Social Neuroscience Advances
5.8K views | +0 today
Follow
Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from the plastic brain
Scoop.it!

The Seat of Consciousness: At Least Two Brain Regions Decide What We Perceive - Temporal & Frontal Lobes

The Seat of Consciousness: At Least Two Brain Regions Decide What We Perceive - Temporal & Frontal Lobes | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex represent the content of consciousness. The red trace depicts neural activity (neuronal discharges) in the lateral prefrontal cortex when a stimulus is consciously perceived for 1 second while the green trace depicts neural activity when the same stimulus is suppressed from awareness. Credit Max Planck Institute.

 

People have never been exposed to as many sensory stimuli as they are today. We do not, however, consciously perceive the majority of the sensory impressions that bombard us. Our brain processes these impressions without us noticing. But where does the brain decide which sensory information should reach our consciousness and which should not? Tests on the brains of macaques have shown that neurons in at least two regions of the brain, the temporal and frontal lobes, are responsible for this. Coma patients are among the potential beneficiaries of this research breakthrough.

The cerebral cortex, i.e. the external part of the brain with its grooves and folds, plays a major role in our consciousness. When macaques see something and consciously perceive it, neurons in the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex are active. This much was already known. However, is this part of the brain really the sole seat of consciousness, or do other areas of the brain also play a role in this process?


Via iPamba
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Neurons see what we tell them to see

Neurons see what we tell them to see | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Neurons programmed to fire at specific faces—such as the famously reported "Jennifer Aniston neuron"—may be more in line with the conscious recognition of faces than the actual images seen.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Device lets docs stay 'tuned in' to brain bloodflow

Device lets docs stay 'tuned in' to brain bloodflow | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
For Dr. John Murkin, the medical device business is all about "making a better mouse trap."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Three Bay Area institutions join forces to seed transformative brain research - UC Berkeley

Three Bay Area institutions join forces to seed transformative brain research - UC Berkeley | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it


Two state-of-the-art research areas – nanotech and optogenetics – were the dominant theme last Thursday, Sept.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Bounded Rationality and Beyond
Scoop.it!

The Biology Of Altruism: Good Deeds May Be Rooted In The Brain

The Biology Of Altruism: Good Deeds May Be Rooted In The Brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Angela Stimpson donated a kidney to a complete stranger. Why did she do it? Researchers found that the brains of Stimpson and other altruists are sensitive to fear and distress in a stranger's face. Most of the tests didn't find any differences between the brains of the altruistic donors and the people who had not been donors. Except, Marsh says, for a significant difference in a part of the brain called the amygdala, an almond-shaped cluster of nerves that is important in processing emotion. 


Via Alessandro Cerboni
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Strategic or random? In the face of uncertainty, the brain chooses randomness as the best strategy

Strategic or random? In the face of uncertainty, the brain chooses randomness as the best strategy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Many of the choices we make are informed by experiences we've had in the past. But occasionally we're better off abandoning those lessons and exploring a new situation unfettered by past experiences.
more...
David McGavock's curator insight, October 7, 2014 9:57 AM

I experience this when I have an especially difficult technical problem to solve. I find that after trying some systematic solutions to a problem I resort to random attempts.

Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Brain Scans Reveal Gray Matter Differences in Media Multitaskers

Brain Scans Reveal Gray Matter Differences in Media Multitaskers | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A new study reports people who multitask using several media devices at the same time have lower gray matter density in the ACC.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

New EEG Electrode Set for Fast and Easy Measurement of Brain Function Abnormalities

New EEG Electrode Set for Fast and Easy Measurement of Brain Function Abnormalities | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers have developed a new, easy to use EEG electrode set.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Social Foraging
Scoop.it!

Toward in vitro models of brain structure and function

The development of effective tissue-engineered models of the brain remains an elusive challenge because of its inherent complexity. Such models would be extremely important to understanding brain development, and for exploring therapeutic options for disorders of the CNS, including the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and related damage to the brain. One million, seven hundred thousand TBIs occur in the United States annually (1). These in vitro models would also be invaluable test beds for drug-discovery investigations and in toxicology evaluations. In PNAS, Tang-Schomer et al. (2) describe a promising model of a cortical tissue mimic and demonstrate its applications to a better understanding of response to TBI.

Several classes of in vitro models of the brain have been described (3), including acute preparations (or explants of CNS tissues), organotypic cultures or thin slices of CNS maintained for greater than 7 d, cerebral organoids (which can be formed from the self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells in 3D cultures) (3), and tissue-engineered constructs (2, 4, 5). Here we focus on the cell-based techniques for organoids and tissue-engineered constructs.

In organoids, the formation of cortex-like structures that are reminiscent of the human developing cerebral cortex have been observed (6). These structures promise to be useful models for brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders. Using human patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), Lancaster et al. (6) were able to model microcephaly through observations of premature neuronal differentiation. The authors used a spinning bioreactor to grow organoids up to 4 mm in diameter that could be maintained for up to 10 mo. Although this technology is truly impressive, there are key limitations to these models. Currently, adult neuronal behavior is difficult to mimic with iPSC technology and

Via Ashish Umre
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Social Foraging
Scoop.it!

How Repetition Enchants the Brain and the Psychology of Why We Love It in Music

“The repetition itself becomes the important thing; it’s a form of mesmerism,” Haruki Murakami reflected on the power of a daily routine. “Rhythm is one of the most powerful of pleasures, and when we feel a pleasurable rhythm we hope it will continue,” Mary Oliver wrote about the secret of great poetry, adding: “When it does, it grows sweeter.” But nowhere does rhythmic repetition mesmerize us more powerfully than in music, with its singular way of enchanting the brain.

Via Ashish Umre
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

How your brain actually makes decisions while you sleep

Proof that sleeping on it really can make a difference.



An illustration of awake and asleep. (Courtesy of Michael Halassa, M.D., PhD)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

'Dimmer switch' for mood disorders discovered

'Dimmer switch' for mood disorders discovered | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a control mechanism for an area of the brain that processes sensory and emotive information that humans experience as 'disappointment.'
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Scientists show rise and fall of brain volume

Brian Wandell and his group looked at 24 brain regions to see how the composition changed from age 7 to 83. The regions in red changed the most, regions in blue changed the least. Credit: Wandell Lab

(Medical Xpress)—We can witness our bodies mature, then gradually grow wrinkled and weaker with age, but it is only recently that scientists have been able to track a similar progression in the nerve bundles of our brains. That tissue increases in volume until around age 40, then slowly shrinks. By ...

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from the plastic brain
Scoop.it!

Long term use of benzodiazepine for anxiety & sleep disorders can increase risk of Alzheimer’s disease

Long term use of benzodiazepine for anxiety & sleep disorders can increase risk of Alzheimer’s disease | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

This case-control study based on 8980 individuals representative of elderly people living in the community in Quebec showed that the risk of Alzheimer’s disease was increased by 43-51% among those who had used benzodiazepines in the past. Risk increased with density of exposure and when long acting benzodiazepines were used. Further adjustment on symptoms thought to be potential prodromes for dementia—such as depression, anxiety, or sleep disorders—did not meaningfully alter the results.


Via iPamba
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Protein interaction is crucial for building networks in the brain

Protein interaction is crucial for building networks in the brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Neural networks are formed by the interconnection of specific neurons in the brain. The molecular mechanisms involved in creating these connections, however, have so far eluded scientists.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Scientists have decoded the functioning of the short-term memory

Scientists have decoded the functioning of the short-term memory | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
School children and university students are often big fans of the short-term memory – not least when they have to cram large volumes of information on the eve of an exam.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Bounded Rationality and Beyond
Scoop.it!

Recent advances in understanding neural systems that support inhibitory control

Recent advances in understanding neural systems that support inhibitory control | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Highlights: 


  • Right lateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in inhibitory control.•
  • Recent advances suggest that rIFG may not just be involved in motoric inhibition.


  • Rather rIFG may integrate contextual information with potential goals.
  • Whether inhibitory control uses a central neural system remains unclear.
  • Alternatively, such systems may vary by domain — motoric, cognitive, emotional.


Although it is agreed that the right lateral prefrontal cortex plays a prominent role in inhibitory control, the exact psychological processes it implements remain unclear, as do the precise neural substrates of such control.


Recently debated is the issue of whether the right inferior cortex is specifically involved in inhibition of action, or whether this region monitors the environmental context to provide information as to which goals are attainable under current conditions.


Another issue of debate is whether there is a common neural substrate for inhibitory control or whether different neural systems are involved in inhibitory control in different domains — motoric, cognitive, and emotional. The present review examines the current state of thought on these two important issues.


Via Alessandro Cerboni
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

How physical exercise protects the brain from stress-induced depression

How physical exercise protects the brain from stress-induced depression | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Physical exercise has many beneficial effects on human health, including the protection from stress-induced depression. However, until now the mechanisms that mediate this protective effect have been unknown.
more...
David McGavock's curator insight, September 27, 2014 11:44 AM

Provides some explanation on the chemistry of depression and protective factors generated through exercise.

Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

The Biology of Thought

The Biology of Thought | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Krishnagopal Dharani discusses The Biology of Thought, and the proposed molecular model for generation of thought right at the level of the neurons.


The Biology of Thought suggests a new molecular mechanism by which sensory neurons can convert external sensory stimuli into internal thoughts. The book presents an evidence-based analysis of current neurobiological concepts which leads us into some inescapable conclusions – ultimately proposing a novel molecular model for generation of thought right at the level of the neurons.


This work demonstrates how electrochemical events occurring at the neuron may interact with the molecular mechanisms to generate thoughts. In other words, the book lays out biological foundations to the generation of thought – for this reason titled, The Biology of Thought; the hitherto abstract thought is finally shown to have a solid physical origin in the neurons.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Alzheimer’s Patients Can Still Feel the Emotion Long after the Memories Have Vanished

Alzheimer’s Patients Can Still Feel the Emotion Long after the Memories Have Vanished | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Emotional states after events exist in Alzheimer's patients even after the memory is lost, a new study reports.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from the psychology of music
Scoop.it!

How Music Heightens Our Experiences - World of Psychology

How Music Heightens Our Experiences - World of Psychology | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

"Music has the capacity to heighten our daily experiences — to alter our emotional states, to enhance, transcend and inspire the present moment.

 

It’s certainly not a revelation that music affects our mood. A particular melody or lyrical narrative may trigger sadness, heartache, anger or other unpleasant emotions. (And I don’t like to run away from them; all emotions comprise the human experience.)"


Via playalongjon
more...
playalongjon's curator insight, September 24, 2014 5:40 PM

This article reiterates again the importance and influence of music in our everyday lives.

Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Journey Through the Brain: MIT Neurotech | Expeditions, Scientific American Blog Network

Journey Through the Brain: MIT Neurotech | Expeditions, Scientific American Blog Network | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Editor’s note: This is the first installment in a series about emerging neurotechnologies. Join a pilot class of 12 PhD students at MIT as we explore ...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Social Foraging
Scoop.it!

Inducing Task-Relevant Responses to Speech in the Sleeping Brain

Inducing Task-Relevant Responses to Speech in the Sleeping Brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Falling asleep leads to a loss of sensory awareness and to the inability to interact with the environment [ 1 ]. While this was traditionally thought as a consequence of the brain shutting down to external inputs, it is now acknowledged that incoming stimuli can still be processed, at least to some extent, during sleep [ 2 ]. For instance, sleeping participants can create novel sensory associations between tones and odors [ 3 ] or reactivate existing semantic associations, as evidenced by event-related potentials [ 4–7 ]. Yet, the extent to which the brain continues to process external stimuli remains largely unknown. In particular, it remains unclear whether sensory information can be processed in a flexible and task-dependent manner by the sleeping brain, all the way up to the preparation of relevant actions. Here, using semantic categorization and lexical decision tasks, we studied task-relevant responses triggered by spoken stimuli in the sleeping brain. Awake participants classified words as either animals or objects (experiment 1) or as either words or pseudowords (experiment 2) by pressing a button with their right or left hand, while transitioning toward sleep. The lateralized readiness potential (LRP), an electrophysiological index of response preparation, revealed that task-specific preparatory responses are preserved during sleep. These findings demonstrate that despite the absence of awareness and behavioral responsiveness, sleepers can still extract task-relevant information from external stimuli and covertly prepare for appropriate motor responses.

Via Ashish Umre
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

This Is What Sex Looks Like Inside An MRI Machine | IFLScience

This Is What Sex Looks Like Inside An MRI Machine | IFLScience | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Have you ever wondered what sex would look like if you were able to see INSIDE the bodies of the participants? No? Just me?  Well, even if you haven't wondered, you can now find out.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jocelyn Stoller
Scoop.it!

Single dose of antidepressant changes the brain

Single dose of antidepressant changes the brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A single dose of antidepressant is enough to produce dramatic changes in the functional architecture of the human brain. Brain scans taken of people before and after an acute dose of a commonly prescribed SSRI (serotonin reuptake inhibitor) reveal changes in connectivity within three hours, say researchers ...
more...
No comment yet.