Social Neuroscience Advances
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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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A glimpse into the 3D brain: How memories form

A glimpse into the 3D brain: How memories form | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
People who wish to know how memory works are forced to take a glimpse into the brain. They can now do so without bloodshed: RUB researchers have developed a new method for creating 3D models of memory-relevant brain structures.
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Cortical Representations Are Reinstated by the Hippocampus during Memory Retrieval: Neuron

Cortical Representations Are Reinstated by the Hippocampus during Memory Retrieval http://t.co/295B822Dc4
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Set of molecules found to link insulin resistance in the brain to diabetes

Set of molecules found to link insulin resistance in the brain to diabetes | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A key mechanism behind diabetes may start in the brain, with early signs of the disease detectable through rising levels of molecules not previously linked to insulin signaling, according to a study led by researchers at the Icahn School of...
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Hunger games: How the brain ‘browns’ fat to aid weight loss

Hunger games: How the brain ‘browns’ fat to aid weight loss | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers at Yale School of Medicine have uncovered a molecular process in the brain known to control eating that transforms white fat into brown fat. This process impacts how much energy we burn and how much weight we can lose.
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Researchers uncover how ‘love hormone’ regulates sexual behavior

Researchers uncover how ‘love hormone’ regulates sexual behavior | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Oxytocin has been called the “love hormone” because it plays an important role in social behaviors, such as maternal care and pair bonding.
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Modeling the Heart as a Communication System

Electrical communication between cardiomyocytes can be perturbed during arrhythmia, but these perturbations are not captured by conventional electrocardiographic metrics. In contrast, information theory metrics can quantify how arrhythmia impacts the sharing of information between individual cells. We developed a theoretical framework to quantify communication during normal and abnormal heart rhythms in two commonly used models of action potential propagation: a reaction diffusion model and a cellular automata model with realistic restitution properties. For both models, the tissue was simulated as a 2-D cell lattice. The time series generated by each cell was coarse-grained to 1 when excited or 0 when resting. The Shannon entropy for each cell and the mutual information between each pair of cells were calculated from the time series during normal heartbeats, spiral wave, anatomical reentry, and multiple wavelets. We found that information sharing between cells was spatially heterogeneous on the simple lattice structure. In addition, arrhythmia significantly impacted information sharing within the heart. Mutual information could distinguish the spiral wave from multiple wavelets, which may help identify the mechanism of cardiac fibrillation in individual patients. Furthermore, entropy localized the path of the drifting core of the spiral wave, which could be an optimal target of therapeutic ablation. We conclude that information theory metrics can quantitatively assess electrical communication among cardiomyocytes. The traditional concept of the heart as a functional syncytium sharing electrical information via gap junctions cannot predict altered entropy and information sharing during complex arrhythmia. Information theory metrics may find clinical application in the identification of rhythm-specific treatments which are currently unmet by traditional electrocardiographic techniques.


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Newly Discovered Brain Cells Explain a Prosocial Effect of Oxytocin

Newly Discovered Brain Cells Explain a Prosocial Effect of Oxytocin | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Oxytocin, the body’s natural love potion, helps couples fall in love, makes mothers bond with their babies, and encourages teams to work together. Now new research at Rockefeller University reveals a mechanism by which this prosocial hormone has its effect on interactions between the sexes, at least in certain situations. The key, it turns out, is a newly discovered class of brain cells.

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Simple test based on movement and thought can help identify Alzheimer's risk before signs of dementia

York University researchers say a simple test that combines thinking and movement can help to detect heightened risk for developing Alzheimer's disease in a person, even before there are any telltale behavioural signs of dementia.
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New paper examines the significant social strategies in human communication

New paper examines the significant social strategies in human communication | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A new study by researchers from the University of Notre Dame and Tsinghua University offers great potential for understanding the social principles that underpin the highly connected world, from individuals to groups to societies.
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MRI Technique Detects Evidence of Cognitive Decline Before Symptoms Appear

MRI Technique Detects Evidence of Cognitive Decline Before Symptoms Appear | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
According to a new study, an MRI technique can detect signs of cognitive decline in the brain before symptoms appear.
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Beyond the Nobel: What Scientists Are Learning About How Your Brain Navigates

Beyond the Nobel: What Scientists Are Learning About How Your Brain Navigates | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Neuroscientist Russell Epstein is one of several researchers trying to connect the dots between today's Nobel-prize winning research on rat navigation and individual differences in people's ability to orient to their surroundings and find their way...
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The Neuroscience of Your Brain on Fiction

The Neuroscience of Your Brain on Fiction | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Stories stimulate the brain. Metaphors like “He had leathery hands” rouse the sensory cortex.

 

AMID the squawks and pings of our digital devices, the old-fashioned virtues of reading novels can seem faded, even futile. But new support for the value of fiction is arriving from an unexpected quarter: neuroscience.

Brain scans are revealing what happens in our heads when we read a detailed description, an evocative metaphor or an emotional exchange between characters. Stories, this research is showing, stimulate the brain and even change how we act in life.


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Zapping the brain with tiny magnetic pulses improves memory

Zapping the brain with tiny magnetic pulses improves memory | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The practice of physically stimulating the brain in order to alleviate symptoms of illness and injury has been around since the early 20th century. For example, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is still used to alleviate symptoms of depression.
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Alzheimer’s patients hold onto emotions even when facts have been forgotten

Alzheimer’s patients hold onto emotions even when facts have been forgotten | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Caregivers should still provide enjoyable experiences, even if they think the patient won't remember them later
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Dementia Detected 'Before Symptoms Appear' with MRI Brain Scan Biomarker

Dementia Detected 'Before Symptoms Appear' with MRI Brain Scan Biomarker | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Arterial spin labeling, a type of MRI scan, could serve as biomarker in early diagnosis of dementia.
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Neurons in human muscles emphasize the impact of the outside world - HealthCanal.com

Neurons in human muscles emphasize the impact of the outside world - HealthCanal.com | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Neurons in human muscles emphasize the impact of the outside world
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Mining big data yields Alzheimer’s discovery

Mining big data yields Alzheimer’s discovery | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Scientists at The University of Manchester have used a new way of working to identify a new gene linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
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Potential self-regulatory mechanisms of yoga for psychological health | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

Potential self-regulatory mechanisms of yoga for psychological health | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga's potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health. The model describes yoga practice as a comprehensive skillset of synergistic process tools that facilitate bidirectional feedback and integration between high- and low-level brain networks, and afferent and re-afferent input from interoceptive processes (somatosensory, viscerosensory, chemosensory). From a predictive coding perspective we propose a shift to perceptual inference for stress modulation and optimal self-regulation. We describe how the processes that sub-serve self-regulation become more automatized and efficient over time and practice, requiring less effort to initiate when necessary and terminate more rapidly when no longer needed. To support our proposed model, we present the available evidence for yoga affecting self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research. This paper is intended to guide future basic and clinical research, specifically targeting areas of development in the treatment of stress-mediated psychological disorders.

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Erasing Memory With Light

Erasing Memory With Light | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Using optogenetics, researchers at the UC Davis Center for Neuroscience and Department of Psychology have used light to erase specific memories in mice, and proved a basic theory of how different parts of the brain work together to retrieve episodic memories.

Optogenetics, pioneered by Karl Diesseroth at Stanford University, is a new technique for manipulating and studying nerve cells using light. The techniques of optogenetics are rapidly becoming the standard method for investigating brain function.

 


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The Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Psychostimulants Involve Direct Action in the Prefrontal Cortex - Biological Psychiatry


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A Blood Test for Depression Moves Closer to Reality

A Blood Test for Depression Moves Closer to Reality | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

 

With the recent and highly publicized death of actor Robin Williams, depression is once again making national headlines. And for good reason

With the recent and highly publicized death of actor Robin Williams, depression is once again making national headlines. And for good reason. Usually, the conversation about depression turns to the search for effective treatments, which currently include cognitive behavioral therapy and drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

However, an equally important issue is the timely and proper diagnosis of depression.

Currently, depression is diagnosed by a physical and psychological examination, but it mostly depends on self-reporting of subjective symptoms like depressed mood, lack of motivation, and changes in appetite and sleep patterns. Many people who might want to avoid a depression diagnosis for various reasons can fake their way through this self-reporting, making it likely that depression is actually under-diagnosed.

Therefore, an objective test could be an important development in properly diagnosing and treating depression. Scientists at Northwestern University may have developed such a diagnostic tool, one that requires no more than a simple test tube of blood.

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From commonsense to science, and back: The use of cognitive concepts in neuroscience

The problems with Commonsense Cognitive Concepts in neuroscience & related covert adherence to ‘mental realism’ http://t.co/rFB270o8Ey
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Mental Rehearsals Strengthen Neural Circuits

Mental Rehearsals Strengthen Neural Circuits | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Imagined practice may activate the same neural circuits as real experience
-- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
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Team demonstrates direct fluid flow influences neuron growth

Team demonstrates direct fluid flow influences neuron growth | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A University of Texas at Arlington team exploring how neuron growth can be controlled in the lab and, possibly, in the human body has published a new paper in Nature's Scientific Reports on how fluid flow could play a significant role.
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Versatile Lipoproteins in Healthy Brains and Alzheimers

Versatile Lipoproteins in Healthy Brains and Alzheimers | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Of all of the molecules combining proteins with lipids, LDL is one of the extremely versatile lipoproteins in healthy brains and Alzheimers

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