Social Neuroscience Advances
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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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New Insight Into How Brain Performs “Mental Time Travel”

New Insight Into How Brain Performs “Mental Time Travel” | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
New brain mapping study pinpoints the areas of the brain responsible for “mental time travel.”

 

"Scientists have known for some time that a portion of the brain called the medial temporal lobe plays a central role in memory because injuries to the MTL cause amnesia and other memory-related problems. However, they have not been able to answer the question: How does the brain control the fidelity of an individual memory?

"Of course, not all memories are recalled equally. High fidelity Proustian memories are at one end of the spectrum. At the other are bits of information that a person remembers clearly, but in complete isolation, without any accompanying details.
 


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Promising results for new Alzheimer therapy

Promising results for new Alzheimer therapy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Scientists at Karolinska Institutet have evaluated a new Alzheimer's therapy in which the patients receive an implant that stimulates the growth of a certain type of nerve cell. The results, which are published in the scientific journal Alzheimer's & Dementia, suggest that the introduction of a nerve ...
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Invisible Grasps: Grip Interference in Anosognosia for Hemiplegia. - PubMed - NCBI

Neuropsychology. 2015 Feb 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Invisible Grasps: Grip Interference in Anosognosia for Hemiplegia.
Piedimonte A, Garbarini F, Rabuffetti M, Pia L, Montesano A, Ferrarin M, Berti A.
Abstract
Objectives: Previous findings suggest that, in anosognosic patients, their illusory motor experience is based on a "normal" motor intention and planning for the paralyzed limbs. However, these studies involved proximal muscles (shoulder) that can be mediated by the ipsilateral (intact) cortex more than distal muscles (fingers). In the present study, we asked whether, in anosognosic patients, the spared motor intention for the paralyzed limb can go as far as to influence kinematic parameters of distal movements. Method: Six hemiplegic patients (1 with and 5 without anosognosia) were required to reach and grasp with both hands targets of the same or different size, attached to a plinth. Maximum grip aperture of the right (intact) hand was recorded using an infrared motion capture system. All patients were evaluated with a specific battery for anosognosia and different neurpsychological test. Results: In the patient affected by anosognosia for hemiplegia, the grip aperture of the healthy hand was influenced by the intended (but not executed) movement of the plegic hand when the patient was trying to reach to grasp targets of different size, F(2, 14) = 11.87, p < .001. Patients affected by hemiplegia (without anosognosia) didn't show any interference effect between the plegic and healthy hand even when they were asked to reach to grasp targets of different size. Conclusions: Our results confirm the hypothesis that a spared intention-programming system within the contralateral (damaged) cortex can go as far as to influence distal kinematic parameters of the healthy hand of patients affected by anosognosia for hemiplegia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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7 Ways Meditation Can Actually Change The Brain

7 Ways Meditation Can Actually Change The Brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Science is showing that meditation is very deserving of its newfound fame.

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Dave Vago's curator insight, February 15, 2015 8:47 PM

decent summary.

Margaret Mikkelborg's curator insight, February 16, 2015 1:16 PM

meditation is now being shown by science to reduce "monkey mind" - this is ancient knowledge that now has been given scientific credibility - of importance to those who feel they have been labelled with ADD 

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Why some marriages last for life – genuinely so: a genetic and psychological explanaition

Why some marriages last for life – genuinely so: a genetic and psychological explanaition | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Dr. Robert W. Levenson is a psychologist at UC Berkeley who has been studying 156 married middle-aged and older couples that were together for more than 20 years.
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Deric's MindBlog: Perceived control promotes persistence and influences brain response to setbacks

Deric's MindBlog: Perceived control promotes persistence and influences brain response to setbacks | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
From Bhanji et al:

Highlights
•We report two distinct neural mechanisms for persistence through adversity 
•Perceiving control over setbacks increases persistence 
•Striatum activity relates to persisting after setbacks by correcting mistakes 
•Ventromedial prefrontal activity mediates effects of negative affect on persistence
Summary
How do people cope with setbacks and persist with their goals? We examine how perceiving control over setbacks alters neural processing in ways that increase persistence through adversity. For example, a student might retake a class if initial failure was due to controllable factors (e.g., studying) but give up if failure was uncontrollable (e.g., unfair exam questions). Participants persisted more when they perceived control over setbacks, and when they experienced increased negative affect to setbacks. Consistent with previous observations involving negative outcomes, ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal (VMPFC) activity was decreased in response to setbacks. Critically, these structures represented distinct neural mechanisms for persistence through adversity. Ventral striatum signal change to controllable setbacks correlated with greater persistence, whereas VMPFC signal change to uncontrollable setbacks mediated the relationship between increased negative affect and persistence. Taken together, the findings highlight how people process setbacks and adapt their behavior for future goal pursuit.
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Deric's MindBlog: Low social status enhances prosocial orientation.

Deric's MindBlog: Low social status enhances prosocial orientation. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Interesting observations from Guinote et al. :

Humans are a cooperative species, capable of altruism and the creation of shared norms that ensure fairness in society. However, individuals with different educational, cultural, economic, or ethnic backgrounds differ in their levels of social investment and endorsement of egalitarian values. We present four experiments showing that subtle cues to social status (i.e., prestige and reputation in the eyes of others) modulate prosocial orientation. The experiments found that individuals who experienced low status showed more communal and prosocial behavior, and endorsed more egalitarian life goals and values compared with those who experienced high status. Behavioral differences across high- and low-status positions appeared early in human ontogeny (4–5 y of age).
This is yet another study using undergraduate college students as subjects. The first experiment manipulated perceived status by telling students their department had high versus low national rankings. After this simple intervention, lower status students showed more helpful behavior when an experimenter pretended to drop a pack of pens on the floor. A second experiment gave a group bogus feedback about their group standing compared with another group. Individuals in low status groups showed more communal and prosocial signaling during self-presentations and interactions than those in high status groups. The third experiment had a status manipulation similar to the first, and the life goals of low versus high status subjects were probed, the finding being that lower lower status participants indicated more benevolent self-transcendent life goals while higher-status participants endorsed more power values. The fourth study was done with a group of 28 children of mean age 4.7 years. After manipulations of their dominance hierarchy, lower status children were more generous and helpful than higher status peers.


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Deric's MindBlog: Neuroimaging shows use of self thoughts to infer others' mental states

Deric's MindBlog: Neuroimaging shows use of self thoughts to infer others' mental states | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
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Creating love in the lab: The 36 questions that spark intimacy

Creating love in the lab: The 36 questions that spark intimacy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Around the time of the Summer of Love in 1967, Arthur Aron, then a UC Berkeley graduate student in psychology, kissed fellow student Elaine Spaulding in front of Dwinelle Hall.
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Researcher seeks answers to cognitive decline as we age

Researcher seeks answers to cognitive decline as we age | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Aging is not kind to the brain. Memory, for example, begins to fail and multitasking abilities start to deteriorate. But are there ways to slow the natural process of cognitive decline? And if so, how do they work?
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The Fascinating Neurological Changes That Happen When You Fall in Love

Falling in love, or failing to do so, can literally transform us.
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Why Is the Mystery of Blast Force Brain Injury So Tough to Solve?

Why Is the Mystery of Blast Force Brain Injury So Tough to Solve? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The signature scar of the wars in Afghanistan and Iran is blast force injury—trauma to the brain that is difficult to diagnose and treat.
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The Social and Affective Neuroscience Society - Conference Information

The Social and Affective Neuroscience Society - Conference Information | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The 8th Annual Meeting of the Social & Affective Neuroscience Society will be held on April 23-25, 2015 in Boston, MA at the Revere Hotel (200 Stuart Street, Boston MA 02116). The conference will kick off with a Keynote Address from Dr. Michael Platt at 5 pm on Thursday, April 23, followed by a poster reception from 6:00 - 7:30 pm. Friday, April 24th and Saturday, April 25th will feature full days of programming, including symposia, posters, blitz talks, an optional lunchtime panel focusing on funding opportunities, and social events for networking.
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Critical Analysis of the Efficacy of Meditation Therapies for Acute and Subacute Phase Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review

Critical Analysis of the Efficacy of Meditation Therapies for Acute and Subacute Phase Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review

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Dave Vago's curator insight, February 15, 2015 8:50 PM

nice critical review of the status for meditation and depression

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Dementia hits women hardest – study

Dementia hits women hardest – study | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Research finds disease now leading cause of death in British women; many are also carers before succumbing themselves
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The neural basis of ‘being in the mood’

The neural basis of ‘being in the mood’ | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
What determines receptivity or rejection towards potential sexual partners? For people, there are many factors that play a part, appearance, culture, age, are all taken into account. But what part does the internal state of the individual play?
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Deric's MindBlog: The unforeseen costs of extraordinary experiences.

Deric's MindBlog: The unforeseen costs of extraordinary experiences. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Daniel Gilbert and his collaborators at Harvard have come up with yet another fascinating nugget on our human behaviors:
People seek extraordinary experiences—from drinking rare wines and taking exotic vacations to jumping from airplanes and shaking hands with celebrities. But are such experiences worth having? We found that participants thoroughly enjoyed having experiences that were superior to those had by their peers, but that having had such experiences spoiled their subsequent social interactions and ultimately left them feeling worse than they would have felt if they had had an ordinary experience instead. Participants were able to predict the benefits of having an extraordinary experience but were unable to predict the costs. These studies suggest that people may pay a surprising price for the experiences they covet most.
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Deric's MindBlog: Watching large scale brain network interactions in cognitive control.

Deric's MindBlog: Watching large scale brain network interactions in cognitive control. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
We frequently face situations in which we must override our ongoing behavior to react to a situational demand, a process that is impaired in many patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Two large scale networks important in this cognitive control are the salience network and the default mode network (DMN). From the review by Kumfor et al:

The salience network is recruited in response to attention-grabbing changes in the environment, and it is anchored by the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and orbital frontoinsular cortices, with robust connections with subcortical and limbic structures. Conversely, the DMN is activated when current situational demands are insufficient to capture our attention (e.g., during monotonous tasks); it encompasses a distributed set of regions including the medial and lateral temporal cortices and inferior lateral parietal cortices, centered on midline “hubs,” including the dorsomedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices.
Jilka et al. have monitored the activity of these networks in control and TBI subjects while they carried out two cognitive control tasks: a stop signal task in which participants were shown either left or right arrows and asked to press the corresponding left or right keys - except when a red dot was shown; and a motor switching task in which participants learned to respond to blue targets with their left hand and red targets with their right hand - except when they were instructed to switch their response. Successful performance on both tasks correlated with increased functional connectivity between the right anterior insula node of the salience network and the DMN. Deficits in inhibition seen in TBI patients correlated with decreased functional connectivity.
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Deric's MindBlog: A landmark for our human brains.

Deric's MindBlog: A landmark for our human brains. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Leroy et al. have now identified an asymmetry of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), at the core of our human communication and social cognition systems, that represents a species-specific perisylvian anatomical marker that is barely visible in chimpanzees.
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Prof. Oliver Sacks Discusses Healing Power of Music | Columbia News

Prof. Oliver Sacks Discusses Healing Power of Music | Columbia News | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Reawakening the Brain Through Music focused on the ability of music to heal patients afflicted with severe neurological and physical problems and the larger biological question of where music resides in the brain.

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Scientist finds higher opioid doses associated with increase in depression

Scientist finds higher opioid doses associated with increase in depression | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Patients who increased doses of opioid medicines to manage chronic pain were more likely to experience an increase in depression, according to Saint Louis University findings in Pain.
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New Promise of Relief for Major Depression

New Promise of Relief for Major Depression | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Deep-brain stimulation has shown potential to help the up to 20 percent of patients with major depression who don’t get relief from medication, psychotherapy or other means -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com...
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CoeLux Artificial Skylight Wards Off Seasonal Affective Disorder And Stress

CoeLux Artificial Skylight Wards Off Seasonal Affective Disorder And Stress | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Seasonal affective disorder affects upward of 10 million Americans. Can the latest form of light therapy help?
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