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Validating Maps of the Brain’s Resting State

Validating Maps of the Brain’s Resting State | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A new study examines the relationship of fMRI maps of the brain's resting state with the brain's underlying neurological and anatomical structure.
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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Decisions are reached in the brain by the same method used to crack the Nazi Enigma code

Decisions are reached in the brain by the same method used to crack the Nazi Enigma code | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The highlight of the award winning film, "The Imitation Game", is when Alan Turing and colleagues devise an ingenious statistical method that eventually helped decipher the Nazis' Enigma code.
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Morality is the key to personal identity

Morality is the key to personal identity | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

We tend to think that our memories determine our identity, but it’s moral character that really makes us who we are ... ‘Know thyself’ is a flimsy bargain-basement platitude, endlessly recycled but maddeningly empty. It skates the very existential question it pretends to address, the question that obsesses us: what is it to know oneself? The lesson of the identity detector is this: when we dig deep, beneath our memory traces and career ambitions and favourite authors and small talk, we find a constellation of moral capacities. This is what we should cultivate and burnish, if we want people to know who we really are.


Via Dr James Hawkins
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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, January 15, 1:05 AM

Very interesting article by psychologist Nina Strohminger

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Why You Should Marry An Emotionally Complex Man

Why You Should Marry An Emotionally Complex Man | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Trust us ladies — we’re worth the hassle.
_____
by Serge Bielanko for YourTango
Of all the types of guys you might ever end up with in this world, you could do a lot worse that the emotionally complex one.
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Hard Feelings: Science’s Struggle to Define Emotions

Hard Feelings: Science’s Struggle to Define Emotions | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
When Paul Ekman was a grad student in the 1950s, psychologists were mostly ignoring emotions. Most psychology research at the time was focused on behaviorism—classical conditioning and the like.
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Newborn neurons in the adult brain may help us adapt to the environment

Newborn neurons in the adult brain may help us adapt to the environment | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The discovery that the human brain continues to produce new neurons in adulthood challenged a major dogma in the field of neuroscience, but the role of these neurons in behavior and cognition is still not clear.
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New growth factor indicates possible regenerative effects in Parkinson’s disease

New growth factor indicates possible regenerative effects in Parkinson’s disease | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers have long sought treatments that can slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease.
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Teaching the Nervous System to Forget Chronic Pain — NOVA Next | PBS

Teaching the Nervous System to Forget Chronic Pain — NOVA Next | PBS | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
To the nervous system, memories and chronic pain are strikingly similar. Can we use the same neurochemical technique to erase them both?
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Science behind commonly used anti-depressants appears to be backwards, researchers say

Science behind commonly used anti-depressants appears to be backwards, researchers say | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The science behind many anti-depressant medications appears to be backwards, say the authors of a paper that challenges the prevailing ideas about the nature of depression and some of the world’s most commonly prescribed medications.

Via Donald J Bolger
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The real virtue of virtual empathy

The real virtue of virtual empathy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

recent student project at the University of Southern California is using virtual war in an unfamiliar way.  Rather than glory in combat and explosions, like many blockbuster video games, this program aims to use an immersive recreation of the Syrian civil war to educate players about the experience of being in the middle of such a terrible conflict.


We often think of video games as tools for imaginary killing, not imaginary caring. The reality is, however, that games can help us build empathy.


by Kevin Schut


Via Edwin Rutsch
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The Placebo Problem - BBC Radio 4

The Placebo Problem - BBC Radio 4 | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Geoff Watts explores the phenomenon of the nocebo effect and its implications for medicine

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Gerald Carey's curator insight, February 21, 4:49 PM

A podcast which summarises the key points about the nocebo effect, the placebo effect's darker twin.

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Can Personality Improve after a Stroke?

Can Personality Improve after a Stroke? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Strokes are areas of damage in the brain caused by blocked blood vessels or bleeding. They can set off a host of problems, including paralysis or impaired vision. Cognitive and behavioral changes after stroke are common yet often overlooked because the effects may be subtle.

Via iPamba
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Understanding Anorexia

Stacey C. Cahn, PhD, an associate professor of psychology at Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, discusses triggers, treatments and the prevalence of anorexia, the deadliest eating disorder.

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New Treatment For Muscle Cramps And Neuromuscular Disorder Spasms May Lower Intensity By 3 Times

Neuromuscular disorder patients and nighttime leg cramp sufferers may soon find relief with a new treatment.
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Effect of kindness-based meditation on health and well-being: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: Kindness-based meditation (KBM) is a rubric covering meditation techniques developed to elicit kindness in a conscious way. Some techniques, for example, loving-kindness meditation and compassion meditation, have been included in programs aimed at improving health and well-being. Our aim was to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence available from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of KBM on health and well-being against passive and active control groups in patients and the general population. METHOD: Searches were completed in March 2013. Two reviewers applied predetermined eligibility criteria (RCTs, peer-reviewed publications, theses or conference proceedings, adult participants, KBM interventions) and extracted the data. Meta-analyses used random-effects models. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included. KBM was moderately effective in decreasing self-reported depression (standard mean difference [Hedges's g] = -0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.08, -0.14]) and increasing mindfulness (Hedges's g = 0.63, 95% CI [0.22, 1.05]), compassion (Hedges's g = 0.61, 95% CI [0.24, 0.99]) and self-compassion (Hedges's g = 0.45, 95% CI [0.15, 0.75]) against passive controls. Positive emotions were increased (Hedges's g = 0.42, 95% CI [0.10, 0.75]) against progressive relaxation. Exposure to KBM may initially be challenging for some people. RESULTS were inconclusive for some outcomes, in particular against active controls. The methodological quality of the reports was low to moderate. RESULTS suffered from imprecision due to wide CIs deriving from small studies. CONCLUSIONS: KBM showed evidence of benefits for the health of individuals and communities through its effects on well-being and social interaction. Further research including well-conducted large RCTs is warranted. 


Via Dr James Hawkins
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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, December 31, 2014 5:01 AM

Encouraging but we do need better research.

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Brief Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mental State Attribution and Empathizing

Brief Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mental State Attribution and Empathizing | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

(Free full text available)The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind) is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people’s mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning.


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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, February 24, 1:29 AM

Great stuff ... short "breathing space" mindfulness exercises can be useful in so many ways ... including between clients as a psychotherapist, at the start of groups, and so on.

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Is an Optimistic Mind Associated with a Healthy Heart?

Is an Optimistic Mind Associated with a Healthy Heart? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
“Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.” — World Health Organization (1946) Many poets,...
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Big-brained mice engineered using human DNA

Big-brained mice engineered using human DNA | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
In the quest to understand what are the crucial differences between human and chimpanzee brains, scientists have isolated a stretch of DNA, once thought to be “junk”, near a gene that regulates brain development in mice.
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Deconstructing mental illness through ultradian rhythms

Deconstructing mental illness through ultradian rhythms | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Might living a structured life with regularly established meal times and early bedtimes lead to a better life and perhaps even prevent the onset of mental illness?
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Your Last Moments May Be Imprinted on Your Brain After Death — NOVA Next | PBS

Your Last Moments May Be Imprinted on Your Brain After Death — NOVA Next | PBS | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Studies of mouse brains after they die reveal the chemical traces of their last encounters.
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Pain Really Is All In Your Head And Emotion Controls Intensity

Pain Really Is All In Your Head And Emotion Controls Intensity | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Humiliation, fear and unpredictability all turn up the volume on pain, research shows. And meditation can turn down pain's intensity, according to scientists who are starting to figure out why.
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Deric's MindBlog: Training the mind not to wander with brain feedback.

Deric's MindBlog: Training the mind not to wander with brain feedback. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
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Empathy, Autonomy and Intimacy - Dr. Rick Hanson

Empathy, Autonomy and Intimacy - Dr. Rick Hanson | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
As we turn our awareness to the shift from “me” to “we,” we are faced with the joys and sorrows of maintaining healthy relationships. Supported by both Buddhism and Western psychology, the keys to healthy relationships include not only empathy and compassion, but also the assertive strength and boundaries that allow us to keep our heart open. These states of mind are based on underlying states of your brain. The emerging integration of modern neuroscience and ancient contemplative wisdom offers increasingly skillful means for activating those brain states--and thus for cultivating a caring heart, effective communication, balance during upsets and more fulfilling relationships.

Via Edwin Rutsch
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CCARE Science of Compassion 2014: Advances in Biology and the Neuroscience of Compassion

Compassion Research Interventions and Applications Moderator: Emiliana Simon-Thomas, PhD Stephanie Brown, PhD, A Biological Model of Bowlby's "Caregiving Sys...
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Why Emotions Matter In Today's Leadership

Why Emotions Matter In Today's Leadership | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Learn what the latest neuroscience studies reveal about the importance of emotions to successful leadership in today's organizations.

Via donhornsby, Roger Francis, Lynnette Van Dyke
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donhornsby's curator insight, February 18, 4:50 PM

Our emotions not only influence what our brain focuses on, but it can also completely change how we remember details. This is an important key for all leaders to be mindful in their roles.

 

(From the article): Ultimately, what this comes down to and what the various studies from the neuroscience field help us to better appreciate is that our leadership is not defined by us, but through the memories and experiences of those we lead.

And this brings us back to the fundamental truth of succeeding at leadership today – that it’s not about serving our own wants and needs, but about how we can help those under our care to attain that level of success and fulfillment that fuels their drive to do better and to be better going forward.

Amy Melendez's curator insight, February 19, 12:28 AM

From the article:

These findings also cement the truth of why the command-and-control style of leadership is no longer effective given how we can’t lean on our positional authority to assume our perspective and memories are correct [Share on Twitter].

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Could melatonin drug treat neuropathic pain? - Futurity

Could melatonin drug treat neuropathic pain? - Futurity | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Drugs that target a specific melatonin receptor appear to relieve chronic pain that results from nerve damage.

This condition, known as neuropathic pain, is often severe and can be permanent. It develops after nerve damage from conditions such as shingles, injury, amputation, autoimmune inflammation, and cancer.

Melatonin, a neurohormone present in mammals, acts on the brain by activating two receptors called MT1 and MT2. Those receptors are responsible for regulating several functions, including sleep, depression, anxiety, and circadian rhythms.

A team led by Gabriella Gobbi, associate professor of psychiatry at McGill University, demonstrated that a drug called UCM924, which targets the MT2 receptors, relieves chronic pain in animal models. The team also identified the drug’s mechanism in the brain.

The drug is able to switch off the neurons that trigger pain and switch on the ones that turn off pain by activating the MT2 receptors in the periaqueductal grey (a brain area controlling pain). The findings are reported in the February issue of the journal PAIN.

Via iPamba
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