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Experts in emotion: Yale University

The EIE Series provides a unique opportunity to explore the mysteries of human emotion guided by some of the world's foremost experts on the subject, ranging from distinguished academics to leading figures behind social media services like Facebook. In addition to tackling central questions such as what emotions are, why we have them, and how our understanding of them can lead to happier and healthier lives. You'll also hear first-hand about what first led these key players to study emotion and what they see as the most exciting frontiers ahead.

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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Study reveals brain network responsible for cognitive changes in multiple sclerosis

Study reveals brain network responsible for cognitive changes in multiple sclerosis | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
An estimated 2.3 million individuals are living with multiple sclerosis (MS) worldwide. Approximately half of all individuals with MS experience changes in cognition such as impaired concentration, attention, memory, and judgment.
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Researchers find the organization of the human brain to be nearly ideal

Researchers find the organization of the human brain to be nearly ideal | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Have you ever wondered why the human brain evolved the way it did?
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Neural Circuit Responsible for Detecting Taste Pheromone in Fruit Fly Identified

According to a new study, researchers have identified the neural circuit in the brain of fruit flies which is responsible for detecting a taste pheromone.
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Strong Link Found Between Dementia, Common Anticholinergic Drugs

Strong Link Found Between Dementia, Common Anticholinergic Drugs | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
There is a strong and possibly irreversible link between Alzheimer’s disease and many commonly used medications for insomnia, allergies, and depression, according to a large recent JAMA Internal Medicine study.

Three years of taking either daily Benadryl, Advil PM, Tylenol PM, or Motrin PM, for example, is associated with about a ten percentage point increase in the probability of experiencing dementia or Alzheimer's compared to no use. This risk association is "significant," Malaz Boustani, M.D., M.P.H., told Drug Discovery & Development.

Boustani, director of the Aging Brain Care Program at Eskenazi Health in Indianapolis, Indiana, was not involved in the study. But he has done smaller scale work making similar findings. This was the largest study ever, and utilized the most rigorous standards ever, he said. “Methodologically, this is the best you can get; it doesn’t get better than this. This has established a significant link between anticholinergic drugs and Alzheimer’s." Very few other phenomena have been found to possess such a strong potential link. “It’s rare,” he said.

The new study
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Thick psychophysiology for empathic design Elliott Bruce Hedma

Thick psychophysiology for empathic design Elliott Bruce Hedma | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Over the course of six years, I brought ambulatory psychophysiology into a variety of industries as a means of conducting design research. I looked at the stress of children in occupational therapy, the frustration of playing Hasbro board games, the thrill of driving a Google Self Driving Car, the confidence of shopping at Best Buy and Lowes, the excitement of playing LEGO Technic for the first time, the tension of watching one's first symphony, and the anxiety of talking about birth control. Working with stake holders within these settings I developed "Thick Psychophysiology," defined by four characteristics:


1. Psychophysiological data is quantitatively measured,

2. The research answers explorative, open ended questions,

3. The research measures external context, and 4. The research measures internal context.


By combining ethnographic methods with psychophysiology, researchers can address the challenges of specificity that ambulatory, explorative research produces. Two case studies of preliminary design research are provided about the LEGO Group and the New World Symphony, showcasing how thick psychophysiology can help uncover customer's unarticulated needs.


Once needs are uncovered, the challenge is how to motivate an organization to address those needs


Via Edwin Rutsch
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Structure at the centre of the brain reveals the architecture of empathy

Structure at the centre of the brain reveals the architecture of empathy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
This is unlike the research conducted by the Monash neuroscientists who discovered the correlation between brain structure and empathy.


They have hypothesised that we are able to alter this part of our brain, making it bigger or smaller. It is the first time this has been speculated, as the school of thought remains that brain structures have always been static and unchangeable from birth (such as its size and structural material called soma).

Eamon Brown


Via Edwin Rutsch
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Uncovering the mechanism of our oldest anesthetic

Researchers have now revealed brainwave changes in patients receiving nitrous oxide, or "laughing gas." Nitrous oxide, commonly known as "laughing gas," has been used in anesthesiology practice since the 1800s, but the way it works to create...
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Reducing stroke damage may be next for OCT technology widely used in vision healthcare

Reducing stroke damage may be next for OCT technology widely used in vision healthcare | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
An optical technology already widely used in ophthalmology and other medical fields holds potential to reveal how blood flows in the brain during stroke, providing information that could someday guide new treatments and reduce stroke-induced damage...
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Scientists observe altruism and selfishness in brain activity

Scientists observe altruism and selfishness in brain activity | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Prosocial behavior is fundamental to the sustainability of society, enabling people to work in groups, to create larger and more successful social structures, and to contribute to the common welfare. However, despite the importance of altruism, science has only a limited understanding of how prosocial behaviors and selfish behaviors are represented in the brain. Additionally, individual transition between self-benefiting behavior and altruistic behavior is not well understood.

Via Ashish Umre
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Memory Specificity and Mindfulness Jointly Moderate the Effect of Reflective Pondering on Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With a History of Recurrent Depression

Memory Specificity and Mindfulness Jointly Moderate the Effect of Reflective Pondering on Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With a History of Recurrent Depression | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

(Available in free full text) In previously depressed individuals, reflective thinking may easily get derailed and lead to detrimental effects. This study investigated the conditions in which such thinking is, or is not, adaptive. Levels of mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity were assessed as potential moderators of the relationship between reflective thinking and depressive symptoms. Two hundred seventy-four individuals with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, rumination—including subscales for reflection and brooding—and mindfulness, as well as an autobiographical memory task to assess memory specificity. In those low in both mindfulness and memory specificity, higher levels of reflection were related to more depressive symptoms, whereas in all other groups higher levels of reflection were related to fewer depressive symptoms. The results demonstrate that the relation between reflective pondering and depressive symptoms varies depending on individual state or trait factors. In previously depressed individuals, the cognitive problem-solving aspect of reflection may be easily hampered when tendencies toward unspecific processing are increased, and awareness of mental processes such as self-judgment and reactivity is decreased.


Via Dr James Hawkins
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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, July 4, 7:06 PM

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Old World monkey had tiny, complex brain

Old World monkey had tiny, complex brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The brain hidden inside the oldest known Old World monkey skull has been visualized for the first time. The creature's tiny but remarkably wrinkled brain supports the idea that brain complexity can evolve before brain size in the primate family tree.
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Survival of the fittest: How brain tumors adapt through complex ecosystems

Survival of the fittest: How brain tumors adapt through complex ecosystems | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Despite advances in medical technology and a constantly evolving understanding of the mechanisms of cancer progression, researchers and clinicians are faced with a litany of challenges along the road to finding a cure for the most aggressive forms...
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Hope for Alzheimer's treatment as researchers find licensed drugs halt brain degeneration

Hope for Alzheimer's treatment as researchers find licensed drugs halt brain degeneration | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Studies on mice show two existing medicines could help restore protein production in brain and prevent memory loss, speeding up search for cure
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Study identifies brain abnormalities in people with schizophrenia

Study identifies brain abnormalities in people with schizophrenia | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Structural brain abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, providing insight into how the condition may develop and respond to treatment, have been identified in an internationally collaborative study led by a Georgia State University scientist.
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Memory and thinking ability keep getting worse for years after a stroke, new study finds

Memory and thinking ability keep getting worse for years after a stroke, new study finds | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A stroke happens in an instant. And many who survive one report that their brain never works like it once did.
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A High Fat Diet May Convince Us To Overeat By Wrecking Havoc With Our Gut Bacteria

A High Fat Diet May Convince Us To Overeat By Wrecking Havoc With Our Gut Bacteria | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
An animal study finds that high fat diets can trick rats into not feeling full.
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Sensorimotor Psychotherapy: Interventions for Trauma and Attachment – Review

Sensorimotor Psychotherapy: Interventions for Trauma and Attachment – Review | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Sensorimotor Psychotherapy: Interventions for Trauma an […]
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Daniel Goleman: The Benefits of Good Emotional Hygiene: three kinds of empathy.

Daniel Goleman: The Benefits of Good Emotional Hygiene: three kinds of empathy. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

In my model there are four parts: self-awareness, self-management, empathy, and social skills. When it comes to ethics, the critical action involves empathy. 


There are three kinds, and which ones you develop make all the difference.


Cognitive empathy lets you understand how the other person thinks - their mental models for perceiving the world, the language they use. This lets you communicate effectively with them - but it's also the kind of empathy that a con man or sociopath uses to manipulate others to their own selfish ends.

The second variety, emotional empathy, lets you feel with the other person. Social neuroscience tells us that the brain's interpersonal wiring lights up in our own circuitry what matches the activity in the other person's brain - if she's in pain or distress, we feel this immediately in our own pathways for those feelings. This brain-to-brain link creates rapport and instant understanding....


 Empathic concern snuffs out selfishness.


Daniel Goleman 

Image https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hygiene 


Via Edwin Rutsch
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Ion channel mechanics yield insights into optogenetics experiments

Optogenetics techniques, which allow scientists to map and control nerve cells using light stimulation, are being used to study neural circuits in the brain with unprecedented precision.
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How to rule a gene galaxy: A lesson from developing neurons

How to rule a gene galaxy: A lesson from developing neurons | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The human organism contains hundreds of distinct cell types that often differ from their neighbours in shape and function. To acquire and maintain its characteristic features, each cell type must express a unique subset of genes.
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A Life-Changing, True Story Reveals the Secret to Success

A Life-Changing, True Story Reveals the Secret to Success | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The amazing story of Phineas Gage sheds light on how your brain achieves.

Via Mark E. Deschaine, PhD
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One Small Thing That Makes You More Trustworthy, Attractive, and Intelligent

One Small Thing That Makes You More Trustworthy, Attractive, and Intelligent | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A recent study by French scientists shows there’s one simple thing we can do to increase our apparent trustworthiness. And, as a bonus, we’ll seem more attractive and intelligent, too.
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Study finds antidepressants affect morality and decision-making

Study finds antidepressants affect morality and decision-making | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Healthy people who are given commonly prescribed mood-altering drugs see significant changes in the degree to which they are willing to tolerate harm against themselves and others, according to a study published Thursday.
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Brain folding related to surface area and thickness, not number of neurons

Brain folding related to surface area and thickness, not number of neurons | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
(Medical Xpress)—A pair of researchers with Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro has found that the degree of folding of mammalian brains follows a simple mathematical relationship.
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Imaging the earliest Old World monkey brain {Duke University Research}

The brain hidden inside the oldest known Old World monkey skull has been visualized for the first time. The ancient monkey, known as Victoriapithecus, first ...
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