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Toward a clearer diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome | Science Codex

Toward a clearer diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome | Science Codex | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, in collaboration with Osaka City University and Kansai University of Welfare Sciences, have used functional PET imaging to show that levels of neuroinflammation, or inflammation of the
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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Energy for Visual Processing Provided by Microtubules in Retinal Neurons

Researchers have identified a thick band of microtubules within retinal neurons which help provide the energy required for visual processing.
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As a music therapist I can give people back the power to communicate

As a music therapist I can give people back the power to communicate | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Regular sessions can help reduce anxiety among people with mental health conditions such as depression and dementia On a weekday, it’s normally an early start; responding to urgent emails before heading to my office at the music therapy research...

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Brain Cells Protected From Age Damage With Help of Common Protein

MACKS, a common protein, could help to protect the brain from age related damage.
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Alzheimer’s disease works differently in patients with and without Down syndrome

Alzheimer’s disease works differently in patients with and without Down syndrome | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers at the University of Kentucky’s Sanders-Brown Center on Aging have completed a study that revealed differences in the way brain inflammation — considered a key component of AD– is expressed in different subsets of patients, in...
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Brain scan can predict who responds best to certain treatment for OCD

Brain scan can predict who responds best to certain treatment for OCD | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Tens of millions of Americans — an estimated 1 to 2 percent of the population — will suffer at some point in their lifetimes from obsessive-compulsive disorder, a disorder characterized by recurrent, intrusive, and disturbing thoughts (obsessions),...
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New Brain Stimulation Device Shows Promise for Depression

New Brain Stimulation Device Shows Promise for Depression | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
People who suffer from major depressive disorder (MDD) may experience relief through synchronized transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS) therapy, according to a new study that tested the safety and efficacy of low-field magnetic stimulation using the new NEST® device on adult patients with MDD.

The findings are published in the Elsevier journal Brain Stimulation.

For the study, more than 200 participants were evaluated from 17 leading academic and private psychiatric institutions in the United States; enrollment included both treatment naïve and treatment-resistant patients as previous exposure to antidepressant medication was not a requirement for inclusion into the trial.

“The study found sTMS therapy to be significantly more effective than sham when administered as intended, supporting the hypothesis that low-field magnetic stimulation improves depressive symptoms,” said principal investigator Andrew Leuchter, M.D., professor of Psychiatry in the Semel Institute at University of California, Los Angeles.

“Additional analyses found subjects who failed to benefit from or tolerate prior antidepressant treatment in the current episode were most likely to demonstrate significant benefit from sTMS therapy compared to sham.”

When delivered accurately and consistently, sTMS therapy was successful in relieving depression symptoms in 34.2 percent of participants who had not responded to drug treatment, compared to 8.3 percent of those treated with an inactive device.

In addition, NEST® appeared safe and tolerable, with no significant differences seen between active and sham treatment in the rate or severity of negative events. There were no device-related serious adverse events in this study.

“These promising results indicate that sTMS is a promising novel technology for the treatment of depression,” said co-author Mark S. George, M.D., Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry, Radiology and Neurology at the Medical University of South Carolina, and the Editor-in-Chief of Brain Stimulation.

“This technology is revolutionary in two ways over the current FDA-approved forms of TMS. First, this device tunes the stimulation to the patient’s own brain rhythms. By stimulating at each patient’s individual resonant frequency, sTMS may be able to achieve therapeutic success using lower energy. Second, this device is safe, easy to use, and portable, which would allow use in a wide variety of treatment settings.
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Digital Atlas of Aging Brain Could Aid Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

A new digital map of the aging brain could help with the diagnosis of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases, researchers report.
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Mirror Neurons: Seminar on Architecture and Empathy

Empathy in Architecture – Emotion and Embodied Simulation in Design” on 21 April 2015 in Helsinki. The third jubilee seminar organized by the Alvar Aalto Academy, the Asko Foundation and the Tapani Wirkkala and Rut Bryk Foundation.

Lectures by:
Juhani Pallasmaa http://youtube.com/watch?v=USyVCEHOJqM


Harry Mallgrave http://youtube.com/watch?v=8JlszI84mkM


Sarah Robinson http://youtube.com/watch?v=kyJgO9FTDqs


Vittorio Gallese http://youtube.com/watch?v=jOGTuJNr_vs


Via Edwin Rutsch
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Nanometric sensor designed to detect herbicides can help diagnose multiple sclerosis

Nanometric sensor designed to detect herbicides can help diagnose multiple sclerosis | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The early diagnosis of certain types of cancer, as well as nervous system diseases such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, may soon be facilitated by the use of a nanometric sensor capable of identifying biomarkers of these...
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Brain Areas Responsible for Working Memory are Changing All the Time

Brain Areas Responsible for Working Memory are Changing All the Time | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
According to a new study, our understanding of how a key part of our brain works could well be wrong.

Via Donald J Bolger
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High Fat and Sugar Diets May Lead to Loss of Cognitive Flexibility

A new study reports high fat and high sugar diets alter gut bacteria and cause changes in cognitive flexibility, or the power to adapt to changes in situations.
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Download Biological Psychology, 7th Edition PDF

Download Biological Psychology, 7th Edition PDF PDF Download Link:http://bit.ly/1CkBdaK.
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Smile and the World Smiles With You

According to a new study, smiling changes the way our brains process other people's emotions.
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Scientists identify a calcium channel essential for deep sleep

Scientists identify a calcium channel essential for deep sleep | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Sleep seems simple enough, a state of rest and restoration that almost every vertebrate creature must enter regularly in order to survive.
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Methadone linked to initial QTc prolongation in chronic pain

Methadone linked to initial QTc prolongation in chronic pain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
(HealthDay)—For patients with chronic pain, methadone is associated with a small, but nonsignificant, initial increase in QTc, which does not persist, according to a study published in the June issue of Pain Medicine.
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Long-acting antipsychotic medication may improve treatment for schizophrenia

Long-acting antipsychotic medication may improve treatment for schizophrenia | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Schizophrenia, which affects 2 million to 3 million people in the U.S., causes hallucinations, delusions and disorganization.
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Are your emotional responses normal or abnormal?

Are your emotional responses normal or abnormal? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
We all feel emotion, we all get upset, can feel low, angry and overjoyed, but when do these emotional responses become something of a medical concern? When are these feelings inappropriate, too intense, or lasting too long?
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Therapy Affects the Brain of People with Tourette Syndrome

Therapy Affects the Brain of People with Tourette Syndrome | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
In addition to its effect on chronic tics, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can change the brain function of people with Tourette syndrome. This is what is revealed in a study by researchers at the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal (CIUSSS de l'Est-de-l'Île-de-Montréal) and the University of Montreal, the results of which will be presented at the First World Congress on Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders, to be held in London from June 24 to 26.
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder mainly characterized by motor and vocal tics in affected people. A tic is generally defined as a semi-voluntary movement or vocalization with no specific purpose. "There is still no definitive explanation of the causes of this syndrome, but we know that tics are related to an impaired communication between the supplementary motor area – a region of the cerebral cortex – and deeper areas called the basal ganglia,” said Simon Morand-Beaulieu, a student at the Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal and the University of Montreal’s Department of Neuroscience.

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Artificial Neurons Can Communicate in the Same Way as Human Neurons

Researchers create a fully functional neuron using organic bioelectronics. The artificial neuron is able to mimic the function of human neurons.
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review
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Effects of a Balanced Translocation between Chromosomes 1 and 11 Disrupting the DISC1 Locus on White Matter Integrity

Effects of a Balanced Translocation between Chromosomes 1 and 11 Disrupting the DISC1 Locus on White Matter Integrity | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
by Heather C. Whalley, Rali Dimitrova, Emma Sprooten, Maria R. Dauvermann, Liana Romaniuk, Barbara Duff, Andrew R. Watson, Bill Moorhead, Mark Bastin, Scott I. Semple, Stephen Giles, Jeremy Hall, Pippa Thomson, Neil Roberts, Zoe A.

 

AbstractObjective


Individuals carrying rare, but biologically informative genetic variants provide a unique opportunity to model major mental illness and inform understanding of disease mechanisms. The rarity of such variations means that their study involves small group numbers, however they are amongst the strongest known genetic risk factors for major mental illness and are likely to have large neural effects. DISC1 (Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1) is a gene containing one such risk variant, identified in a single Scottish family through its disruption by a balanced translocation of chromosomes 1 and 11; t(1;11) (q42.1;q14.3).

Method


Within the original pedigree, we examined the effects of the t(1;11) translocation on white matter integrity, measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). This included family members with (n = 7) and without (n = 13) the translocation, along with a clinical control sample of patients with psychosis (n = 34), and a group of healthy controls (n = 33).

Results


We report decreased white matter integrity in five clusters in the genu of the corpus callosum, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, acoustic radiation and fornix. Analysis of the mixed psychosis group also demonstrated decreased white matter integrity in the above regions. FA values within the corpus callosum correlated significantly with positive psychotic symptom severity.

Conclusions


We demonstrate that the t(1;11) translocation is associated with reduced white matter integrity in frontal commissural and association fibre tracts. These findings overlap with those shown in affected patients with psychosis and in DISC1 animal models and highlight the value of rare but biologically informative mutations in modeling psychosis.


Via Krishan Maggon
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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, June 24, 2:01 AM

Citation: Whalley HC, Dimitrova R, Sprooten E, Dauvermann MR, Romaniuk L, Duff B, et al. (2015) Effects of a Balanced Translocation between Chromosomes 1 and 11 Disrupting the DISC1 Locus on White Matter Integrity. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0130900. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130900

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Nanometric sensor designed to detect herbicides can help diagnose multiple sclerosis

Nanometric sensor designed to detect herbicides can help diagnose multiple sclerosis | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The early diagnosis of certain types of cancer, as well as nervous system diseases such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, may soon be facilitated by the use of a nanometric sensor capable of identifying biomarkers of these...
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How can health professionals enhance cognitive health in older adults?

How can health professionals enhance cognitive health in older adults? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
An expert panel convened by the Institute of Medicine clarified the cognitive aging process by making a distinction from Alzheimer disease and related dementias, and provided recommendations to enhance cognitive health in older adults.
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To Ease Pain, Reach For Your Playlist

To Ease Pain, Reach For Your Playlist | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Music can energize, soothe or relax us. And it can also help reduce pain. Researchers found that listening to a favorite song or story helped children manage pain after major surgery.

Via Sandeep Gautam
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Sandeep Gautam's curator insight, June 23, 5:55 AM

Music soothes not only the soul, but also the body!!

Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Alzheimer's Disease R&D Review
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The Competitive Influences of Perceptual Load and Working Memory Guidance on Selective Attention

The Competitive Influences of Perceptual Load and Working Memory Guidance on Selective Attention | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

by Jinfeng Tan, Yuanfang Zhao, Lijun Wang, Xia Tian, Yan Cui, Qian Yang, Weigang Pan, Xiaoyue Zhao, Antao Chen 

 

Abstract


The perceptual load theory in selective attention literature proposes that the interference from task-irrelevant distractor is eliminated when perceptual capacity is fully consumed by task-relevant information. However, the biased competition model suggests that the contents of working memory (WM) can guide attentional selection automatically, even when this guidance is detrimental to visual search. An intriguing but unsolved question is what will happen when selective attention is influenced by both perceptual load and WM guidance. To study this issue, behavioral performances and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded when participants were presented with a cue to either identify or hold in memory and had to perform a visual search task subsequently, under conditions of low or high perceptual load. Behavioural data showed that high perceptual load eliminated the attentional capture by WM. The ERP results revealed an obvious WM guidance effect in P1 component with invalid trials eliciting larger P1 than neutral trials, regardless of the level of perceptual load. The interaction between perceptual load and WM guidance was significant for the posterior N1 component. The memory guidance effect on N1 was eliminated by high perceptual load. Standardized Low Resolution Electrical Tomography Analysis (sLORETA) showed that the WM guidance effect and the perceptual load effect on attention can be localized into the occipital area and parietal lobe, respectively. Merely identifying the cue produced no effect on the P1 or N1 component. These results suggest that in selective attention, the information held in WM could capture attention at the early stage of visual processing in the occipital cortex. Interestingly, this initial capture of attention by WM could be modulated by the level of perceptual load and the parietal lobe mediates target selection at the discrimination stage.


Via Krishan Maggon
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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, June 23, 4:28 AM

Citation: Tan J, Zhao Y, Wang L, Tian X, Cui Y, Yang Q, et al. (2015) The Competitive Influences of Perceptual Load and Working Memory Guidance on Selective Attention. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0129533. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129533