Abstract Videos stored on YouTube served as a valuable set of communicative resources for publics interested in the Occupy movement. This article explores this loosely bound media ecology, focusing on how and what types of video content are shared and circulated across both YouTube and Twitter. Developing a novel data-collection methodology, a population of videos posted to YouTube with Occupy-related metadata or circulated on Twitter alongside Occupy-related keywords during the month of November 2011 was assembled. In addition to harvesting metadata related to view count and video ratings on YouTube and the number of times a video was tweeted, a probability sample of 1100 videos was hand coded, with an emphasis on classifying video genre and type, borrowed sources of content, and production quality. The novelty of the data set and the techniques adapted for analysing it allow one to take an important step beyond cataloging Occupy-related videos to examine whether and how videos are circulated on Twitter. A variety of practices were uncovered that link YouTube and Twitter together, including sharing cell phone footage as eyewitness accounts of protest (and police) activity, digging up news footage or movie clips posted months and sometimes years before the movement began; and the sharing of music videos and other entertainment content in the interest of promoting solidarity or sociability among publics created through shared hashtags. This study demonstrates both the need for, and challenge of, conducting social media research that accommodates data from multiple platforms.
Abstract Web-based tailored intervention programs show considerable promise in effecting health-promoting behaviors and improving health outcomes across a variety of medical conditions and patient populations. This meta-analysis compares the effects of tailored versus nontailored web-based interventions on health behaviors and explores the influence of key moderators on treatment outcomes. Forty experimental and quasi-experimental studies (N =20,180) met criteria for inclusion and were analyzed using meta-analytic procedures. The findings indicated that web-based tailored interventions effected significantly greater improvement in health outcomes as compared with control conditions both at posttesting, d =.139 (95% CI = .111, .166, p <.001, k =40) and at follow-up, d =.158 (95% CI = .124, .192, p <.001, k =21). The authors found no evidence of publication bias. These results provided further support for the differential benefits of tailored web-based interventions over nontailored approaches. Analysis of participant/descriptive, intervention, and methodological moderators shed some light on factors that may be important to the success of tailored interventions. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the “Sugar Pack” health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption
Thanks to a coalescence of available scientific evidence and new regulatory possibilities, there is currently substantial opportunity for local innovation in addressing the public health problem of obesity. One promising example stems from a recent federal obesity-prevention initiative: the menu-labeling provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which require chain restaurants operating 20 or more locations to provide calorie information on their menus and menu boards, along with a statement addressing daily recommended caloric intake.
Este artigo objetiva compreender os fatores motivacionais que influenciam os indivíduos a doarem sangue, com a finalidade de subsidiar as ações de marketing social orientadas à captação de novos doadores. Com base em uma revisão teórica, um modelo de hipóteses foi elaborado, para análise de influências e interações de construtos na formação da predisposição das pessoas a serem doadores de sangue. Foi feito o levantamento de campo por meio de um questionário estruturado, junto a uma amostra de 346 pessoas. Para análise, foram usadas técnicas de análise descritiva, avaliação de consistência psicométrica e modelagem de equações estruturais com estimação por mínimos quadrados parciais. Como resultados, verificou-se principalmente que há uma influência negativa do medo e positiva do grupo de referência na predisposição dos sujeitos em doar sangue. Isso indicou que as ações de marketing social para a doação de sangue são mais eficientes em incentivar novos doadores se mantiverem foco nesses dois fatores.
Detecting hints to public health threats as early as possible is crucial to prevent harm from the population. However, many disease surveillance strategies rely upon data whose collection requires explicit reporting (data transmitted from hospitals, laboratories or physicians).
Collecting reports takes time so that the reaction time grows. Moreover, context information on individual cases is often lost in the collection process. This paper describes a system that tries to address these limitations by processing social media for identifying information on public health threats. The primary objective is to study the usefulness of the approach for supporting the monitoring of a population's health status.
The experiments show that the system provides information on health events identified in social media. Signals are mainly generated from Twitter messages posted by news agencies. Personal tweets, i.e. tweets from persons observing some symptoms, only play a minor role for signal generation given a limited volume of relevant messages. Relevant signals referring to real world outbreaks were generated by the system and monitored by epidemiologists for example during the European football championship.
But, the number of relevant signals among generated signals is still very small: The different experiments yielded a proportion between 5 and 20% of signals regarded as "relevant" by the users. Vaccination or education campaigns communicated via Twitter as well as use of medical terms in other contexts than for outbreak reporting led to the generation of irrelevant signals.
Conclusions: The aggregation of information into signals results in a reduction of monitoring effort compared to other existing systems. Against expectations, only few messages are of personal nature, reporting on personal symptoms. Instead, media reports are distributed over social media channels.
Despite the high percentage of irrelevant signals generated by the system, the users reported that the effort in monitoring aggregated information in form of signals is less demanding than monitoring huge social-media data streams manually. It remains for the future to develop strategies for reducing false alarms.
L’élaboration des guides alimentaires nationaux n’est peut-être pas toujours objective. Le chercheur Michel Lucas, lors d’une entrevue très éclairante sur le sujet, propose plutôt de baser notre alimentation sur «l’assiette santé».
It's also worth pointing out that charities such as Cancer Research UK and government-funded scientists are free to investigate promising treatments without a profit motive. And it's hard to understand why NHS doctors – who ...
Abstract Distinguishing high engagement with games from gaming addiction has been a challenge for researchers. We present evidence that an established self-report instrument can be used to distinguish addicted gamers from highly engaged gamers. The study used data from the World Health Organization's survey, Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children. A nationally representative sample of Norwegian eighth graders completed the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents. Respondents who endorsed all four of the core criteria for addiction (relapse, withdrawal, conflict, and problems) were categorized as addicted gamers. Respondents who endorsed two or three of the core criteria were categorized as problem gamers. Those who endorsed all three peripheral criteria (salience, tolerance, and mood modification), but not more than one of the addiction criteria, were categorized as highly engaged gamers. Controlling for gender and physical exercise, gaming addicts and problem gamers had greater risk of feeling low, feeling irritable or in a bad mood, feeling nervous, feeling tired and exhausted, and feeling afraid. The highly engaged gamers did not have greater risk of psychological health complaints. This suggests that it is possible to distinguish addicted and problem gamers with psychological health complaints from adolescents who are merely highly engaged gamers.
Abstract This cross-cultural experiment examined the effectiveness of three health message characteristics to foster or inhibit selective exposure to health information. An online magazine was created with eight articles about various health risks. Four articles were manipulated regarding (1) severity of the described health threat (low versus high), (2) suggested efficacy to avoid or minimize negative consequences (low versus high) and (3) type of evidence presented (statistical information versus exemplar information). Respondents from the U.S. and from Germany (n = 301/298) browsed through the magazine while selective exposure was unobtrusively logged. Findings reveal country-specific exposure patterns. A positive main effect of severity was only found for U.S. respondents. Independent of respondents' country, significantly more time was spent with low-severity/high-efficacy messages and high-severity/low-efficacy messages than with articles featuring the often-recommended high-severity/high-efficacy message combination. Respondents generally read more exemplar messages than those with statistical evidence, especially when high efficacy was suggested. Implications of these exposure patterns for the real-life effectiveness of health messages are discussed and an improved theoretical conceptualization of message effectiveness is proposed.
Attracting the target audience's attention to messages about health risks remains one of the most challenging objectives in health communication (Pease, Brannon, & Pilling, 2006; Rimal & Adkins, 2003). Even though many factors have been established as affecting selective exposure in the contexts of political communication, general news, and entertainment (see overviews byDonsbach, 2009, and Knobloch-Westerwick, 2006, 2008), much less evidence is at hand for the realm of health information. Many health campaigns are hindered by insufficient exposure (Hornik, 2002; Noar, 2008), and very little is known about the potential of health message features to foster or inhibit selective exposure. Building on persuasion theories and research, the current investigation addresses this research gap and focuses on three health message characteristics that have been repeatedly postulated to influence health behavior and are thus frequently used in health message design. As related effects research was often conducted in forced-exposure settings, it is not clear yet to what extent the observed effectiveness patterns also apply to everyday media use: “Although laboratory studies can tell us a great deal about how to develop persuasive appeals that have maximum impact on individuals who are exposed to them, they provide only limited information about the effectiveness of persuasion in a mass media context. In real life, audiences can actively or passively avoid exposure to health messages” (Stroebe, 2000, 64).
Based on a thorough literature review, three frequently incorporated health message characteristics were chosen to be included in this analysis: the severity of a health risk, the efficacy to avoid a threat or to minimize its negative outcome, and finally the type of presented evidence (statistical information versus exemplar information). Drawing on persuasion research, these characteristics and their presumed relationship to health message exposure and avoidance are discussed next. The derived hypotheses are then tested in a cross-cultural experiment.
Conclusions: Novel insights available through Twitter for tobacco surveillance are attested through the high prevalence of positive sentiment. This positive sentiment is correlated in complex ways with social image, personal experience, and recently popular products such as hookah and electronic cigarettes. Several apparent perceptual disconnects between these products and their health effects suggest opportunities for tobacco control education. Finally, machine classification of tobacco-related posts shows a promising edge over strictly keyword-based approaches, yielding an improved signal-to-noise ratio in Twitter data and paving the way for automated tobacco surveillance applications.
AbstractObjectives. Little is known about the use of social media as a tool for health communication. We used a mixed-methods design to examine communication about childhood obesity on Twitter.
Methods. NodeXL was used to collect tweets sent in June 2013 containing the hashtag #childhoodobesity. Tweets were coded for content; tweeters were classified by sector and health focus. Data were also collected on the network of follower connections among the tweeters. We used descriptive statistics and exponential random graph modeling to examine tweet content, characteristics of tweeters, and the composition and structure of the network of connections facilitating communication among tweeters.
Results. We collected 1110 tweets originating from 576 unique Twitter users. More individuals (65.6%) than organizations (32.9%) tweeted. More tweets focused on individual behavior than environment or policy. Few government and educational tweeters were in the network, but they were more likely than private individuals to be followed by others.
Conclusions. There is an opportunity to better disseminate evidence-based information to a broad audience through Twitter by increasing the presence of credible sources in the #childhoodobesity conversation and focusing the content of tweets on scientific evidence.
Twitter peut parfois se transformer en addiction compulsive. Beaucoup d’utilisateurs qui ont vu leur communauté croître doucement mais surement ont leurs yeux rivés régulièrement sur leurs chiffres. Combien de nouveaux followers et surtout combien de followers sont partis. C’est la règle sur Twitter on gagne des followers mais on en perd aussi au fil du temps et des hauts et des bas de sa timeline.
The shortage of blood donors and increased demand for blood is an important health issue. Finding ways to increase donor recruitment and retention is a priority and, thus, an important area for research. This article aims to better understand donors and nondonors on the basis of their social responsibility, susceptibility to interpersonal influence, involvement in and attitude towards the blood donation issue, and their aroused feelings. The data from 345 completed surveys were collected via a web-based, self-administered method. Mean differences were examined and the conceptual model was tested via structural equation modeling. The findings provide important clarification of donation and nondonation behavior.
A public forum on how social media could be used to connect the general public with health professionals and health policy makers, held in Vancouver in February, generated more than 1.5 million impressions on Twitter and trended strongly in Canada that night.
The session was co-organized by the BC Patient Safety & Quality Council (BCPSQC) and the UBC Faculty of Medicine eHealth Strategy (eHSO) Office. In addition to excellent participation of an in-person audience and an online webcast, the hashtag #sm4health achieved 1.59 million impressions on Twitter.
This enthusiastic online participation via Twitter signified the popularity of this topic and the public’s strong interest in exploring how this medium can contribute to quality of health communication and dialogues.
The public forum opened with BC Minister of Health Terry Lake, and the Executive Associate Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, Dr. David Snadden.
eHSO Director Dr. Kendall Ho welcomed the audience and BCPSQC Executive Director Christina Krause (pictured) gave a keynote presentation to share her personal story of why she became involved in patient safety and quality in healthcare.
In particular, the BCPSQC (@BCPSQC) has used social media to gather best practices and suggestions through World Sepsis Day by engaging global participation via Twitter.
Next on the agenda, Dr. Keith White, physician co-lead for the Shared Care Polypharmacy initiative of the Doctors of BC/MoH, offered a specific case example of how polypharmacy – giving more medications to a patient than clinically required or appropriate – can cause more harm than good.
Dr. White emphasized the need to be vigilant about the judicious use and reduction of medications, and the important role of patients and families as partners with healthcare professionals. A video produced by the Fraser Health Authority was shared on this subject.
Audience members were invited to share their thoughts on this topic, and were asked how social media could be optimally used to improve healthcare and reduce the risks of polypharmacy.
Live Tweets were displayed on the screen with participants from in the room and around the world. Ideas captured included:
• “What about social media reminders to the public/family members to schedule a “Med Review” with primary care MD or Pharmacy?”@NurseNerdy
• “Social media channels would be a great way to disseminate PSA, awareness campaign, etc. on polypharmacy to various audiences #sm4health.”@HelenJoey
• “Twitter or google chat w pharmacists to let families ask questions about #polypharmacy (thought needed around privacy though).”@Gndv
Twitter afforded the ability to capture a large amount of relevant data to inform future practice via crowdsourcing. The use of social media as part of the proceedings extended the discussion from the live audience to virtually anywhere.
Healthcare and Twitter are an excellent match. New studies can be shared instantly (think of Twitter’s 140-character limit as the ultimate book preview), YouTube videos can help spread important messages, blogs and microblogs can give insights and engage others through sharing of reflections.
We hope to leverage these media to reduce the average of 17 years it takes to use medical knowledge generated from medical research for routine and safe use in clinical practice, and improve the community members’ understanding of and participation in health care improvement – one tweet at a time.
During the forum, live polling was used to capture people’s thoughts and uses of social media in their daily lives. Twenty-five per cent of the in-house crowd indicated they use social media daily in their professional work, with many more using social media in their personal and social lives. A challenge and a benefit of social media rests in its ability to blend one’s personal and professional identities, a challenge that can be even more pronounced in healthcare.
Perhaps it was said best in this tweet: “Personal experience makes many of us want to improve the patient experience.”@TerryLakeMLA
Conclusions The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40p and 50p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times greater effect.
The present meta-analysis suggests that consuming probiotics may improve BP by a modest degree, with a potentially greater effect when baseline BP is elevated, multiple species of probiotics are consumed, the duration of intervention is ≥8 weeks, or daily consumption dose is ≥1011 colony-forming units.