Social Neuroscien...
Follow
Find tag "Memory"
4.9K views | +3 today
Social Neuroscience Advances
Understanding ourselves and how we interact
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from 21st Century skills of critical and creative thinking
Scoop.it!

New Neurons in Adult Brains Remodel Memory

New Neurons in Adult Brains Remodel Memory | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
The brain is extremely dynamic, building and pruning connections in milliseconds with many different types of neuroplasticity simultaneously arising in large circuits all over the brain. The holy grail of neuroplasticity has been the creation of new brain cells in adults. Research looking for one cell in a region of the brain is much more difficult than a needle in a haystack. Despite, overwhelming odds, study shows new neurons arising in at least three, and possibly more, places in the adult brain—both humans and other animals.

Recent research shows that new neurons at least in the critical memory center of the hippocampus, are critical to learning and memory and rapidly become part of existing circuits. In fact, they remodel the circuit to take in new material in new ways. A previous post described that more than a thousand different types of neurons exist. Neurogenesis research shows that these new adult born neurons may be completely new types of cells with increased excitability, more widespread connections, a new window of opportunity, and increased neuroplasticity. New neurons in adult brains remodel memory circuits to make information more specific.

Via Miloš Bajčetić, Lynnette Van Dyke
more...
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Neuroscience_topics
Scoop.it!

Very long-term memories may be stored in the pattern of holes in the perineuronal net

Very long-term memories may be stored in the pattern of holes in the perineuronal net | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

A hypothesis and the experiments to test it propose that very long-term memories, such as fear conditioning, are stored as the pattern of holes in the perineuronal net (PNN), a specialized ECM that envelops mature neurons and restricts synapse formation. The 3D intertwining of PNN and synapses would be imaged by serial-section EM. Lifetimes of PNN vs. intrasynaptic components would be compared with pulse-chase 15N labeling in mice and 14C content in human cadaver brains. Genetically encoded indicators and antineoepitope antibodies should improve spatial and temporal resolution of the in vivo activity of proteases that locally erode PNN. Further techniques suggested include genetic KOs, better pharmacological inhibitors, and a genetically encoded snapshot reporter, which will capture the pattern of activity throughout a large ensemble of neurons at a time precisely defined by the triggering illumination, drive expression of effector genes to mark those cells, and allow selective excitation, inhibition, or ablation to test their functional importance. The snapshot reporter should enable more precise inhibition or potentiation of PNN erosion to compare with behavioral consequences. Finally, biosynthesis of PNN components and proteases would be imaged. (...) - By Roger Y. TsienPNAS July 23, 2013 vol. 110 no. 3012456-12461


Via Julien Hering, PhD
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Neuroscience_topics
Scoop.it!

Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms

Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Synaptic mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation after retrieval are largely unknown. Here we report that synapses in projections to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala implicated in auditory fear conditioning, which are potentiated by learning, enter a labile state after memory reactivation, and must be restabilized through a postsynaptic mechanism implicating the mammalian target of rapamycin kinase-dependent signaling. Fear-conditioning–induced synaptic enhancements were primarily presynaptic in origin. Reconsolidation blockade with rapamycin, inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin kinase activity, suppressed synaptic potentiation in slices from fear-conditioned rats. Surprisingly, this reduction of synaptic efficacy was mediated by post- but not presynaptic mechanisms. These findings suggest that different plasticity rules may apply to the processes underlying the acquisition of original fear memory and postreactivational stabilization of fear-conditioning–induced synaptic enhancements mediating fear memory reconsolidation. - by Li Y. et al., PNASvol. 110 no. 12, 47984803



Via Julien Hering, PhD
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from The Psychogenyx News Feed
Scoop.it!

The Type of Exercise That Most Benefits Memory, Reasoning and Mental Flexibility — PsyBlog

The Type of Exercise That Most Benefits Memory, Reasoning and Mental Flexibility — PsyBlog | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it
Study compared the mental effects of aerobic exercise, weight training and balance and co-ordination.

Via Luis Valdes
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jocelyn Stoller from Neuroscience_topics
Scoop.it!

Brain mapping reveals neurological basis of decision-making in rats

Brain mapping reveals neurological basis of decision-making in rats | Social Neuroscience Advances | Scoop.it

Scientists at UC San Francisco have discovered how memory recall is linked to decision-making in rats, showing that measurable activity in one part of the brain occurs when rats in a maze are playing out memories that help them decide which way to turn. The more they play out these memories, the more likely they are to find their way correctly to the end of the maze. (...) - by UCSF, ScienceBlog


Via Julien Hering, PhD
more...
No comment yet.