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Psychiatry framework seeks to reform diagnostic doctrine

Psychiatry framework seeks to reform diagnostic doctrine | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Critics say clinical manual unfit for mental-health research.
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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Real Time Readout of Neurochemical Activity

Real Time Readout of Neurochemical Activity | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Implanted engineered cells with fluorescent dyes which change color in response to dopamine and norepinephrine allows researchers to observe changes in neurosignalling in real time, a new study rep...
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Penn vet professor investigates parasite-schizophrenia connection

Penn vet professor investigates parasite-schizophrenia connection | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Many factors, both genetic and environmental, have been blamed for increasing the risk of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Some, such as a family history of schizophrenia, are widely accepted.
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Kindness will make you more attractive, study shows - The Herald-Times (subscription)

Kindness will make you more attractive, study shows - The Herald-Times (subscription) | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A study from China shows that people are rated as being much more attractive if they do one thing — and it's something that parents can teach their children to help secure their personal happiness and future success.

Via Jeanie DeMullet
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Activity in dendrites is critical in memory formation

Activity in dendrites is critical in memory formation | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Why do we remember some things and not others? In a unique imaging study, two Northwestern University researchers have discovered how neurons in the brain might allow some experiences to be remembered while others are forgotten. It turns out, if you want to remember something about your environment, ...
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Ultra-high-field MRI reveals language centres in the brain in much more detail

Ultra-high-field MRI reveals language centres in the brain in much more detail | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
In a new investigation by the University Department of Neurology, it has been possible for the first time to demonstrate that the areas of the brain that are important for understanding language can be pinpointed much more accurately using...
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Synapses always on the starting blocks

Synapses always on the starting blocks | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
While neurons rapidly propagate information in their interior via electrical signals, they communicate with each other at special contact points known as the synapses.
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10 Most Awe-Inspiring Neuroscience Studies — PsyBlog

10 Most Awe-Inspiring Neuroscience Studies — PsyBlog | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
New studies demonstrate the deep power of human empathy, debunk right-brain and left-brain personalities, explore neural structures during sleep and way more…

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Photography and the Feelings of Others: From Mirroring Emotions to the Theory of Mind

Photography and the Feelings of Others: From Mirroring Emotions to the Theory of Mind | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Photography is powerful because we can place ourselves into the perspective of those we see in an image. Whether it’s street photography, photojournalism or portraiture, we use photography to understand ourselves in relation to people around us....


Imitation is automatic and a basic requirement for developing practical social skills, like empathy. When we see the expression of other peoples faces there is an unconscious activation of the same muscles.


For example, when someone is sad and frowns you too will active frown muscles and feel similarly to the person you’re looking at, granted to a lesser extent. If you were to prevent the activation of the frown muscles then your ability to perceive sadness would diminish.


 by Joshua Sarinana


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Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression

Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Research from JAMA Psychiatry — Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects — A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
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On Empathy: Q&A with Peggy Mason, PhD

On Empathy: Q&A with Peggy Mason, PhD | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Empathy—the ability to perceive and share another person's emotional state—is the subject of this month’s Cerebrum article, “With A Little Help from My Friends: How the Brain Procand the latest on this aspect of social neuroscience is Peggy Mason, Ph.D., a professor of neurobiology at the University of Chicago and the author of Medical Neurobiology.



Mason, whose lab is currently interested in empathetic healing and helping behavior in rats, offers an open online course, “Understanding the Brain: The Neurobiology of Everyday Life,” through Coursera and held a lively discussion of empathy on Reddit recently.


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What Happens in the Hippocampus?

What Happens in the Hippocampus? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The hippocampus has been object of scrutiny since the days of Gray’s Anatomy.
This year’s Nobel Prize in medicine recognises work on “cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.” Those cells are found in the hippocampus.
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Off-track Process Like Reminiscing Can Help Boost Mental Performance on Goal-oriented Tasks - Cornell U

Off-track Process Like Reminiscing Can Help Boost Mental Performance on Goal-oriented Tasks - Cornell U | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

The researchers developed a new approach in which off-task processes such as reminiscing can support rather than conflict with the aims of the experimental task. This image is for illustrative purposes only. Credit jarmoluk.

 

Researchers report performance of complex mental tasks can be boosted by 'off task' mental activities, such as reminiscing.

 

To solve a mental puzzle, the brain’s executive control network for externally focused, goal-oriented thinking must activate, while the network for internally directed thinking like daydreaming must be turned down to avoid interference – or so we thought.

 

New research led by Cornell University neuroscientist Nathan Spreng shows for the first time that engaging brain areas linked to so-called “off-task” mental activities (such as mind-wandering and reminiscing) can actually boost performance on some challenging mental tasks. The results advance our understanding of how externally and internally focused neural networks interact to facilitate complex thought, the authors say.

...

Spreng and his team developed a new approach in which off-task processes such as reminiscing can support rather than conflict with the aims of the experimental task. Their novel task, “famous faces n-back,” tests whether accessing long-term memory about famous people, which typically engages default network brain regions, can support short-term memory performance, which typically engages executive control regions.


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iPamba's curator insight, October 23, 7:37 PM

Interesting topic, although the report is scant on details.

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A social neuroscience perspective could increase empathy in physicians, enhance patient care

A social neuroscience perspective could increase empathy in physicians, enhance patient care | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
In the October issue of World Psychiatry, neuroscientists and UC Berkeley psychiatrist Jodi Halpern contribute a perspective on the need for increased research on the components of empathy, in order to develop interventions and programs designed to increase the levels of empathy in clinical practice.

According to the article, clinical empathy is increasingly being seen as an important element of quality health care, and has been associated with improved patient satisfaction, increased adherence to treatment, and fewer malpractice complaints.


As well, for doctors, higher levels of empathy have led to decreased burnout, personal distress, depression, and anxiety, along with increased life satisfaction and psychological well-being.


By Amabelle Ocampo


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A Fast-Acting Treatment Which Helps Severely Depressed Experience Pleasure Again

A Fast-Acting Treatment Which Helps Severely Depressed Experience Pleasure Again | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Drug quickly helps with 'treatment-resistant' depression.
Dr Jeremy Dean is a psychologist and author of PsyBlog.
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Dementia breakthrough: Experts reveal two key ways to fight disease

Dementia breakthrough: Experts reveal two key ways to fight disease | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
KEEPING the brain active and eating a healthy diet are the best ways to protect against dementia in old age, say experts.

 

Two breakthrough new studies have revealed that being good with words and eating just a handful of walnuts every day can help stave off the ravages of the brain disease. The simple tips mean that millions of people could protect themselves from Alzheimer's in old age by introducing the easy changes to their daily lives.

 

Proving the old adage "use it or lose it", a new study has shown that being good with words could help stave off ageing conditions including dementia. Experts have discovered that having a rich and varied vocabulary, just like TV personalities Stephen Fry and Will Self, protects against brain decline. As people get older, their brain's intelligence is put under strain. But researchers from the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain have studied what factors can help to improve this ability and they conclude that having a higher level of vocabulary is one such factor.

 

"Cognitive reserve" is the name given to the brain's capacity to compensate for the loss of its functions. Cristina Lojo Seoane, co-author of the study published in the journal Annals of Psychology, said: "We focused on level of vocabulary as it is considered an indicator of crystallised intelligence - the use of previously acquired intellectual skills. he said:

 

"This led us to the conclusion that a higher level of vocabulary, as a measure of cognitive reserve, can protect against cognitive impairment."

 

A second study, from experts at New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities (IBR), revealed that eating a diet packed with a handful of walnuts every day can have a major impact on keeping dementia at bay.  The new research, published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, found that potent ingredients in the popular nuts can have a beneficial effects in reducing the risk, delaying the onset, slowing the progression of, or preventing Alzheimer's.

 

Led by Dr Abha Chauhan, the study found significant improvement in learning skills, memory, reducing anxiety, and motor development in mice fed a walnut-enriched diet. The researchers believe that it is the high antioxidant content of walnuts which may protect the brain from the degeneration typically seen in Alzheimer's.

 

Read more here: http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/526195/New-dementia-breakthrough-experts-two-ways-fight-disease

 

The associated research articles can be read here: 

http://iospress.metapress.com/content/n644184610325684/

[Spanish] http://revistas.um.es/analesps/article/view/analesps.30.3.158481


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Eric Chan Wei Chiang's curator insight, October 29, 11:07 AM

Exercise http://sco.lt/789qRV and Green Tea http://sco.lt/8niYE5 have also been shown to be effective in preventing dementia

 

Elderly suffering from dementia may not remember events but they do remember feelings http://sco.lt/7jzwWX

 

More scoops about Alzheimer's can be read here: 

http://www.scoop.it/t/biotech-and-beyond/?tag=Alzheimer%E2%80%99s

 

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Communication without detours: Previously unknown nerve cell shape presented

Communication without detours: Previously unknown nerve cell shape presented | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Certain nerve cells take a shortcut for the transmission of information: signals are not conducted via the cell`s center, but around it like on a bypass road. The previously unknown nerve cell shape is now presented in the journal Neuron by a research team from Heidelberg, Mannheim and Bonn.
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Psychopaths 'have empathy switch'

Psychopaths 'have empathy switch' | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Psychopaths do not lack empathy, rather they can switch it on at will, according to new research, which could explain how psychopaths can be both callous and charming.

Via SIN JONES, Jeanie DeMullet
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Self-reported sleep disturbances are linked to higher risk for Alzheimer's disease in men

Self-reported sleep disturbances are linked to higher risk for Alzheimer's disease in men | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
In a new study, researchers from Uppsala University demonstrate that elderly men with self-reported sleep disturbances run a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than men without self-reported sleep disturbances.
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PET scans reveal how psychodynamic therapy for depression may change brain function

PET scans reveal how psychodynamic therapy for depression may change brain function | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A study from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators has identified for the first time changes in the metabolic activity of a key brain region in patients successfully treated for depression with psychodynamic psychotherapy, suggesting a...
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Transparent optogenetic brain implants: Yet another amazing use for graphene

Transparent optogenetic brain implants: Yet another amazing use for graphene | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The most powerful brain implants being built today can record fast electric signals using conductive arrays while permitting light to pass out through them for high-resolution imaging . To take it up a notch, they also can let light in for optogenetic control directly under the implant. Two new studies just published in Nature Communications have the details.


Learn more:


http://www.scoop.it/t/21st-century-innovative-technologies-and-developments/?tag=Graphene



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Gust MEES's curator insight, October 26, 7:05 PM
The most powerful brain implants being built today can record fast electric signals using conductive arrays while permitting light to pass out through them for high-resolution imaging . To take it up a notch, they also can let light in for optogenetic control directly under the implant. Two new studies just published in Nature Communications have the details.


Learn more:


http://www.scoop.it/t/21st-century-innovative-technologies-and-developments/?tag=Graphene


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Tackling blindness, deafness through neuroengineering

Tackling blindness, deafness through neuroengineering | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The Bertarelli Program in Translational Neuroscience and Neuroengineering, a collaborative program between Harvard Medical School (HMS) and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland, has announced a new set of grants worth...
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Neurophysiological assessment aids in identifying back injury

Neurophysiological assessment aids in identifying back injury | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
(HealthDay)—For patients with lumbosacral disc herniation, neurophysiological tests together with neuroimaging and clinical examination allow for accurate preoperative assessment of injury, according to a study published in the Oct.
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Frontiers | Metacognition and action: a new pathway to understanding social and cognitive aspects of expertise in sport

For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers - people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as ‘meta-attention’, ‘meta-imagery’ and ‘meta-memory’, as well as social aspects of this construct) provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on ‘metacognition’ and ‘metacognitive inference’ among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action.

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Why People with Down Syndrome Invariably Develop Alzheimer's Disease

Why People with Down Syndrome Invariably Develop Alzheimer's Disease | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Amyloid plaques are found in the brains of people with Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Credit Juan Gartner.

 

Study reveals how the SNX27 protein regulates the generation of beta amyloid.

 

A new study by researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute reveals the process that leads to changes in the brains of individuals with Down syndrome—the same changes that cause dementia in Alzheimer’s patients. The findings, published in Cell Reports, have important implications for the development of treatments that can prevent damage in neuronal connectivity and brain function in Down syndrome and other neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Down syndrome is characterized by an extra copy of chromosome 21 and is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans. It occurs in about one per 700 babies in the United States, and is associated with a mild to moderate intellectual disability. Down syndrome is also associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. By the age of 40, nearly 100 percent of all individuals with Down syndrome develop the changes in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s disease, and approximately 25 percent of people with Down syndrome show signs of Alzheimer’s-type dementia by the age of 35, and 75 percent by age 65. As the life expectancy for people with Down syndrome has increased dramatically in recent years—from 25 in 1983 to 60 today—research aimed to understand the cause of conditions that affect their quality of life are essential.


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