIN Kickstarts California Efforts to Map the Brain

Cal BRAIN Kickstarts California Efforts to Map the Brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
California governor allocates an initial grant of $2 million to the Cal-BRAIN initiative to help map the brain.
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Translational Neuroscience and Potential Contributions of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to the Prevention of Substance Misuse and Antisocial Behavior - Springer

Translational Neuroscience and Potential Contributions of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to the Prevention of Substance Misuse and Antisocial Behavior - Springer | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it


The interdisciplinary field of neuroscience has greatly advanced our understanding of the brain and neurobehavioral disorders. Translational neuroscience endeavors to use this knowledge to develop solutions to practical problems: for example, to improve treatment and preventive interventions for neurobehavioral disorders. Although functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders, efforts to prevent the problems of substance misuse and antisocial behavior have been slow to incorporate neuroscience principles and neuroimaging techniques. The current article summarizes fMRI research on substance misuse and antisocial behavior, highlights its implications for intervention, and explores new ways in which the technique could contribute to prevention efforts.

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people will hear what they were saying before seeing lip movements:

people will hear what they were saying before seeing lip movements: | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

According to a report in New Scientist published this July, released the name of a British patients 67 years old, people will hear what they were saying before seeing lip movements:

"My daughter told him in the living room on the TV sync recording. Then, in the kitchen, I saw on TV sync recording and suddenly I realized that I had my daughter at the sound recording. The problem was not on TV, it's just me. "PH, without realizing that her daughter's lips play 0.2 seconds before starting to hearing what you are saying.


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The neural processes of evaluating the emotions of others

The neural processes of evaluating the emotions of others | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
When evaluating another person's emotions – happy, sad, angry, afraid – humans take cues from facial expressions.
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LOr's curator insight, July 2, 2014 4:15 AM

#emotion #socialcognition