This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects on HRQoL and certain HRQoL domains including cancer-specific concerns (e.g. breast cancer), body image/self-esteem, emotional well-being, sexuality, sleep disturbance, social functioning, anxiety, fatigue, and pain at varying follow-up periods. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously due to the heterogeneity of exercise programs tested and measures used to assess HRQoL and HRQoL domains, and the risk of bias in many trials. Further research is required to investigate how to sustain positive effects of exercise over time and to determine essential attributes of exercise (mode, intensity, frequency, duration, timing) by cancer type and cancer treatment for optimal effects on HRQoL and its domains.
Adverse health outcomes are often seen in breast cancersurvivors due to prolonged treatment with side effects such as loss of energy and lack of physical strength. Physical activity (PA) has been proposed as an adequate intervention for women with breast cancer. Therefore, this review summarizes the effects of physical activity on breast cancersurvivors after diagnosis. We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar for articles published between January 1980 and May 2013. We included a variety of studies such as randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, and clinical trials. We reviewed these studies for three major outcomes: changes in breast cancer mortality, physiological functions, and metabolic biomarkers. Of 127 studies, 33 studies were selected as eligible studies. These studies included physical activities of varying type, duration, frequency, and intensity (e.g., aerobic and resistance training) and examined changes in three major outcomes among breast cancersurvivors. Many of the studies suggest that breast cancersurvivors benefit from engaging in physical activity, but some studies were limited in their ability to provide adequate evidence due to relatively small sample sizes, short intervention periods, or high attrition. Based on epidemiological evidence, recent studies demonstrated that those breast cancersurvivors who engaged in physical activity significantly lowered their risk of breast cancer mortality and improved their physiological and immune functions. Some studies demonstrated changes in metabolic biomarkers such as insulin and insulin-like growth factors. However, further investigation is required to support these findings because these results are not consistent.
The purpose of this secondary analysis was to describe the extent to which women with breast cancer, who participated in a randomized control trial on exercise, adopted American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines for healthy lifestyle behaviors. Women in the study exercised during cancer treatment and for 6 months after completion of treatment. The sample included 106 women, average age 50.7 years (SD = 9.6). Adherence to guidelines for 5 servings of fruits and vegetables ranged from 36% (n = 28) to 39% (n = 36). Adherence with alcohol consumption guidelines was 71% (n = 28) to 83% (n = 30). Adherence with meeting a healthy weight ranged from 52% (n = 33) to 61% (n = 31). Adherence with physical activity guidelines ranged from 13% (n = 30) to 31% (n = 35). Alcohol and healthy weight guidelines were followed by more than half of the participants, but physical activity and dietary guidelines were followed by far fewer women. Further prospective clinical studies are indicated to determine whether interventions are effective in producing a healthy lifestyle in cancer survivors.
To investigate the resource efficiency and environmental impacts of producing one kilogram of edible protein from... plant- and... animal-protein sources... data were collected and applied... to calculate the indices required to compare the environmental impact of producing 1 kg of edible protein from kidney beans, almonds, eggs, chicken and beef.
Inputs included land and water for raising animals and growing animal feed, total fuel, and total fertilizer and pesticide for growing the plant commodities and animal feed. Animal waste generated was computed for the animal commodities.
To produce 1 kg of protein from kidney beans required approximately eighteen times less land, ten times less water, nine times less fuel, twelve times less fertilizer and ten times less pesticide in comparison to producing 1 kg of protein from beef. Compared with producing 1 kg of protein from chicken and eggs, beef generated five to six times more waste (manure) to produce 1 kg of protein.
The substitution of beef with beans in meal patterns will significantly reduce the environmental footprint worldwide and should also be encouraged to reduce the prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases. Societies must work together to change the perception that red meat (e.g. beef) is the mainstay of an affluent and healthy diet.
Looking Back at the “Health Reality” Campaign, and Looking Forward to Your Behavior Change This month, we introduced three consumer profiles corresponding with stages along the behavior change continuum based on analysis of our 2014 Food & Health Survey:
Over the past decade, public and private payers have experimented with the use of financial incentives to motivate physicians to achieve quality and efficiency. The idea behind pay for performance is simple. Because individuals and organizations respond to incentives, physicians whose patients achieve desirable outcomes should be paid more as an incentive to improve their performance. Yet the results of pay-for-performance programs have been largely disappointing.1 One argument is that neither the right set of incentives nor the right set of metrics has been identified.2 Another explanation, which has received far less attention, is that the right set of patients has not been identified for targeted efforts.
Traditional advertising campaigns just don't make the grade anymore, and here's why.Advertising has helped many brands become category leaders. Brands such as Coca-Cola, McDonald’s, Kellogg’s, General Motors, Microsoft and more have produced ad campaigns that have made their products household favorites.So what could be wrong with following proven advertising techniques such as theirs? Plenty.More than ever before, people are tuning out advertising campaigns. The traditional approach to “telling is selling” and using creative techniques to grab consumer attention really don’t work anymore.Let’s consider the stories of two fast-food brands.
Abstract Distinguishing high engagement with games from gaming addiction has been a challenge for researchers. We present evidence that an established self-report instrument can be used to distinguish addicted gamers from highly engaged gamers. The study used data from the World Health Organization's survey, Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children. A nationally representative sample of Norwegian eighth graders completed the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents. Respondents who endorsed all four of the core criteria for addiction (relapse, withdrawal, conflict, and problems) were categorized as addicted gamers. Respondents who endorsed two or three of the core criteria were categorized as problem gamers. Those who endorsed all three peripheral criteria (salience, tolerance, and mood modification), but not more than one of the addiction criteria, were categorized as highly engaged gamers. Controlling for gender and physical exercise, gaming addicts and problem gamers had greater risk of feeling low, feeling irritable or in a bad mood, feeling nervous, feeling tired and exhausted, and feeling afraid. The highly engaged gamers did not have greater risk of psychological health complaints. This suggests that it is possible to distinguish addicted and problem gamers with psychological health complaints from adolescents who are merely highly engaged gamers.
The current study was performed to identify risk factors for a lower quality of life (QOL) among low-income women withbreast cancer (BC), with an emphasis on the impact of patient-physician communication. In addition, ethnic/racial group differences in QOL changes over time were examined.
A longitudinal study was conducted among 921 low-income women with BC. Patients were interviewed at 6 months, 18 months, 36 months, and 60 months after their diagnosis of BC. Mixed-effect regression models were performed to investigate predictors for and time effects on QOL. The main outcomes included the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey Short Form-36 Mental Component Summary scale (SF-36 MCS), Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scale (SF-36 PCS), and the Ladder of Life scale. Chief independent variables included physician information-giving and patient self-efficacy in interacting with physicians.
There were no significant changes noted over time in QOL except with regard to physical functioning, with survivors reporting a significant decrease over time (P<.0001). Mean SF-36 MCS and SF-36 PCS scores were lower than national general population norms at all time points. Both patient self-efficacy in interacting with physicians and physician information-giving were found to be positively associated with the SF-36 MCS (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively) and Ladder of Life (P = .01 and P = .03, respectively) scales. Latinas who were less acculturated reported higher SF-36 MCS and SF-36 PCS scores (P<.0001 and P = .01, respectively) and better global QOL (P<.0001) than white women.
This systematic review indicates that exercise may have beneficial effects at varying follow-up periods on HRQoL and certain HRQoL domains including physical functioning, role function, social functioning, and fatigue. Positive effects of exercise interventions are more pronounced with moderate- or vigorous-intensity versus mild-intensity exercise programs. The positive results must be interpreted cautiously because of the heterogeneity of exercise programs tested and measures used to assess HRQoL and HRQoL domains, and the risk of bias in many trials. Further research is required to investigate how to sustain positive effects of exercise over time and to determine essential attributes of exercise (mode, intensity, frequency, duration, timing) by cancer type and cancer treatment for optimal effects on HRQoL and its domains.
Co.Create Coca-Cola Leveraging Social To Drive Leadership in Social Media Marketing Forbes Gone are the days when companies like Coca-Cola Coca-Cola could rest on their laurels and rely on their global brand image to capture market share.
In breast cancer survivors, own body image may change due to physical and psychological reasons, worsening women's living. The aim of the study was to investigate whether body image may affect the functional and quality of life outcomes after a multidisciplinary and educational rehabilitative intervention in sixty women with primary nonmetastatic breast cancer who have undergone conservative surgery. To assess the quality of life was administered The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Study Group on Quality of Life core questionnaire, while to investigate the psychological features and self-image were administered the following scales: the Body Image Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. To assess the recovery of the function of the shoulder were administered: the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire and the Constant-Murley Score. Data were collected at the baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. We found a general improvement in the outcomes related to quality of life, and physical and psychological features after treatment (P< 0.001). During follow-up period, a higher further improvement in women without alterations in body image in respect of those with an altered self-perception of their own body was found (P = 0.01). In conclusion, the body image may influence the efficacy of a rehabilitative intervention, especially in the short term of follow-up.
Our study compares breast cancersurvivors without a secondary diagnosis of uterine cancer (BC) to breast cancersurvivors with a diagnosis of uterine cancer (BUC) to determine clinical characteristics that increase the odds of developing uterine cancer.
A total of 7,228 breast cancersurvivors were surveyed. A case-control study was performed with 173 BUC patients matched by age and race in a 1:5 ratio to 865 BC patients. Multivariable logistic regression examined which factors influence the odds of developing uterine cancer.
A total of 5,980 (82.3 %) women did not have a previous hysterectomy at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, of which 173 (2.9 %) subsequently developed uterine cancer. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) (34.4 vs. 34.1, p = 0.388) or age (52.3 vs. 52.3 years, p = 0.999) between the two groups. Increased odds for developing uterine cancer were found in patients with a personal history of hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.45-2.70, p < 0.001], gallbladder disease (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.14-1.55, p = 0.005), and thyroid disease (OR = 1.55, 95 % CI 1.37-1.69, p < 0.001). More than 80 % of women in both groups expressed a desire for a blood test to estimate the risk of uterine cancer (80.4 % BUC vs. 91.2 % BC, p < 0.001).
Hypertension, gallbladder disease, and thyroid disease in breast cancersurvivors increase the odds of developing uterinecancer. Breast cancersurvivors also express significant interest in potential serum tests to assess the risk of developing uterine cancer.
Inequality is one of the key challenges of our time. Income inequality specifically is one of the most visible aspects of a broader and more complex issue, one that entails inequality of opportunity and extends to gender, ethnicity, disability, and age, among others. Ranking second in last year’s Outlook, it was identified as the most significant trend of 2015 by our Network’s experts. This affects all countries around the world. In developed and developing countries alike, the poorest half of the population often controls less than 10% of its wealth. This is a universal challenge that the whole world must address
In recent years the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has emerged as this era’s most renowned, and arguably its most influential, global health player. A century ago, the Rockefeller Foundation—likewise founded by the richest, most ruthless and innovative capitalist of his day—was an even more powerful international health actor. This article reflects critically on the roots, exigencies, and reach of global health philanthropy, comparing the goals, paradigms, principles, modus operandi, and agenda-setting roles of the Rockefeller and Gates Foundations in their historical contexts. - See more at: http://www.hypothesisjournal.com/?p=2503#sthash.QSeYtp4P.dpuf
Abstract Videos stored on YouTube served as a valuable set of communicative resources for publics interested in the Occupy movement. This article explores this loosely bound media ecology, focusing on how and what types of video content are shared and circulated across both YouTube and Twitter. Developing a novel data-collection methodology, a population of videos posted to YouTube with Occupy-related metadata or circulated on Twitter alongside Occupy-related keywords during the month of November 2011 was assembled. In addition to harvesting metadata related to view count and video ratings on YouTube and the number of times a video was tweeted, a probability sample of 1100 videos was hand coded, with an emphasis on classifying video genre and type, borrowed sources of content, and production quality. The novelty of the data set and the techniques adapted for analysing it allow one to take an important step beyond cataloging Occupy-related videos to examine whether and how videos are circulated on Twitter. A variety of practices were uncovered that link YouTube and Twitter together, including sharing cell phone footage as eyewitness accounts of protest (and police) activity, digging up news footage or movie clips posted months and sometimes years before the movement began; and the sharing of music videos and other entertainment content in the interest of promoting solidarity or sociability among publics created through shared hashtags. This study demonstrates both the need for, and challenge of, conducting social media research that accommodates data from multiple platforms.