Social Neuroscience Advances
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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Neuroscience_topics
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The mechanisms and functions of spontaneous neurotransmitter release

The mechanisms and functions of spontaneous neurotransmitter release | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Fast synaptic communication in the brain requires synchronous vesicle fusion that is evoked by action potential-induced Ca2+ influx. However, synaptic terminals also release neurotransmitters by spontaneous vesicle fusion, which is independent of presynaptic action potentials. A functional role for spontaneous neurotransmitter release events in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and homeostasis, as well as the regulation of certain behaviours, has been reported. In addition, there is evidence that the presynaptic mechanisms underlying spontaneous release of neurotransmitters and their postsynaptic targets are segregated from those of evoked neurotransmission. These findings challenge current assumptions about neuronal signalling and neurotransmission, as they indicate that spontaneous neurotransmission has an autonomous role in interneuronal communication that is distinct from that of evoked release.(...) -  by Ege T. Kavalali,, Nature Reviews Neuroscience,  16, 5–16 (2015)


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Neuroscience_topics
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Modulation of NMDA receptor at the synapse: Promising therapeutic interventions in disorders of the nervous system

Modulation of NMDA receptor at the synapse: Promising therapeutic interventions in disorders of the nervous system | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

[Review] There is general agreement that excessive activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors plays a key role in mediating at least some aspects of synaptic dysfunction in several central nervous system disorders. On this view, in the last decades, research focused on the discovery of different compounds able to reduce NMDA receptor activity, such as classical and/or subunit-specific antagonists. However, the increasing body of knowledge on specific signaling pathways downstream NMDA receptors led to the identification of new pharmacological targets for NMDA receptor-related pathological conditions. Moreover, besides over-activation, several studies indicated that also abnormal NMDA receptor trafficking, resulting in the modification of the receptor subunit composition at the synapse, has a major role in the pathogenesis of several brain disorders. For this reason, the discovery of the molecular mechanisms regulating the abundance of synaptic versus extra-synaptic NMDA receptors as well as the activation of the specific signaling pathways downstream the different NMDA receptor subtypes is needed for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic dysfunction. (...) - Mellone M. & Gardoni FEuropean Journal of Pharmacology

Volume 719, Issues 1–3, 5 November 2013, Pages 75–83


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Neuroscience_topics
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GABA actions and ionic plasticity in epilepsy

GABA actions and ionic plasticity in epilepsy | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

[Review] Highlights:- Ionic plasticity of GABA signaling relies on short-term and long term changes in EGABA-  Cl− transport and carboanhydrases play a key role in ionic plasticity and epilepsy.

- GABAergic transmission has both seizure-suppressing and seizure-promoting effects.

- TrkB and calpain act on GABA signaling to coordinate the process of epileptogenesis.

- GABA signaling has context-specific and age-specific effects in health and disease.

- by Kaila Kai et al., Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Volume 26, June 2014, Pages 34–41


Via Julien Hering, PhD
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from The brain and illusions
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A concise, solid grounding in neuroscience

A concise, solid grounding in neuroscience | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
I often get asked 'how can I avoid common misunderstandings in neuroscience' which I always think is a bit of an odd question because the answer is 'learn a lot about neuroscience'. This is easier ...

Via Gerald Carey
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Gerald Carey's curator insight, August 24, 2013 11:31 PM

How to avoid illusions in psychology...