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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Study: Reduced Empathy Seen In Anxious People

Study: Reduced Empathy Seen In Anxious People | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

People who are anxious have reduced ability to empathize with others, new research says.


In their study, a team of researchers led by Andrew Todd from University of Iowa artificially increased the anxiety levels of one group of participants by having them remember events in their lives that had caused them anxiety.


The researchers told another group to remember incidents that were emotionally neutral, as well as ones that induced anger or disgust.

In the first of two tests, the participants were examined for their capacity to see things from other people's perspective. The researchers showed them a photo of a man seated at a table with a book to his left, or the participants' right.


Via Edwin Rutsch
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How the brain inhibits distractions during goal-directed behavior

How the brain inhibits distractions during goal-directed behavior | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Exercising goal-directed behavior in the presence of distracting stimuli—for instance, reading a journal-published study amid the crash of surf, the laughter of children, and the crush of beachgoers at a coastal resort on a sunny afternoon—requires the ability to inhibit distracting stimuli. This ability is important in many life settings, including school and work, and is an important pillar of psychological well-being.
Such inhibitory control is impaired in certain circumstances, even in psychologically and neurally typical subjects, including drug addiction and stress-related overeating or other compensatory behaviors. Therefore, identifying the specific neural activity associated with inhibitory control could have valuable clinical applications.
Surprisingly, researchers have conducted few studies of the neurology of inhibitory control. A group of U.S. researchers recently conducted a study with a large number of adults in order to determine how the brain adapts to conditions of distraction during goal-oriented activities, and they have published their results in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Graph theory is a relatively recent methodological advance that allows analysis of brain networks at a previously unobtainable level of complexity. Via graph theory, researchers can identify clusters of network connections in which the strength of each connection varies according to demand—for instance, concentration in a setting of variable distraction levels.
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If You’re Empathetic, You Probably Aren’t Into AC/DC

If You’re Empathetic, You Probably Aren’t Into AC/DC | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

By DANIEL AKST


The new paper describes one study in which more than 4,000 volunteers were tested for empathy and then asked to rate 50 pieces of music. Those who scored high on empathy tended to prefer “mellow” music, such as R&B and soft rock; “unpretentious” music, including folk and country; and “contemporary” music, including Euro pop. But they didn’t like intense styles such as heavy metal. The results also applied within genres; empathizers preferred gentler jazz, for instance.


The results held up even when scientists controlled for gender and personality types. In a second study that included systemizers, the group preferred more intense music like punk and heavy metal, while empathizers liked sadder, lower energy music with more emotional depth.


Via Edwin Rutsch
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Team advances therapy preventing addiction relapse by erasing drug-associated memories

Scientists have made a discovery that brings them closer to a new therapy based on selectively erasing dangerous and tenacious drug-associated memories.
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Brain's ability to dispose of key Alzheimer's protein drops dramatically with age - Medical Xpress

Brain's ability to dispose of key Alzheimer's protein drops dramatically with age - Medical Xpress | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease is advancing age. After 65, the risk doubles every five years, and 40 percent or more of people 85 and older are estimated to be living with the devastating condition.

Via Krishan Maggon
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Major Depression In Women May Stem From Too Many Overactive Genes In The Brain

Major Depression In Women May Stem From Too Many Overactive Genes In The Brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Depression and suicide in women could be linked to abnormalities in an important gene in the brain.
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Imaging tool lets scientists look inside brain at nanoscale resolution

Imaging tool lets scientists look inside brain at nanoscale resolution | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The human brain contains more synapses than there are galaxies in the observable universe (to put a number on it, there are perhaps 100 trillion synapses versus 100 billion galaxies), and now scientists can see them all – individually.
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Scientists show a link between intestinal bacteria and depression

Scientists show a link between intestinal bacteria and depression | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Exploring the role of intestinal microbiota in the altered behavior that is a consequence of early life stress

Via Dave Wood, Mark E. Deschaine, PhD
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Different Kinds of Compassion

Different Kinds of Compassion


 1. a concept,  emotions

  • a reciprocal care
  • do good or I will be criticized
2. an unbiased compassion 
  • comes from realization

Via Edwin Rutsch
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Coffee habits linked to memory, brain health in seniors

Coffee habits linked to memory, brain health in seniors | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
New study finds a sudden increase in coffee consumption may have negative impact
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Irregular Sleep-Wake Pattern Improves Long-Term Memory in Mice

Irregular Sleep-Wake Pattern Improves Long-Term Memory in Mice | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A new study reports researchers have decoupled the production of IGF2 from the sleep-wake cycle and discovered this improved long-term memory in mice.
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Data suggest that new Alzheimer's drug solanezumab has disease-modifying ... - The Pharmaceutical Journal

Data suggest that new Alzheimer's drug solanezumab has disease-modifying ... - The Pharmaceutical Journal | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A monoclonal antibody in development for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may have disease-modifying properties, according to new research.

Via Krishan Maggon
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Eat For Pleasure Rather Than Hunger? You May Have a Hormone Deficiency

Eat For Pleasure Rather Than Hunger? You May Have a Hormone Deficiency | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Do you prefer the taste of fatty food? Are you someone who eats for pleasure rather than for hunger's sake? According to a new study, the tendency to overeat could be due to a hormone deficiency.
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Hippocampal neuron responses associated with memory distinctions

Hippocampal neuron responses associated with memory distinctions | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Human memory is remarkably adaptive and specific, enabling the crucial distinction between two similar events—for instance, recalling where you parked your car this morning as opposed to where you parked it yesterday. It has been largely established that the medial temporal lobe forms declarative memories of facts and events, but researchers have noted that damage specific to the hippocampus can lead to deficits in recognition characterized by the impaired discrimination of similar items.
Therefore, it is believed that the hippocampus is responsible for separating overlapping memories in order to support memory specificity. While it's possible via fMRI to study the firing of hippocampal neural networks via BOLD signals, it is not sensitive enough to study single neuron activity. So an international group of researchers devised a novel study of 25 pharmacologically resistant epilepsy patients who had been implanted with intracranial depth electrodes for medical diagnostic purposes. The researchers have published their findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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Psychopaths, Autism, Empathy and Mirror Neurons

Psychopaths, Autism, Empathy and Mirror Neurons | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
We knew that a horribly neglectful or abusive childhood could result in antisocial or narcissistic personality disorder, but we didn't know the mechanism.  It is now believed that such a childhood can result in these neurons not being used, so they fail to develop normally.


 This failure to develop in childhood results in an adult with dysfunctional mirror neurons and the resulting antisocial or narcissistic traits.  


If these neurons can be rendered dysfunctional by lack of use, perhaps we can develop interventions which use them, restoring their functionality and healing people with these personality disorders.

It's an interesting theory.


Via Edwin Rutsch
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From Neural Circuit Behaviour to Human Sensory-Motor Function #science #Neuroscience #University #UTwente

From Neural Circuit Behaviour to Human Sensory-Motor Function #science #Neuroscience #University #UTwente | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Via CineversityTV
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Connoisseur of Empathy

Connoisseur of Empathy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

THREE LAYERS OF EMPATHY

Empathy is being with another with compassion, connecting to the humanness of their experience.


Empathy is the silent presence with another, not the words we use.


We can express our empathy and some possible ways to express empathy are included here


Via Edwin Rutsch
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Need Energy or Calm? There’s DIY Brain Stimulation for That

Need Energy or Calm? There’s DIY Brain Stimulation for That | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Forget your morning coffee. What if you could give your brain a jolt of energy with the simple push of a button? Would you do it?
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Problem Solving Foraging Ants, Spiking Neural Networks and Double Pheromones

Problem Solving Foraging Ants, Spiking Neural Networks and Double Pheromones | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Abstract: A model of an Ant System where ants are controlled by a spiking neural circuit and a second order pheromone mechanism in a foraging task is presented. A neural circuit is trained for individual ants and subsequently the ants are exposed to a virtual environment where a swarm of ants performed a resource foraging task. The model comprises an associative and unsupervised learning strategy for the neural circuit of the ant. The neural circuit adapts to the environment by means of classical conditioning. The initially unknown environment includes different types of stimuli representing food (rewarding) and obstacles (harmful) which, when they come in direct contact with the ant, elicit a reflex response in the motor neural system of the ant: moving towards or away from the source of the stimulus. The spiking neural circuits of the ant is trained to identify food and obstacles and move towards the former and avoid the latter. The ants are released on a landscape with multiple food sources where one ant alone would have difficulty harvesting the landscape to maximum efficiency. In this case the introduction of a double pheromone mechanism (positive and negative reinforcement feedback) yields better results than traditional ant colony optimization strategies. Traditional ant systems include mainly a positive reinforcement pheromone. This approach uses a second pheromone that acts as a marker for forbidden paths (negative feedback). This blockade is not permanent and is controlled by the evaporation rate of the pheromones. The combined action of both pheromones acts as a collective stigmergic memory of the swarm, which reduces the search space of the problem. This paper explores how the adaptation and learning abilities observed in biologically inspired cognitive architectures is synergistically enhanced by swarm optimization strategies. The model portraits two forms of artificial intelligent behaviour: at the individual level the spiking neural network is the main controller and at the collective level the pheromone distribution is a map towards the solution emerged by the colony. The presented model is an important pedagogical tool as it is also an easy to use library that allows access to the spiking neural network paradigm from inside a Netlogo—a language used mostly in agent based modelling and experimentation with complex systems.

Via Alessandro Cerboni
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The Trait of Empathy in Compliance

The Trait of Empathy in Compliance | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Can you empathize with those who work for you, around you and those you report to?


While many leaders, particularly those who might be labeled the ‘command and control’ type seem to think that empathy is a negative; I think that it is an important habit for any Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) or compliance practitioner to not only practice but also master.


Recently there were a couple of articles in the New York Times (NYT) that discussed this character trait and I found them useful to consider for the leadership toolkit of the CCO or compliance profession.



Via Edwin Rutsch
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Empathy and Fairness

Empathy and Fairness (Novartis Foundation Symposia)

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Empathy is the process that allows us to share the feelings and emotions of others, in the absence of any direct emotional stimulation to the self.


Humans can feel empathy for other people in a wide array of contexts: for basic emotions and sensation such as anger, fear, sadness, joy, pain and lust as well as for more complex emotions such as guilt, embarrassment and love.


It has been proposed that, for most people, empathy is the process that prevents us doing harm to others.


Via Edwin Rutsch
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Taking a Trip Through the Brain

Taking a Trip Through the Brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers have developed a new imaging tool that is able to generate images of the brain of an adult mouse at a scale previously thought unachievable.
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How Intelligence Shifts With Age | Seniors

How Intelligence Shifts With Age | Seniors | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
“Your physical ability changes over your lifetime. At first you can’t do much,” said Joshua Hartshorne, a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the study’s lead author. From infancy on, we get better at walking, jumping, climbing and running. But in our early 20s our physical abilities begin to decline, he said. Is such waxing and waning also true for mental ability? “There are two competing ideas,” he added. “As you get older you’re slowing down, and as you get older you’re getting wiser.

Via Gust MEES
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Andres Garcia Alvarez's curator insight, August 1, 6:19 PM

Your physical ability changes over your lifetime. At first you can’t do much,” said Joshua Hartshorne, a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the study’s lead author. From infancy on, we get better at walking, jumping, climbing and running. But in our early 20s our physical abilities begin to decline, he said. Is such waxing and waning also true for mental ability? “There are two competing ideas,” he added. “As you get older you’re slowing down, and as you get older you’re getting wiser.”


Наталия Вяткина's curator insight, August 6, 11:04 AM

Your physical ability changes over your lifetime. At first you can’t do much,” said Joshua Hartshorne, a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the study’s lead author. From infancy on, we get better at walking, jumping, climbing and running. But in our early 20s our physical abilities begin to decline, he said. Is such waxing and waning also true for mental ability? “There are two competing ideas,” he added. “As you get older you’re slowing down, and as you get older you’re getting wiser.”


Dennis Swender's curator insight, August 10, 11:59 AM

Your physical ability changes over your lifetime. At first you can’t do much,” said Joshua Hartshorne, a postdoctoral fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the study’s lead author. From infancy on, we get better at walking, jumping, climbing and running. But in our early 20s our physical abilities begin to decline, he said. Is such waxing and waning also true for mental ability? “There are two competing ideas,” he added. “As you get older you’re slowing down, and as you get older you’re getting wiser.”

 

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Encoding and Retrieving Memories: Understanding Hippcampal Function at the Cellular Level

Encoding and Retrieving Memories: Understanding Hippcampal Function at the Cellular Level | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Researchers report the successful memory encoding and retrieval occurs in the dorsal area of the rat hippocampus.


Via Emre Erdogan
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