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Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Compassion & Mindfulness Research
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Standardised Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Healthcare: An Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of RCTs

Standardised Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Healthcare: An Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of RCTs | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

(Available in free full text) Background Mindfulness-based therapies are being used in a wide range of common chronic conditions in both treatment and prevention despite lack of consensus about their effectiveness in different patient categories.  Objective To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness MBSR and MBCT in different patient categories.  Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, using the standardized MBSR or MBCT programs. We used PRISMA guidelines to assess the quality of the included reviews and performed a random effects meta-analysis with main outcome measure Cohen’s d. All types of participants were considered.  Results The search produced 187 reviews: 23 were included, covering 115 unique RCTs and 8,683 unique individuals with various conditions. Compared to wait list control and compared to treatment as usual, MBSR and MBCT significantly improved depressive symptoms (d=0.37; 95%CI 0.28 to 0.45, based on 5 reviews, N=2814), anxiety (d=0.49; 95%CI 0.37 to 0.61, based on 4 reviews, N=2525), stress (d=0.51; 95%CI 0.36 to 0.67, based on 2 reviews, N=1570), quality of life (d=0.39; 95%CI 0.08 to 0.70, based on 2 reviews, N=511) and physical functioning (d=0.27; 95%CI 0.12 to 0.42, based on 3 reviews, N=1015). Limitations include heterogeneity within patient categories, risk of publication bias and limited long-term follow-up in several studies.  Conclusion The evidence supports the use of MBSR and MBCT to alleviate symptoms, both mental and physical, in the adjunct treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, depression, anxiety disorders and in prevention in healthy adults and children.


Via Dr James Hawkins
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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, September 7, 2015 2:03 AM

Helpful ... notice the useful but variable effect sizes.

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Memory Specificity and Mindfulness Jointly Moderate the Effect of Reflective Pondering on Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With a History of Recurrent Depression

Memory Specificity and Mindfulness Jointly Moderate the Effect of Reflective Pondering on Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With a History of Recurrent Depression | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

(Available in free full text) In previously depressed individuals, reflective thinking may easily get derailed and lead to detrimental effects. This study investigated the conditions in which such thinking is, or is not, adaptive. Levels of mindfulness and autobiographical memory specificity were assessed as potential moderators of the relationship between reflective thinking and depressive symptoms. Two hundred seventy-four individuals with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, rumination—including subscales for reflection and brooding—and mindfulness, as well as an autobiographical memory task to assess memory specificity. In those low in both mindfulness and memory specificity, higher levels of reflection were related to more depressive symptoms, whereas in all other groups higher levels of reflection were related to fewer depressive symptoms. The results demonstrate that the relation between reflective pondering and depressive symptoms varies depending on individual state or trait factors. In previously depressed individuals, the cognitive problem-solving aspect of reflection may be easily hampered when tendencies toward unspecific processing are increased, and awareness of mental processes such as self-judgment and reactivity is decreased.


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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, July 4, 2015 7:06 PM

Very interesting ...

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Mindfulness and Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

Mindfulness and Weight Loss:  A Systematic Review | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Objective: Mindfulness training has been incorporated increasingly into weight loss programs to facilitate dietary and physical activity changes. This systematic review of studies using mindfulness-based programs for weight loss evaluated study methodologies with the goal of determining the current evidence in support of mindfulness interventions for weight loss. Methods: Published studies of mindfulness-based interventions for weight loss were identified through systematic review including a comprehensive search of online databases. Studies were reviewed and graded according to methodological strengths and weaknesses. Results: A total of 19 studies, including 13 randomized controlled trials and 6 observational studies, evaluated the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on weight among individuals attempting weight loss. Twelve of the studies were published in peer-reviewed journals and seven were unpublished dissertations. Among the eight randomized controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals, six documented significant weight loss among participants in the mindfulness condition, one reported no significant change, and one failed to report body mass index at program completion. None of the studies documented a relationship between changes in mindfulness and weight loss. Conclusion: Significant weight loss was documented among participants in mindfulness interventions for 13 of the 19 studies identified for review. However, studies do not clarify the degree to which changes in mindfulness are a mechanism responsible for weight loss in mindfulness interventions. Methodological weaknesses and variability across studies limit the strength of the evidence. Further research is needed to document and evaluate the psychological, behavioral, and biological mechanisms involved in the relationship between mindfulness and weight loss.


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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, March 15, 2015 11:43 AM

It would be interesting to check how mindfulness outcomes compare with active treatment controls ... and how well any improvements are maintained at follow up

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Effect of kindness-based meditation on health and well-being: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: Kindness-based meditation (KBM) is a rubric covering meditation techniques developed to elicit kindness in a conscious way. Some techniques, for example, loving-kindness meditation and compassion meditation, have been included in programs aimed at improving health and well-being. Our aim was to systematically review and meta-analyze the evidence available from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of KBM on health and well-being against passive and active control groups in patients and the general population. METHOD: Searches were completed in March 2013. Two reviewers applied predetermined eligibility criteria (RCTs, peer-reviewed publications, theses or conference proceedings, adult participants, KBM interventions) and extracted the data. Meta-analyses used random-effects models. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included. KBM was moderately effective in decreasing self-reported depression (standard mean difference [Hedges's g] = -0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.08, -0.14]) and increasing mindfulness (Hedges's g = 0.63, 95% CI [0.22, 1.05]), compassion (Hedges's g = 0.61, 95% CI [0.24, 0.99]) and self-compassion (Hedges's g = 0.45, 95% CI [0.15, 0.75]) against passive controls. Positive emotions were increased (Hedges's g = 0.42, 95% CI [0.10, 0.75]) against progressive relaxation. Exposure to KBM may initially be challenging for some people. RESULTS were inconclusive for some outcomes, in particular against active controls. The methodological quality of the reports was low to moderate. RESULTS suffered from imprecision due to wide CIs deriving from small studies. CONCLUSIONS: KBM showed evidence of benefits for the health of individuals and communities through its effects on well-being and social interaction. Further research including well-conducted large RCTs is warranted. 


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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, December 31, 2014 5:01 AM

Encouraging but we do need better research.

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Does rumination mediate the relationship between mindfulness and depressive relapse?

Does rumination mediate the relationship between mindfulness and depressive relapse? | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Major depressive disorder is a significant mental illness that is highly likely to recur, particularly after three or more previous episodes. Increased mindfulness and decreased rumination have both been associated with decreased depressive relapse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether rumination mediates the relationship between mindfulness and depressive relapse. DESIGN: This prospective design involved a secondary data analysis for identifying causal mechanisms using mediation analysis. METHODS: This study was embedded in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in which 203 participants (165 females, 38 males; mean age: 48 years), with a history of at least three previous episodes of depression, completed measures of mindfulness, rumination, and depressive relapse over a 2-year follow-up period. Specific components of mindfulness and rumination, being nonjudging and brooding, respectively, were also explored. RESULTS: While higher mindfulness scores predicted reductions in rumination and depressive relapse, the relationship between mindfulness and relapse was not found to be mediated by rumination, although there appeared to be a trend. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strengthen the argument that mindfulness may be important in preventing relapse but that rumination is not a significant mediator of its effects. The study was adequately powered to detect medium mediation effects, but it is possible that smaller effects were present but not detected. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Mindfulness may be one of several components of MBCT contributing to prevention of depressive relapse. Although the original rationale for MBCT rested largely on a model of relapse causally linked to rumination, our findings suggest that the mechanism by which mindfulness impacts relapse is more complex than a simple effect on rumination.


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Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from 21st Century skills of critical and creative thinking
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The Neurochemistry of Positive Conversations

The Neurochemistry of Positive Conversations | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
And what managers need to know about negative ones.

Via Annette Schmeling, Lynnette Van Dyke
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Annette Schmeling's curator insight, June 23, 2014 10:18 AM

Being mindful of communication style and the neurochemistry of positive conversations will bring more kindness, compassion and resilience into our world. Judith & Richard Glasser provide thought-provoking research and confirms the power of oxytocin.

 

 

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Brief Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mental State Attribution and Empathizing

Brief Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mental State Attribution and Empathizing | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

(Free full text available)The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind) is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people’s mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning.


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Dr James Hawkins's curator insight, February 24, 2015 1:29 AM

Great stuff ... short "breathing space" mindfulness exercises can be useful in so many ways ... including between clients as a psychotherapist, at the start of groups, and so on.

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MU Expert Discusses Workplace Mindfulness Practices

MU Expert Discusses Workplace Mindfulness Practices | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Stress reduction classes improve work performance, concentration and creativity, says University of Missouri expert.

Via Gina Stepp
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Gina Stepp's curator insight, May 14, 2013 5:54 PM

"Workplaces that encourage employees to adopt and learn mindfulness-based skills will be healthier, happier and more productive," says Rossy. "These skills teach people the ability to respond better to stress, pain and illness. Mindfulness leads to an increase in important self-care strategies."