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Bullying doesn't just hurt your feelings - it can make you ill, say researchers

Bullying doesn't just hurt your feelings - it can make you ill, say researchers | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Jenny Tung from Duke University in North Carolina studied rhesus macaques and found that social stress resulted in their immune systems suffering.

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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Papers
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Evolutionary dynamics of time-resolved social interactions

Cooperation among unrelated individuals is frequently observed in social groups when their members combine efforts and resources to obtain a shared benefit that is unachievable by an individual alone. However, understanding why cooperation arises despite the natural tendency of individuals toward selfish behavior is still an open problem and represents one of the most fascinating challenges in evolutionary dynamics. Recently, the structural characterization of the networks in which social interactions take place has shed some light on the mechanisms by which cooperative behavior emerges and eventually overcomes the natural temptation to defect. In particular, it has been found that the heterogeneity in the number of social ties and the presence of tightly knit communities lead to a significant increase in cooperation as compared with the unstructured and homogeneous connection patterns considered in classical evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate the role of social-ties dynamics for the emergence of cooperation in a family of social dilemmas. Social interactions are in fact intrinsically dynamic, fluctuating, and intermittent over time, and they can be represented by time-varying networks. By considering two experimental data sets of human interactions with detailed time information, we show that the temporal dynamics of social ties has a dramatic impact on the evolution of cooperation: the dynamics of pairwise interactions favors selfish behavior.


Evolutionary dynamics of time-resolved social interactions
Phys. Rev. E 90, 052825 – Published 25 November 2014
Alessio Cardillo, Giovanni Petri, Vincenzo Nicosia, Roberta Sinatra, Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes, and Vito Latora

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052825


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Culture in social neuroscience: a review. - PubMed - NCBI

Culture in social neuroscience: a review. - PubMed - NCBI | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

The aim of this review is to highlight an emerging field: the neuroscience of culture. This new field links cross-cultural psychology with cognitive neuroscience across fundamental domains of cognitive and social psychology. We present a summary of studies on emotion, perspective-taking, memory, object perception, attention, language, and the self, showing cultural differences in behavior as well as in neural activation. Although it is still nascent, the broad impact of merging the study of culture with cognitive neuroscience holds mutual distributed benefits for multiple related fields. Thus, cultural neuroscience may be uniquely poised to provide insights and breakthroughs for longstanding questions and problems in the study of behavior and thought, and its capacity for integration across multiple levels of analysis is especially high. These findings attest to the plasticity of the brain and its adaptation to cultural contexts.

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Scientists Demonstrate Brain-to-Brain Communication | MIT Technology Review

Scientists Demonstrate Brain-to-Brain Communication | MIT Technology Review | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Scientists have established direct communication between two human brains, but is it more than a stunt?

Two scientific teams this year patched together some well-known technologies to directly exchange information between human brains.

The projects, in the U.S. and Europe, appear to represent the first occasions in history that any two people have transmitted information without either of them speaking or moving any muscle. For now, however, the “telepathy” technology remains so crude that it’s unlikely to have any practical impact.

In a paper published last week in the journal PLOS One, neuroscientists and computer engineers at the University of Washington in Seattle described a brain-to-brain interface they built that lets two people coöperatively play a simple video game. Earlier this year, a company in Barcelona called Starlab described transmitting short words like “ciao,” encoded as binary digits, between the brains of individuals on different continents.

 


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Just 1 Gram of This Spice Boosts Memory in Six Hours — PsyBlog

Just 1 Gram of This Spice Boosts Memory in Six Hours — PsyBlog | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Memory improved by consuming small amount of this spice with breakfast. One gram of turmeric at breakfast has been shown by a new study to improve memory in people with memory problems.

In the study itself participants were given 1 gram of turmeric mixed into their ordinary breakfasts (Lee et al., 2014).

Their working memory was tested before and some time after their breakfast, and the results were compared with a placebo-control condition.

 


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Secret of tetanus toxicity offers new way to treat motor neuron disease

Secret of tetanus toxicity offers new way to treat motor neuron disease | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The way that tetanus neurotoxin enters nerve cells has been discovered by UCL scientists, who showed that this process can be blocked, offering a potential therapeutic intervention for tetanus.
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Brain Scans Show Abnormalities in Chronic Fatigue Patients : DNews

Brain Scans Show Abnormalities in Chronic Fatigue Patients : DNews | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Brains of people who experience chronic fatigue are different than those of people who don't. Continue reading →
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What is traumatic brain injury and how is it treated?

What is traumatic brain injury and how is it treated? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Life-threatening brain injuries are thankfully rare in cricket and other sports, even those that involve collisions. But Australian cricketer Phillip Hughes’ tragic accident yesterday shows how little control players have over these events.
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‘Trigger’ for stress processes discovered in the brain

‘Trigger’ for stress processes discovered in the brain | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
At the Center for Brain Research at the MedUni Vienna an important factor for stress has been identified in collaboration with the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm (Sweden).
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Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences | University of Texas Medical School at Houston

Welcome to Neuroscience Online, the Open-Access Neuroscience Electronic Textbook.

This online, interactive courseware for the study of neuroscience is provided by the Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy atThe University of Texas Medical School at Houston. The project is being developed under the direction of the Department Chair and Editor, John H. Byrne.

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Neuroalgorithmicmedia - How algorithmic bidding in paid search mirrors how the human brain makes decisions.

Neuroalgorithmicmedia - How algorithmic bidding in paid search mirrors how the human brain makes decisions. | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The human brain is the most advanced super computer in the universe, with over 100 billion neurons responsible for every conscious and subconscious decision/ action we make. It is hypothesized by some neuroscientists that the decisions we make are nothing more than the rate in which neurons fire within specific parts of our brain. Studies have demonstrated that the decisions we make are, in great part, executed within the orbitofrontal cortex. This is the brain’s decision engine. The decision process is influenced by a risk assessment and a reward assessment. The risk assessment modulated by the amygdala and the reward assessment modulated by the nucleus accumbens. The decision making process in our brains is quite a bit more complicated than the above, but for the most part these are the regions of our brains that modulate and carry out our decisions.

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Cuddlers, Rejoice! Science Proves That Sleeping With Someone Else Is Good For Your Health

Cuddlers, Rejoice! Science Proves That Sleeping With Someone Else Is Good For Your Health | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Basically science is telling us something we already knew: one really is the loneliest number.
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Dominant people can be surprisingly social

Dominant people can be surprisingly social | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
In contrast to the lay stereotype, dominant people prove to be avid social learners, just like dominant individuals in the animal kingdom.
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Culture in the mind's mirror: how anthropology and neuroscience can inform a model of the neural substrate for cultural imitative learning - PubMed - NCBI

Cultural neuroscience, the study of how cultural experience shapes the brain, is an emerging subdiscipline in the neurosciences. Yet, a foundational question to the study of culture and the brain remains neglected by neuroscientific inquiry: "How does cultural information get into the brain in the first place?" Fortunately, the tools needed to explore the neural architecture of cultural learning - anthropological theories and cognitive neuroscience methodologies - already exist; they are merely separated by disciplinary boundaries. Here we review anthropological theories of cultural learning derived from fieldwork and modeling; since cultural learning theory suggests that sophisticated imitation abilities are at the core of human cultural learning, we focus our review on cultural imitative learning. Accordingly we proceed to discuss the neural underpinnings of imitation and other mechanisms important for cultural learning: learning biases, mental state attribution, and reinforcement learning. Using cultural neuroscience theory and cognitive neuroscience research as our guides, we then propose a preliminary model of the neural architecture of cultural learning. Finally, we discuss future studies needed to test this model and fully explore and explain the neural underpinnings of cultural imitative learning.
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Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by ‘culture’ and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed.

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Here's the Reason You Cry When You’re Happy

Researchers at Yale have discovered there's a science behind why we're sometimes so happy we can -- and do -- cry.
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Harvard Unveils MRI Study Proving Meditation Literally Rebuilds The Brain’s Gray Matter In 8 Weeks

Harvard Unveils MRI Study Proving Meditation Literally Rebuilds The Brain’s Gray Matter In 8 Weeks | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Test subjects taking part in an 8-week program of mindfulness meditation showed results that astonished even the most experienced neuroscientists at Harvard University.  The study was led by a Harvard-affiliated team of researchers based at Massachusetts General Hospital, and the team’s MRI scans documented for the very first time in medical history how meditation produced massive changes inside the brain’s gray matter.  “Although the practice of meditation is associated with a sense of peacefulness and physical relaxation, practitioners have long claimed that meditation also provides cognitive and psychological benefits that persist throughout the day,” says study senior author Sara Lazar of the MGH Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Program and a Harvard Medical School instructor in psychology. “This study demonstrates that changes in brain structure may underlie some of these reported improvements and that people are not just feeling better because they are spending time relaxing.”

 

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Paleo for Women | The GABA Neurotransmitter: Another Link Between Diet, Hormones, Mental Health, and Sleep

Paleo for Women | The GABA Neurotransmitter: Another Link Between Diet, Hormones, Mental Health, and Sleep | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The GABA Neurotransmitter: Another Link Between Diet, Hormones, Mental Health, and Sleep http://t.co/qF3uAK9993
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Stroke damage mechanism identified

Stroke damage mechanism identified | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers have discovered a mechanism linked to the brain damage often suffered by stroke victims–and are now searching for drugs to block it.
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Mindfulness treatment as effective as CBT for depression and anxiety

Mindfulness treatment as effective as CBT for depression and anxiety | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Group mindfulness treatment is as effective as individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in patients with depression and anxiety, according to a new study from Lund University in Sweden and Region Skåne.
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Scientists use Harry Potter to find how our brain allow us to understand stories - Daily Mail

Scientists use Harry Potter to find how our brain allow us to understand stories - Daily Mail | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Researchers from Carnegie Mellon performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of eight people as they read a chapter of a Potter book.
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How To Use Music To Boost Athletic Performance — PsyBlog

How To Use Music To Boost Athletic Performance — PsyBlog | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Research reveals which types of music improve which types of athletic performance. 
Listening to jazz can improve your performance on the putting green, according to a new study. And jazz is not the only music that’s been linked to athletic performance, as one of the study’s authors Dr. Ali Boolani explains: “Other research has shown that country music improves batting, rap music improves jump shots and running is improved by any up-tempo music. But the benefit of music in fine motor control situations was relatively unknown. Hopefully, this is the first step in answering this question.”
In the small experiment, 20 good golfers tried five different putts while listening to one of the following types of music:


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Pain in a dish: Researchers turn skin cells into pain sensing neurons

Pain in a dish: Researchers turn skin cells into pain sensing neurons | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
After more than six years of intensive effort, and repeated failures that made the quest at times seem futile, Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) researchers at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH) and Harvard's Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative...
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How Did Brains Evolve?

How Did Brains Evolve? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Humans have asked where we come from for thousands of years, across all cultures.
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Music’s Amazing Effect on Long-Term Memory and Mental Abilities In General

Music’s Amazing Effect on Long-Term Memory and Mental Abilities In General | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The fascinating effect of music on people’s cognitive abilities.

Professional musicians show superior long-term memory compared with non-musicians, a new study finds.

Their brains are also capable of much faster neural responses in key areas of the brain related to decision-making, memory and attention.

The results were presented at the Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in Washington, DC (Schaeffer et al., 2014).

Professional musicians show superior long-term memory compared with non-musicians, a new study finds.


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