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Can you really train your brain to be more intelligent?

Can you really train your brain to be more intelligent? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
My week has been pretty hectic so far. On Monday, I manned a busy beach bar and had to remember a range of ice-cream and pizza orders for a constant ...
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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Eat For Pleasure Rather Than Hunger? You May Have a Hormone Deficiency

Eat For Pleasure Rather Than Hunger? You May Have a Hormone Deficiency | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Do you prefer the taste of fatty food? Are you someone who eats for pleasure rather than for hunger's sake? According to a new study, the tendency to overeat could be due to a hormone deficiency.
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Mind-blowing Advance? Direct Brain-to-Brain Communication Between Humans Demonstrated

Mind-blowing Advance? Direct Brain-to-Brain Communication Between Humans Demonstrated | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers demonstrate brain-to-brain communication between humans by integrating existing technologies

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Monkey See, Monkey Do: Emotions Are Contagious Because Of Mirror Neurons In Brain - Medical Daily

Monkey See, Monkey Do: Emotions Are Contagious Because Of Mirror Neurons In Brain - Medical Daily | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The mirror neurons theory may hold the key as to why we smile when other people smile.
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Microbes Effect on the Brain

Microbes Effect on the Brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Hundreds of trillions of microbes live in the human gut, with 300 times the total DNA as humans.
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Chemotherapy-related decline in cognitive function correlated with biomarkers ... - Oncology Nurse Advisor

Chemotherapy-related decline in cognitive function correlated with biomarkers ... - Oncology Nurse Advisor | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Research indicates a connection between chemorelated cognitive function decline and molecular immune biomarkers, genetic aging, and neurotransmitter markers.
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Does concussion impact men and women differently?

Does concussion impact men and women differently? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
New research suggests concussion may not significantly impair symptoms or cognitive skills for one gender over another, however, women may still experience greater symptoms and poorer cognitive performance at preseason testing.
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'Driving straight' may be suitable road test in dementia

'Driving straight' may be suitable road test in dementia | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
(HealthDay)—Drivers with dementia who have more difficulties driving straight and making left and right turns are more likely to fail road testing, according to a study published in the July issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
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Your taste in music may predict how you think, and vice versa

Your taste in music may predict how you think, and vice versa | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A University of Cambridge study found that different personality types — based around a person's propensity to feel empathy — tend to have predictable music tastes.
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An Overview of the Research on Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Treating Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review - Banks - 2015 - Journal of Clinical Psychology - Wiley On...

An Overview of the Research on Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Treating Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review - Banks - 2015 - Journal of Clinical Psychology - Wiley On... | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

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Four Great Gratitude Strategies

Four Great Gratitude Strategies | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Here are the key research-based principles for turning gratitude into a lasting habit, drawing from the GGSC’s new website, Greater Good in Action.

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VISÃO\\VI5I0NTHNG's curator insight, July 25, 1:51 PM

Over the past two decades, much of the research on happiness can be boiled down to one main prescription: give thanks.

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Important Link between the Brain and Immune System Found

Important Link between the Brain and Immune System Found | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The new line of communication prompts rethinking of neurologic disease

Via Margarita Tarragona, Functional Family Medicine
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Margarita Tarragona's curator insight, July 21, 8:58 PM

Encuentran conexión importante entre el cerebro y el sistema inmune #Psicología

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A Neuroscientist Argues That Everybody Is Misunderstanding Fear and Anxiety

A Neuroscientist Argues That Everybody Is Misunderstanding Fear and Anxiety | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
And he thinks it may be his fault.

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Gerald Carey's curator insight, July 23, 8:05 PM

An interesting summary of Joseph LeDoux's latest book wondering if we have misunderstood the roots of fear and anxiety.

As the author says, "... fear and anxiety are not wired into the brain as basic responses to the world around us — rather, the responses that lead to them are, and they only coalesce into fear when the brain interprets them as such."

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Linking Multiple Minds Could Help Damaged Brains Heal

Linking Multiple Minds Could Help Damaged Brains Heal | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Monkeys and rats hooked up as

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Annette Tonkin's curator insight, July 23, 7:39 PM

This is a really thoughtful article especially related to how social our brains are and how the influence of others can have on us. It is worth reading for 2 reasons. 

Firstly, in relation to what might be possible clinically for patients who have lost the ability to perform an action 

Secondly, potentially how powerful the influence of others can have on us without us even knowing. Patients who are surrounded by negative influences may really struggle to overcome the adversity of an injury without taking this influence into consideration

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Specific protein as missing link for earliest known change in Alzheimer’s pathology

Specific protein as missing link for earliest known change in Alzheimer’s pathology | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A recent study conducted at Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research (NKI) and NYU Langone Medical Center implicates a new culprit in Alzheimer’s disease development.
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A Healthy Social Life In Your 20s May Be A Key To Longevity - Huffington Post - Huffington Post

A Healthy Social Life In Your 20s May Be A Key To Longevity - Huffington Post - Huffington Post | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
  How busy your social life is at age 20 -- and how solid the relationships are that you make when you're 30 -- are factors in your well-being later in life, according to research from the University of...
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Memory for emotional music is strong at all ages

Memory for emotional music is strong at all ages | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Hello Dear Reader,
Today you find me on a train to lively Glasgow from my hometown of York: A long journey, nearly 4 hours in total. Plenty of time to get out of my work head and think about my lovely blog.
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Altered Insula Activity during Visceral Interoception in Weight-Restored Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

Altered Insula Activity during Visceral Interoception in Weight-Restored Patients with Anorexia Nervosa | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Authors: Kara L Kerr, Scott E Moseman, Jason A Avery, Jerzy Bodurka, Nancy L Zucker & W Kyle Simmons Keywords: (Source: Neuropsychopharmacology)
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Placebos Can Work Even When Users Knows They're Fake - Laboratory Equipment

Placebos Can Work Even When Users Knows They're Fake - Laboratory Equipment | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
A grad student has conducted an intriguing piece of research to advance knowledge about how and when the placebo effect works— or doesn't.
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Why some people suffer from `emotional instability` - ANINEWS

Why some people suffer from `emotional instability` - ANINEWS | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Washington DC, Jul 25 (ANI): Scientist have shed light on why some people have difficulties in regulating their emotions in daily life, which may be affecting their work, family and social life.
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Emotionally unstable people have different brain structure - News-Medical.net

Emotionally unstable people have different brain structure - News-Medical.net | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
We all vary in how often we become happy, sad or angry, and also in how strongly these emotions are expressed. This variability is a part of our personality and can be seen as a positive aspect that increases diversity in society.
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Scientists warn that new drugs will require earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer’s

Scientists warn that new drugs will require earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer’s | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Announcement about success of solanezumab leads to calls for improved testing to identify those who would benefit from slowing of mental decline Major improvements must be made in techniques for identifying future Alzheimer’s disease patients if...
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Researchers pinpoint where the brain unites our eyes’ double vision

Researchers pinpoint where the brain unites our eyes’ double vision | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Using prisms and an advanced brain scanner, researchers have found the point in the human brain at which the vision of two eyes becomes one image.


If you have two working eyes, you are live streaming two images of the world into your brain. Your brain combines the two to produce a view of the world that appears as though you had a single eye — like the Cyclops from Greek mythology. And that's a good thing, as the combination of the two images makes for a much more useful impression of the world. With one eye shut, catching a ball or parking a car become far more difficult.


"If you're reaching out with your hand, you want to aim not at where things appear to be, but where they are," says Bas Rokers, psychology professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Two eyes are giving you two images that don't by themselves tell you where things are relative to your hand. It's the integrated information that tells you where things are."


Using prisms and an advanced brain scanner, Rokers and collaborators at Utrecht University in the Netherlands have found the point in the human brain — very early in image processing in the visual cortex — in which the transformation to a cyclopean view of the world takes place.


Their work, published recently in the journal Current Biology, may aid in the treatment of vision problems like amblyopia, or lazy eye.



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Study: Measuring the impact of a 3D simulation experience on nursing students' cultural empathy using a modified version of the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale

Study: Measuring the impact of a 3D simulation experience on nursing students' cultural empathy using a modified version of the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

To determine the effect of immersive 3D cultural simulation on nursing students' empathy towards culturally and linguistically diverse patients.


BACKGROUND:
Accelerated globalisation has seen a significant increase in cultural diversity in most regions of the world over the past forty years. Clinical encounters that do not acknowledge cultural factors contribute to adverse patient outcomes and health care inequities for culturally and linguistically diverse people. Cultural empathy is an antecedent to cultural competence. Thus, appropriate educational strategies are needed to enhance nursing students' cultural empathy and the capacity to deliver culturally competent care.


RESULTS: Students' empathy towards culturally and linguistically diverse patients significantly improved after exposure to the 3D simulation experience. The mean scores for the Perspective Taking and Valuing Affective Empathy subscales also increased significantly postsimulation.


Slideshow: From culture shock to cultural empathy to cultural competence: An innovative 3D immersive simulation experience 

http://www.keele.ac.uk/nursingandmidwifery/newsevents/seminarprogramme/seminarsarchive2014/cultural%20empathy%20Levett-Jones.pdf



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What Is Vascular Dementia?

What Is Vascular Dementia?

David B. Reuben, MD

Disclosures July 15, 2015


Question

How is vascular dementia diagnosed and differentiated from Alzheimer disease?

 Response from David B. Reuben, MD
Professor and Archstone Foundation Endowed Chair, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles; Chief, Division of Geriatrics, UCLA Medical Center, Santa Monica, California

Making a diagnosis of vascular dementia is complicated for several reasons. First, vascular dementia has multiple causes and clinical types. Second, in contrast to Alzheimer disease, the diagnosis of vascular dementia has no pathognomonic criteria. Third, the clinical diagnostic criteria are poorly validated. Fourth, on MRI, white-matter lesions, which are related to cerebral hypoperfusion or ischemia, are nonspecific findings yet often are interpreted as diagnostic. Fifth, many patients with vascular dementia also have other causes of dementia (eg, Alzheimer disease)—so-called "mixed dementia."

Several causes and presentations of vascular dementia have clinical value. Perhaps the most obvious patients are those who meet criteria for dementia and have sustained a clinical stroke—either large artery (usually cortical) or small artery (lacunes) in subcortical areas. Strokes are usually confirmed by neuroimaging (MRI is more sensitive than CT) that demonstrates either multiple infarcts or a single strategically placed infarct (eg, angular gyrus, thalamus, brain forebrain, posterior cerebral artery, or anterior cerebral artery).

Patients with dementia who have evidence of cerebral infarction on MRI without clinical presentations of stroke may also have vascular dementia. Finally, chronic subcortical ischemia of small vessels in the periventricular white matter can result in the loss of neurons and supporting brain cells, leading to vascular dementia.

As result of these diverse causes, the clinical presentation of vascular dementia varies considerably. Features that indicate cortical dysfunction (often caused by cerebral embolism) include executive dysfunction; aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia; hemineglect visual-spatial and construction difficulty; and anterograde amnesia. Features that indicate subcortical dysfunction (typically owing to lacunar infarcts and chronic ischemia) include focal motor signs, gait disturbance and falls, urinary tract symptoms, pseudobulbar palsy, personality changes, psychomotor retardation, and abnormal executive function. Clinically, executive dysfunction may be the earliest presenting symptom, even when cognitive impairment is mild.

The temporal relationship between stroke and the onset of cognitive impairment is important in establishing the diagnosis of vascular dementia. For example, dementia occurring within 3 months of a recognized stroke or a pattern of stepwise progression of cognitive deficits strongly supports the diagnosis.

A clinically useful tool for distinguishing vascular dementia from Alzheimer disease is the Hachinski Ischemic Score,[1] which assigns two points to each of the following:

Abrupt onset;

Fluctuating course;

History of stroke;

Focal neurologic symptoms; and

Focal neurologic signs

and one point to the following:

Stepwise deterioration;

Nocturnal confusion;

Preservation of personality;

Depression;

Somatic complaints;

Emotional incontinence;

Hypertension; and

Associated atherosclerosis.

A score of 7 or higher suggests vascular dementia, whereas a score of 4 or less suggests Alzheimer disease.

Developed in association with the UCLA Alzheimer's and Dementia Care Program.

 


References



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Just one night of sleep loss can alter your genes

Just one night of sleep loss can alter your genes | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Genes that control the biological clocks in cells throughout the body are altered after losing just a single night of sleep, scientists have found.


"Previous research has shown that our metabolism is negatively affected by sleep loss, and sleep loss has been linked to an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes," said Jonathan Cedernaes, a researcher at Uppsala University.


"Since ablation of clock genes in animals can cause these disease states, our current results indicate that changes of our clock genes may be linked to such negative effects caused by sleep loss," he said.


For the study the researchers studied 15 healthy normal-weight men who on two separate occasions came to the lab for almost 2-night long stays.


During the second night the participants slept as usual (over 8 hours) in one of the two sessions, while they were kept awake in the other of these sessions, but in random order.


To minimise the influence of various environmental factors, light conditions, food intake and activity levels in the lab were strictly controlled and the participants were bed-restricted when they were kept awake.


Following the second night on both occasions that the men were studied, small tissue samples were taken from the superficial fat on the stomach, and from the muscle on the thigh – two kinds of tissues that are important for regulating metabolism and controlling blood sugar levels.


Blood samples were also taken before and after the participants had consumed a sugar solution to test their insulin sensitivity, a practice commonly done to exclude the presence of diabetes or a metabolic state called impaired insulin sensitivity, which can precede type-2 diabetes.


Molecular analyses of the collected tissue samples showed that the regulation and activity of clock genes was altered after one night of sleep loss.


The activity of genes is regulated by a mechanism called epigenetics. This involves chemical alterations to the DNA molecule such as methyl groups – a process called methylation – which regulates how the genes are switched on or off.

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