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High-fidelity optical reporting of neuronal electrical activity with an ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor

High-fidelity optical reporting of neuronal electrical activity with an ultrafast fluorescent voltage sensor | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

In this technical report, St-Pierre and colleagues introduce a new genetically encoded voltage sensor called Accelerated Sensor of Action Potentials 1 (ASAP1), which consists of a circularly permuted GFP inserted in the extracellular voltage-sensing domain of a phosphatase. ASAP1 surpasses existing sensors in reliably detecting single action potentials and tracking subthreshold potentials and high-frequency spike trains. (...) -  by St-Pierre F. et al., Nature Neuroscience 17, 884–889 (2014)


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Bounded Rationality and Beyond
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How To Use Music To Boost Athletic Performance — PsyBlog

How To Use Music To Boost Athletic Performance — PsyBlog | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Research reveals which types of music improve which types of athletic performance. 
Listening to jazz can improve your performance on the putting green, according to a new study. And jazz is not the only music that’s been linked to athletic performance, as one of the study’s authors Dr. Ali Boolani explains: “Other research has shown that country music improves batting, rap music improves jump shots and running is improved by any up-tempo music. But the benefit of music in fine motor control situations was relatively unknown. Hopefully, this is the first step in answering this question.”
In the small experiment, 20 good golfers tried five different putts while listening to one of the following types of music:


Via Alessandro Cerboni
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Pain in a dish: Researchers turn skin cells into pain sensing neurons

Pain in a dish: Researchers turn skin cells into pain sensing neurons | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
After more than six years of intensive effort, and repeated failures that made the quest at times seem futile, Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) researchers at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH) and Harvard's Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative...
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How Did Brains Evolve?

How Did Brains Evolve? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Humans have asked where we come from for thousands of years, across all cultures.
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Music’s Amazing Effect on Long-Term Memory and Mental Abilities In General

Music’s Amazing Effect on Long-Term Memory and Mental Abilities In General | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The fascinating effect of music on people’s cognitive abilities.

Professional musicians show superior long-term memory compared with non-musicians, a new study finds.

Their brains are also capable of much faster neural responses in key areas of the brain related to decision-making, memory and attention.

The results were presented at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in Washington, DC (Schaeffer et al., 2014).

Professional musicians show superior long-term memory compared with non-musicians, a new study finds.


Via Alessandro Cerboni
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Dopamine leaves its mark in brain scans

Dopamine leaves its mark in brain scans | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify which areas of the brain are active during specific tasks.
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Damage to brain networks affects stroke recovery

Damage to brain networks affects stroke recovery | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
(Medical Xpress)—Initial results of an innovative study may significantly change how some patients are evaluated after a stroke, according to researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
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Body's bacteria may keep our brains healthy and the blood-brain barrier intact

Body's bacteria may keep our brains healthy and the blood-brain barrier intact | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

The microbes that live in your body outnumber your cells 10 to one. Recent studies suggest these tiny organisms help us digest food and maintain our immune system. Now, researchers have discovered yet another way microbes keep us healthy: They are needed for closing the blood-brain barrier, a molecular fence that shuts out pathogens and molecules that could harm the brain.


The findings suggest that a woman's diet or exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy may influence the development of this barrier. The work could also lead to a better understanding of multiple sclerosis, in which a leaky blood-brain barrier may set the stage for a decline in brain function.


The first evidence that bacteria may help fortify the body’s biological barriers came in 2001. Researchers discovered that microbes in the gut activate genes that code for gap junction proteins, which are critical to building the gut wall. Without these proteins, gut pathogens can enter the bloodstream and cause disease.


In the new study, intestinal biologist Sven Pettersson and his postdoc Viorica Braniste of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm decided to look at the blood-brain barrier, which also has gap junction proteins. They tested how leaky the blood-brain barrier was in developing and adult mice. Some of the rodents were brought up in a sterile environment and thus were germ-free, with no detectable microbes in their bodies. Braniste then injected antibodies—which are too big to get through the blood-brain barrier—into embryos developing within either germ-free moms or moms with the typical microbes, or microbiota.


The studies showed that the blood-brain barrier typically forms a tight seal a little more than 17 days into development. Antibodies infiltrated the brains of all the embryos younger than 17 days, but they continued to enter the brains of embryos of germ-free mothers well beyond day 17, the team reports online today in Science Translational Medicine. Embryos from germ-free mothers also had fewer intact gap junction proteins, and gap junction protein genes in their brains were less active, which may explain the persistent leakiness.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Vloasis's curator insight, November 22, 11:04 AM

So basically, embryos from germ-free mothers did not develop as efficiently, or as well?

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3-D deep-imaging advance likely to drive new biological insights

3-D deep-imaging advance likely to drive new biological insights | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

In a significant technical advance, a team of neuroscientists at The Rockefeller University has devised a fast, inexpensive imaging method for probing the molecular intricacies of large biological samples in three dimensions, an achievement that could have far reaching implications in a wide array of basic biological investigations.

The new method, called iDISCO, optimizes techniques for deep tissue immunolabeling and combines them with recent technological innovations in tissue clearing and light sheet microscopy to achieve unprecedented deep labeling and imaging of molecular structures in the brain, the kidney, and other organs and tissues in experimental settings. A detailed report on iDISCO is published in the November 6 issue of the journal Cell.

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Compassion Definition - GreaterGood.Berkeley.edu

Compassion Definition  - GreaterGood.Berkeley.edu | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Compassion literally means “to suffer together.” Among emotion researchers, it is defined as the feeling that arises when you are confronted with another’s suffering and feel motivated to relieve that suffering.


Compassion is not the same as empathy or altruism, though the concepts are related. While empathy refers more generally to our ability to take the perspective of and feel the emotions of another person, compassion is when those feelings and thoughts include the desire to help. Altruism, in turn, is the kind, selfless behavior often prompted by feelings of compassion, though one can feel compassion without acting on it, and altruism isn’t always motivated by compassion.


Via Edwin Rutsch
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Neural correlates of moral judgments in first- and third-person perspectives: implications for neuroethics and beyond.- PubMed - NCBI

BMC Neurosci. 2014 Apr 1;15:39. doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-15-39. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


BACKGROUND:

There appears to be an inconsistency in experimental paradigms used in fMRI research on moral judgments. As stimuli, moral dilemmas or moral statements/ pictures that induce emotional reactions are usually employed; a main difference between these stimuli is the perspective of the participants reflecting first-person (moral dilemmas) or third-person perspective (moral reactions). The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in order to investigate the neural correlates of moral judgments in either first- or third-person perspective.

RESULTS:

Our results indicate that different neural mechanisms appear to be involved in these perspectives. Although conjunction analysis revealed common activation in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, third person-perspective elicited unique activations in hippocampus and visual cortex. The common activation can be explained by the role the anterior medial prefrontal cortex may play in integrating different information types and also by its involvement in theory of mind. Our results also indicate that the so-called "actor-observer bias" affects moral evaluation in the third-person perspective, possibly due to the involvement of the hippocampus. We suggest two possible ways in which the hippocampus may support the process of moral judgment: by the engagement of episodic memory and its role in understanding the behaviors and emotions of others.

CONCLUSION:

We posit that these findings demonstrate that first or third person perspectives in moral cognition involve distinct neural processes, that are important to different aspects of moral judgments. These results are important to a deepened understanding of neural correlates of moral cognition-the so-called "first tradition" of neuroethics, with the caveat that any results must be interpreted and employed with prudence, so as to heed neuroethics "second tradition" that sustains the pragmatic evaluation of outcomes, capabilities and limitations of neuroscientific techniques and technologies.

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Neuroimaging study begins to map damage caused by anxiety in the brain.

Neuroimaging study begins to map damage caused by anxiety in the brain. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease within a few years, but a new study warns the risk increases significantly if they suffer from...

Via Donald J Bolger
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Do You Want To Know About Your Brain? - New York Times (blog)

Do You Want To Know About Your Brain? - New York Times (blog) | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
New research suggests many people don’t think that much about brain science. Should they?
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Major Brain Pathway Rediscovered after Century Old Confusion and Controversy

Major Brain Pathway Rediscovered after Century Old Confusion and Controversy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers 'rediscover' a neural pathway and provide new analytical tools which allow for easy identification of the brain structure.
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Neuroalgorithmicmedia - How algorithmic bidding in paid search mirrors how the human brain makes decisions.

Neuroalgorithmicmedia - How algorithmic bidding in paid search mirrors how the human brain makes decisions. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The human brain is the most advanced super computer in the universe, with over 100 billion neurons responsible for every conscious and subconscious decision/ action we make. It is hypothesized by some neuroscientists that the decisions we make are nothing more than the rate in which neurons fire within specific parts of our brain. Studies have demonstrated that the decisions we make are, in great part, executed within the orbitofrontal cortex. This is the brain’s decision engine. The decision process is influenced by a risk assessment and a reward assessment. The risk assessment modulated by the amygdala and the reward assessment modulated by the nucleus accumbens. The decision making process in our brains is quite a bit more complicated than the above, but for the most part these are the regions of our brains that modulate and carry out our decisions.

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Cuddlers, Rejoice! Science Proves That Sleeping With Someone Else Is Good For Your Health

Cuddlers, Rejoice! Science Proves That Sleeping With Someone Else Is Good For Your Health | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Basically science is telling us something we already knew: one really is the loneliest number.
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Dominant people can be surprisingly social

Dominant people can be surprisingly social | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
In contrast to the lay stereotype, dominant people prove to be avid social learners, just like dominant individuals in the animal kingdom.
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Bee brains offer insights into how human memories form

Bee brains offer insights into how human memories form | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
(Medical Xpress)—University of Queensland scientists have discovered that genes switch off as memories are being formed, allowing for new connections between nerve cells.
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Stress reaction may be in your dad's DNA, study finds

Stress reaction may be in your dad's DNA, study finds | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Stress in this generation could mean resilience in the next, a new study suggests.
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Johns Hopkins scientists present findings at the Society for Neuroscience meeting | Science Codex

Nanosymposium 18.10 Sat., 3:15 p.m., Walter E. Washington Convention Center, 150A Lindsay Hayes and Akira Sawa A Blood Pressure Hormone Implicated in Psychosis
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Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting Showcases Strides in Exploring the Brain

More than 30,000 brain advocates from academia, industry and media converged on Washington, D.C. this week for the 44th annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN).
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Harming kin to save strangers: further evidence for abnormally utilitarian moral judgments after ventromedial prefrontal damage. - PubMed - NCBI

The ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) has been implicated as a critical neural substrate mediating the influence of emotion on moral reasoning. It has been shown that the vmPFC is especially important for making moral judgments about "high-conflict" moral dilemmas involving direct personal actions, that is, scenarios that pit compelling utilitarian considerations of aggregate welfare against the highly emotionally aversive act of directly causing harm to others [Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., et al. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911, 2007]. The current study was designed to elucidate further the role of the vmPFC in high-conflict moral judgments, including those that involve indirect personal actions, such as indirectly causing harm to one's kin to save a group of strangers. We found that patients with vmPFC lesions were more likely than brain-damaged and healthy comparison participants to endorse utilitarian outcomes on high-conflict dilemmas regardless of whether the dilemmas (1) entailed direct versus indirect personal harms and (2) were presented from the Self versus Other perspective. In addition, all groups were more likely to endorse utilitarian outcomes in the Other perspective as compared with the Self perspective. These results provide important extensions of previous work, and the findings align with the proposal that the vmPFC is critical for reasoning about moral dilemmas in which anticipating the social-emotional consequences of an action (e.g., guilt or remorse) is crucial for normal moral judgments [Greene, J. D. Why are VMPFC patients more utilitarian?: A dual-process theory of moral judgment explains. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 322-323, 2007; Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., et al. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgments. Nature, 446, 908-911, 2007].


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First known molecular signalling control for neurogenesis identified.

First known molecular signalling control for neurogenesis identified. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have succeeded in explaining how stem cells in the brain change to allow one type of stem cell to produce different cell types at different stages. In an openso...

Via Donald J Bolger
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Meet the Two Scientists Who Implanted a False Memory Into a Mouse

Meet the Two Scientists Who Implanted a False Memory Into a Mouse | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The prospect of tinkering precisely with memory has tantalized scientists for years. “A lot of people had been thinking along these lines,” says Sheena Josselyn, a senior neuroscientist at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, who studies the cellular underpinnings of memory, “but they never dreamed that these experiments would actually work. No one ever thought that you could actually, really do this.”

Via Deborah McNelis
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Growth Factor Regenerates Damaged Nerves Without Sprouting New Blood Vessels

Growth Factor Regenerates Damaged Nerves Without Sprouting New Blood Vessels | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
VEGF-B can regenerate damaged peripheral nerves without causing new blood vessels to grow, a new study reports.
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Tosh's curator insight, November 18, 4:58 AM

Joint replacement surgery is removing a damaged joint and replace with new one.Replacing a joint can relieve pain and help to you move and feel better.Some of symptoms are:
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