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Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation

Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this ‘social heuristics hypothesis’ by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

 


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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Sensorimotor Psychotherapy: Interventions for Trauma and Attachment – Review

Sensorimotor Psychotherapy: Interventions for Trauma and Attachment – Review | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Sensorimotor Psychotherapy: Interventions for Trauma an […]
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Daniel Goleman: The Benefits of Good Emotional Hygiene: three kinds of empathy.

Daniel Goleman: The Benefits of Good Emotional Hygiene: three kinds of empathy. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

In my model there are four parts: self-awareness, self-management, empathy, and social skills. When it comes to ethics, the critical action involves empathy. 


There are three kinds, and which ones you develop make all the difference.


Cognitive empathy lets you understand how the other person thinks - their mental models for perceiving the world, the language they use. This lets you communicate effectively with them - but it's also the kind of empathy that a con man or sociopath uses to manipulate others to their own selfish ends.

The second variety, emotional empathy, lets you feel with the other person. Social neuroscience tells us that the brain's interpersonal wiring lights up in our own circuitry what matches the activity in the other person's brain - if she's in pain or distress, we feel this immediately in our own pathways for those feelings. This brain-to-brain link creates rapport and instant understanding....


 Empathic concern snuffs out selfishness.


Daniel Goleman 

Image https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hygiene 


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Ion channel mechanics yield insights into optogenetics experiments

Optogenetics techniques, which allow scientists to map and control nerve cells using light stimulation, are being used to study neural circuits in the brain with unprecedented precision.
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How to rule a gene galaxy: A lesson from developing neurons

How to rule a gene galaxy: A lesson from developing neurons | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The human organism contains hundreds of distinct cell types that often differ from their neighbours in shape and function. To acquire and maintain its characteristic features, each cell type must express a unique subset of genes.
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A Life-Changing, True Story Reveals the Secret to Success

A Life-Changing, True Story Reveals the Secret to Success | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The amazing story of Phineas Gage sheds light on how your brain achieves.

Via Mark E. Deschaine, PhD
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One Small Thing That Makes You More Trustworthy, Attractive, and Intelligent

One Small Thing That Makes You More Trustworthy, Attractive, and Intelligent | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A recent study by French scientists shows there’s one simple thing we can do to increase our apparent trustworthiness. And, as a bonus, we’ll seem more attractive and intelligent, too.
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Study finds antidepressants affect morality and decision-making

Study finds antidepressants affect morality and decision-making | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Healthy people who are given commonly prescribed mood-altering drugs see significant changes in the degree to which they are willing to tolerate harm against themselves and others, according to a study published Thursday.
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Brain folding related to surface area and thickness, not number of neurons

Brain folding related to surface area and thickness, not number of neurons | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
(Medical Xpress)—A pair of researchers with Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro has found that the degree of folding of mammalian brains follows a simple mathematical relationship.
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Imaging the earliest Old World monkey brain {Duke University Research}

The brain hidden inside the oldest known Old World monkey skull has been visualized for the first time. The ancient monkey, known as Victoriapithecus, first ...
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Making waves with groundbreaking brain research

Making waves with groundbreaking brain research | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
New research by Jason Gallivan and Randy Flanagan suggests that when deciding which of several possible actions to perform, the human brain plans multiple actions simultaneously prior to selecting one of them to execute.
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Research reveals how the human brain might reconstruct past events

Research reveals how the human brain might reconstruct past events | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
When remembering something from our past, we often vividly re-experience the whole episode in which it occurred. New UCL research funded by the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust has now revealed how this might happen in the brain.
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Hearing words, writing sounds: examining the author's brain

Hearing words, writing sounds: examining the author's brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Kamila Shamsie always revises her work by reading aloud, but AS Byatt looks for the rhythms of the page. Richard Lea goes in search of what happens in the brain when we write and read fiction

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Cortisol Reinforces Traumatic Memories

Cortisol Reinforces Traumatic Memories | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
According to a new study, cortisol strengthens traumatic memories, both when the memory is formed and when it is reconsolidated.

 

"It had been shown that the stress hormone cortisol has a strengthening impact on the consolidation of memories, i.e. the several-hour process in the course of which a memory is formed immediately after the experience. Image is for illustrative purposes only. Image credit: Ben Mills."


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Thick psychophysiology for empathic design Elliott Bruce Hedma

Thick psychophysiology for empathic design Elliott Bruce Hedma | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Over the course of six years, I brought ambulatory psychophysiology into a variety of industries as a means of conducting design research. I looked at the stress of children in occupational therapy, the frustration of playing Hasbro board games, the thrill of driving a Google Self Driving Car, the confidence of shopping at Best Buy and Lowes, the excitement of playing LEGO Technic for the first time, the tension of watching one's first symphony, and the anxiety of talking about birth control. Working with stake holders within these settings I developed "Thick Psychophysiology," defined by four characteristics:


1. Psychophysiological data is quantitatively measured,

2. The research answers explorative, open ended questions,

3. The research measures external context, and 4. The research measures internal context.


By combining ethnographic methods with psychophysiology, researchers can address the challenges of specificity that ambulatory, explorative research produces. Two case studies of preliminary design research are provided about the LEGO Group and the New World Symphony, showcasing how thick psychophysiology can help uncover customer's unarticulated needs.


Once needs are uncovered, the challenge is how to motivate an organization to address those needs


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Structure at the centre of the brain reveals the architecture of empathy

Structure at the centre of the brain reveals the architecture of empathy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
This is unlike the research conducted by the Monash neuroscientists who discovered the correlation between brain structure and empathy.


They have hypothesised that we are able to alter this part of our brain, making it bigger or smaller. It is the first time this has been speculated, as the school of thought remains that brain structures have always been static and unchangeable from birth (such as its size and structural material called soma).

Eamon Brown


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Uncovering the mechanism of our oldest anesthetic

Researchers have now revealed brainwave changes in patients receiving nitrous oxide, or "laughing gas." Nitrous oxide, commonly known as "laughing gas," has been used in anesthesiology practice since the 1800s, but the way it works to create...
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Reducing stroke damage may be next for OCT technology widely used in vision healthcare

Reducing stroke damage may be next for OCT technology widely used in vision healthcare | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
An optical technology already widely used in ophthalmology and other medical fields holds potential to reveal how blood flows in the brain during stroke, providing information that could someday guide new treatments and reduce stroke-induced damage...
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Scientists observe altruism and selfishness in brain activity

Scientists observe altruism and selfishness in brain activity | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Prosocial behavior is fundamental to the sustainability of society, enabling people to work in groups, to create larger and more successful social structures, and to contribute to the common welfare. However, despite the importance of altruism, science has only a limited understanding of how prosocial behaviors and selfish behaviors are represented in the brain. Additionally, individual transition between self-benefiting behavior and altruistic behavior is not well understood.

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Memory Specificity and Mindfulness Jointly Moderate the Effect of Reflective Pondering on Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With a History of Recurrent Depression

Memory Specificity and Mindfulness Jointly Moderate the Effect of Reflective Pondering on Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With a History of Recurrent Depression | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

(Available in free full text) In previously depressed individuals, reflective thinking may easily get derailed and lead to detrimental effects. This study investigated the conditions in which such thinking is, or is not, adaptive. Levels of mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity were assessed as potential moderators of the relationship between reflective thinking and depressive symptoms. Two hundred seventy-four individuals with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, rumination—including subscales for reflection and brooding—and mindfulness, as well as an autobiographical memory task to assess memory specificity. In those low in both mindfulness and memory specificity, higher levels of reflection were related to more depressive symptoms, whereas in all other groups higher levels of reflection were related to fewer depressive symptoms. The results demonstrate that the relation between reflective pondering and depressive symptoms varies depending on individual state or trait factors. In previously depressed individuals, the cognitive problem-solving aspect of reflection may be easily hampered when tendencies toward unspecific processing are increased, and awareness of mental processes such as self-judgment and reactivity is decreased.


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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, July 4, 7:06 PM

Very interesting ...

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Old World monkey had tiny, complex brain

Old World monkey had tiny, complex brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The brain hidden inside the oldest known Old World monkey skull has been visualized for the first time. The creature's tiny but remarkably wrinkled brain supports the idea that brain complexity can evolve before brain size in the primate family tree.
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Survival of the fittest: How brain tumors adapt through complex ecosystems

Survival of the fittest: How brain tumors adapt through complex ecosystems | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Despite advances in medical technology and a constantly evolving understanding of the mechanisms of cancer progression, researchers and clinicians are faced with a litany of challenges along the road to finding a cure for the most aggressive forms...
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Hope for Alzheimer's treatment as researchers find licensed drugs halt brain degeneration

Hope for Alzheimer's treatment as researchers find licensed drugs halt brain degeneration | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Studies on mice show two existing medicines could help restore protein production in brain and prevent memory loss, speeding up search for cure
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Researchers show how our sense of smell evolved, including in cave men

Researchers show how our sense of smell evolved, including in cave men | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A group of scientists led by Dr Kara Hoover of the University of Alaska Fairbanks and including Professor Matthew Cobb of The University of Manchester, has studied how our sense of smell has evolved, and has even reconstructed how a long-extinct...
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Commonly prescribed drugs affect decisions to harm oneself and others

Commonly prescribed drugs affect decisions to harm oneself and others | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Healthy people given the serotonin-enhancing antidepressant citalopram were willing to pay almost twice as much to prevent harm to themselves or others than those given placebo drugs in a moral decision-making experiment at UCL.
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Long-Term Memories Are Maintained by Prion-Like Proteins

Long-Term Memories Are Maintained by Prion-Like Proteins | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Research from Eric Kandel’s lab has uncovered further evidence of a system in the brain that persistently maintains memories for long periods of time.

 

"Memories are stored for the long-term with the help of prion-like proteins called CPEB. CPEB prions aggregate and maintain synapses that recorded the memory [“spines” in the bottom image]. When CPEB prions are not present or are inactivated, the synapses collapse and the memory fades [see upper image]."


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