Social Foraging
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Social Foraging
Dynamics of Social Interaction
Curated by Ashish Umre
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The Effect of Similarity: Non-Spatial Features Modulate Obstacle Avoidance

The Effect of Similarity: Non-Spatial Features Modulate Obstacle Avoidance | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The introduction of non-target objects into a workspace leads to temporal and spatial adjustments of reaching trajectories towards a target. If the non-target is obstructing the path of the hand towards the target, the reach is adjusted such that collision with the non-target, or obstacle, is avoided. Little is known about the influence of features which are irrelevant for the execution of the movement on avoidance movements, like color similarity between target and non-target objects. In eye movement studies the similarity of non-targets has been revealed to influence oculomotor competition. Because of the tight neural and behavioral coupling between the gaze and reaching system, our aim was to determine the contribution of similarity between target and non-target to avoidance movements. We performed 2 experiments in which participants had to reach to grasp a target object while a non-target was present in the workspace. These non-targets could be either similar or dissimilar in color to the target. The results indicate that the non-spatial feature similarity can further modify the avoidance response and therefore further modify the spatial path of the reach. Indeed, we find that dissimilar pairs have a stronger effect on reaching-to-grasp movements than similar pairs. This effect was most pronounced when the non-target was on the outside of the reaching hand, where it served as more of an obstacle to the trailing arm. We propose that the increased capture of attention by the dissimilar obstacle is responsible for the more robust avoidance response.

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GTXOP: A Game Theoretic Approach for QoS Provisioning Using Transmission Opportunity Tuning

GTXOP: A Game Theoretic Approach for QoS Provisioning Using Transmission Opportunity Tuning | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In unsupervised contention-based networks such as EDCA mode of IEEE 802.11(e)(s), upon winning the channel, each node gets a transmission opportunity (TXOP) in which the node can transmit multiple frames consequently without releasing the channel. Adjusting TXOP can lead to better bandwidth utilization and QoS provisioning. To improve WLAN throughput performance, EDCA packet bursting can be used in 802.11e, meaning that once a station has gained an EDCA-TXOP, it can be allowed to transmit more than one frame without re-contending for the channel. Following the access to the channel, the station can send multiple frames as long as the total access time does not exceed the TXOP Limit. This mechanism can reduce the network overhead and increase the channel utilization instead. However, packet bursting may cause unfairness in addition to increasing jitter, delay and loss. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, although TXOP tuning has been investigated through different methods, it has not been considered within a game theory framework. In this study, based on the analytical models of EDCA, a game theoretic approach called GTXOP is proposed to determine TXOP dynamically (i.e. according to the dynamisms of WLAN networks and the number of nodes in the network). Using GTXOP, each node can choose its TXOP autonomously, such that in addition to QoS improvement, the overall network performance is also improved.

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Construction of Ontology Augmented Networks for Protein Complex Prediction

Construction of Ontology Augmented Networks for Protein Complex Prediction | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Protein complexes are of great importance in understanding the principles of cellular organization and function. The increase in available protein-protein interaction data, gene ontology and other resources make it possible to develop computational methods for protein complex prediction. Most existing methods focus mainly on the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology annotation information. In this article, we constructed ontology augmented networks with protein-protein interaction data and gene ontology, which effectively unified the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks and the similarity of gene ontology annotations into unified distance measures.

 

After constructing ontology augmented networks, a novel method (clustering based on ontology augmented networks) was proposed to predict protein complexes, which was capable of taking into account the topological structure of the protein-protein interaction network, as well as the similarity of gene ontology annotations. Our method was applied to two different yeast protein-protein interaction datasets and predicted many well-known complexes. The experimental results showed that (i) ontology augmented networks and the unified distance measure can effectively combine the structure closeness and gene ontology annotation similarity; (ii) our method is valuable in predicting protein complexes and has higher F1 and accuracy compared to other competing methods.

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Leveraging Social Media to Help During Emergencies

Leveraging Social Media to Help During Emergencies | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Twitter is being used increasingly by people who find themselves in the middle of a disaster to report what’s happening, who needs help, and the extent of damage. But when a disaster strikes, the volume of tweets can be overwhelming for anyone trying to monitor them.

 

The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization(CSIRO), Australia’s science agency, has come up with a systematic way of sifting through the 140-character messages and feeding important details to crisis coordination centers, which in Australia organize assistance from government agencies.

 

“Twitter provides a new source of data from which crisis coordinators can obtain awareness about developing situations,” says Mark Cameron, the project’s leader.

 

Cameron, along with researchers Andrew Lampert, Bella Robinson, and Jie Yin, wrote “Using Social Media to Enhance Emergency Situation Awareness,” published in the November/December issue of IEEE Intelligent Systems magazine.

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Tannah Gravelis's curator insight, August 22, 2014 5:13 AM

This article looks into the way in which social media can be utilised by governments to enhance the way in which it can serves communities - in this instance, an emergency situation. It's a nice article that shows how governments are beginning to realise the potential this new medium has to assists in situations where instant communication is a necessity.

 

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Building and Interacting with Virtual Brain: Randy McIntosh

The Virtual Brain (TVB, thevirtualbrain.org) is an international project that uses real neuroimaging data to construct a simulation of the human brain. Anatomical data setup the conduit for communication between different brain regions. The dynamics for each region are generated from a library of nonlinear models, and produce large-scale activity patterns that can be compared directly to empirical functional data, such EEG/MEG or functional MRI. The talk will present the core of the platform and its applications to understanding the structure-function interplay that forms the basis of cognitive architectures. TVB's use of real data is also at the heart of a larger social neuroscience initiative, wherein small groups of people interact with TVB through wireless EEG headsets, modifying an immersive audiovisual environment that mimics a dream -- My Virtual Dream. The goal is to make use of individual brain signals to augment the group experience through TVB. The two avenues of development for TVB will inform neurally-inspired computing architectures and the evolution of interactive devices that can use a person's physiology to redesign their experience.

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Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior

An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

 

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ECCS'12: Satellite Meeting INFORMATION PROCESSING IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS (IPCS'12)

All systems in nature have one thing in common: they process information. Information is registered in the state of a system and its elements, implicitly and invisibly. As elements interact, information is transferred. Indeed, bits of information about the state of one element will travel – imperfectly – to the state of the other element, forming its new state. This storage and transfer of information, possibly between levels of a multi level system, is imperfect due to randomness or noise. From this viewpoint, a system can be formalized as a collection of bits that is organized according to its rules of dynamics and its topology of interactions. Mapping out exactly how these bits of information percolate through the system could reveal new fundamental insights in how the parts orchestrate to produce the properties of the system. A theory of information processing would be capable of defining a set of universal properties of dynamical multi level complex systems, which describe and compare the dynamics of diverse complex systems ranging from social interaction to brain networks, from financial markets to biomedicine. Each possible combination of rules of dynamics and topology of interactions, with disparate semantics, would reduce to a single language of information processing.

 
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Life in the City Is Essentially One Giant Math Problem

Life in the City Is Essentially One Giant Math Problem | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Glen Whitney stands at a point on the surface of the Earth, north latitude 40.742087, west longitude 73.988242, which is near the center of Madison Square Park, in New York City. Behind him is the city’s newest museum, the Museum of Mathematics, which Whitney, a former Wall Street trader, founded and now runs as executive director. He is facing one of New York’s landmarks, the Flatiron Building, which got its name because its wedge- like shape reminded people of a clothes iron. Whitney observes that from this perspective you can’t tell that the building, following the shape of its block, is actually a right triangle—a shape that would be useless for pressing clothes—although the models sold in souvenir shops represent it in idealized form as an isosceles, with equal angles at the base. People want to see things as symmetrical, he muses. He points to the building’s narrow prow, whose outline corresponds to the acute angle at which Broadway crosses Fifth Avenue.

 

“The cross street here is 23rd Street,” Whitney says, “and if you measure the angle at the building’s point, it is close to 23 degrees, which also happens to be approximately the angle of inclination of the Earth’s axis of rotation.”

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Luciano Lampi's curator insight, May 4, 2013 10:59 AM

The city and the matemathician! Beautiful !

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Extinction and coexistence of competing prey species in ecological systems

Extinction and coexistence of competing prey species in ecological systems | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In this paper, a Gause type mathematical model is proposed to study the effect of predation on two competing prey species in which the predator species is influenced by the damage effect caused by crowding from the members of its own population in a diffusive system. In the absence of diffusion, criteria for local stability, instability and global stability of the non-negative equilibria of the system has been obtained. Conditions for the coexistence of the two competing prey species and the extinction of either of the prey are tested numerically. These numerical simulations suggest that there exists a stable limit cycle in some ranges of the parameters and extinction of the prey species in some other ranges of the parameters. Basin boundary calculations indicate the coexistence of different attractors on the same set of parametric values.

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Complex dynamics and synchronization in two non-identical chaotic ecological systems

Synchronization is a natural phenomenon in non-linear dynamical systems. The relative importance of various mechanisms of population synchrony has been debated by population ecologists. The debate revolves around the issue whether the regionally extrinsic or locally intrinsic agents are more potent. In the present paper, we have attempted to demonstrate that a local intrinsic mechanism, predation, can be more common cause of population synchrony than is believed. Two chaotic food chains having different kinds of top-predators are synchronized using a recently proposed algorithm by Lu and Cao [Lu J, Cao J. Adaptive complete synchronization of two identical or different chaotic (hyperchaotic) dynamical systems with fully unknown parameters. Chaos 2005;15(043901):1–10]. The idiosyncracy of this approach is that it takes care of the uncertainties involved in the parameter estimation. The complete synchronization achieved is robust to noise present in the system. We suggest that local intrinsic causes of population synchrony should be given more attention.

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Some aspects of animal behavior and community dynamics

Ashish Umre's insight:

We simulate the dynamical behavior of a few two - dimensional predator - prey systems in two - dimensional parameter spaces to gain insight into how functional responses affect community dynamics. The insight gained helps us design three dimensional systems. We construct models for a few ecosystems with three species and study them using computer simulations. The models have been developed by linking food chains which have both kinds of predators: specialist as well as generalist. The linking functions are weakly non-linear. The three dimensional model ecosystems have sexually reproducing top - predators. We perform extensive simulations to figure out dynamics of dynamical possibilities caused by changes in animal behavior. The animals change the foraging strategies and behave differently in different environments. At the end of the paper, we examine how diseases can govern transitions in meandering of dynamical models in bounded volume of their phase spaces.

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African Bus Routes Redrawn Using Cell-Phone Data

Researchers at IBM, using movement data collected from millions of cell-phone users in Ivory Coast in West Africa, have developed a new model for optimizing an urban transportation system.

The IBM model prescribed changes in bus routes around the around Abidjan, the nation’s largest city. These changes—based on people’s movements as discerned from cell-phone records—could, in theory, slash travel times 10 percent.


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Betty Cares's curator insight, May 6, 2013 10:51 AM

Check this out-- one of many interesting topics presented at NETMOB at MIT last week. 

Luciano Lampi's curator insight, May 7, 2013 8:54 AM

Talk and....commute!

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Exploring the Experience of Social Rejection in Adults and Adoclescents: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

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Neural Correlates of the Perception for Novel Objects

Neural Correlates of the Perception for Novel Objects | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Perception of novel objects is of enormous importance in our lives. People have to perceive or understand novel objects when seeing an original painting, admiring an unconventional construction, and using an inventive device. However, very little is known about neural mechanisms underlying the perception for novel objects. Perception of novel objects relies on the integration of unusual features of novel objects in order to identify what such objects are. In the present study, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was employed to investigate neural correlates of perception of novel objects. The neuroimaging data on participants engaged in novel object viewing versus ordinary object viewing revealed that perception of novel objects involves significant activation in the left precuneus (Brodmann area 7) and the right visual cortex. The results suggest that the left precuneus is associated with the integration of unusual features of novel objects, while the right visual cortex is sensitive to the detection of such features. Our findings highlight the left precuneus as a crucial component of the neural circuitry underlying perception of novel objects.

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Social Brains in Context: Lesions Targeted to the Song Control System in Female Cowbirds Affect Their Social Network

Social Brains in Context: Lesions Targeted to the Song Control System in Female Cowbirds Affect Their Social Network | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Social experiences can organize physiological, neural, and reproductive function, but there are few experimental preparations that allow one to study the effect individuals have in structuring their social environment. We examined the connections between mechanisms underlying individual behavior and social dynamics in flocks of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We conducted targeted inactivations of the neural song control system in female subjects. Playback tests revealed that the lesions affected females' song preferences: lesioned females were no longer selective for high quality conspecific song. Instead, they reacted to all cowbird songs vigorously. When lesioned females were introduced into mixed-sex captive flocks, they were less likely to form strong pair-bonds, and they no longer showed preferences for dominant males. This in turn created a cascade of effects through the groups. Social network analyses showed that the introduction of the lesioned females created instabilities in the social structure: males in the groups changed their dominance status and their courtship patterns, and even the competitive behavior of other female group-mates was affected. These results reveal that inactivation of the song control system in female cowbirds not only affects individual behavior, but also exerts widespread effects on the stability of the entire social system.

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Why Is Facebook Blue? The Science Behind Colors In Marketing

Why Is Facebook Blue? The Science Behind Colors In Marketing | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Turn out, something as simple as tweaking the color of a button changes user behavior or endears people to your product. Buffer's Leo Widrich explains the importance of color in website and brand design.

 

Why is Facebook blue? According to The New Yorker, the reason is simple. It’s because Mark Zuckerberg is red-green color blind; blue is the color Mark can see the best.

 

 

Not highly scientific, right? That may not be the case for Facebook, but there are some amazing examples of how colors actually affect our purchasing decisions. After all, sight is the strongest developed sense one in most human beings. It’s only natural that 90% of an assessment for trying out a product is made by color alone.

 

 

So how do colors really affect us, and what is the science of colors in marketing, really? As we strive to make improvements to our product at Buffer, studying this phenomenon is key. Let’s dig into some of the latest, most interesting research on it.

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Cambridge Networks Day (7 MAY 2013), Cambridge University

Cambridge Networks Day (7 MAY 2013), Cambridge University | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

We are pleased to announce that CNDay2013 will take place on Tuesday the 7th of May 2013 at the Sainsbury Laboratory.Thanks to the generous sponsorship of the University of Cambridge and the Sainsbury Laboratory.

 

The list of confirmed speakers for CNDay 2013 includes:

 

Albert-Lászlo Barabási, Northeastern University, Boston

Marc Barthélémy, CEA Institut de Physique Theorique, Saclay, France

Ed Bullmore, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge

Ginestra Bianconi, Queen Mary University of London

Jörg Menche, Northeastern University, Boston

Cecilia Mascolo, Computing Laboratory, University of Cambridge

Felix Reed-Tsochas, Saïd Business School, Oxford

 

 

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We wouldn’t be human without grandparents - Paul Hooper (Evolutionary Anthropologist )

We wouldn’t be human without grandparents - Paul Hooper (Evolutionary Anthropologist ) | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
There is an old Spanish saying, “Quién sabe de abuelo, sabe de bueno,” meaning, “To know a grandparent is to know good.” If you visited the reptile room at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science in Albuquerque in the ’70s or ’80s, you probably would have met my own grandmother, Barbara Meyer, a sprightly and spirited woman who worked tirelessly to open young people’s eyes to the wonders of the natural world. It was her early lessons in biology that laid the foundation for my later career as an evolutionary anthropologist — a scientist who studies human origins and behavior within the context of the full diversity of life.
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Maria Lamle's curator insight, November 30, 2014 2:31 AM

How grandparenting / extended family helped shape human evolution

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Accelerating networks

Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and—after finding it somewhat constrictive—offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution.
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Insect-Eye Camera Offers Wide-Angle Vision for Tiny Drones

Insect-Eye Camera Offers Wide-Angle Vision for Tiny Drones | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

New “insect eye” cameras could someday help flying drones see into every corner of a battlefield or give tiny medical scopes an all-around view inside the human body. A team of researchers from the United States has constructed such a camera, which offers an almost 180-degree field of view using hundreds of tiny lenses.

 

The centimeter-wide digital camera has 180 microlenses—roughly what fire ants or bark beetles have in their compound eyes—placed on a hemispherical array. Researchers hope their design will eventually lead to insect-eye cameras that exceed even nature’s blueprints, according to a report in the 2 May issue of the journal Nature.

 

“We think of the insect world as an inspiration for design, but we’re not constrained by it,” says John Rogers, a physical chemist and materials engineer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “It’s not biomimicry; it’s bioinspiration.”

 

Biological insect eyes consist of hundreds or thousands of the tiny units, each having a lens, pigment, and photoreceptors. Each unit’s lens is mounted on a transparent crystalline cone that pipes light down to the photoreceptors. Black pigment isolates each of the eye units and screens out background light.

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Chaos, Solitons & Fractals - Evolving to the edge of chaos: Chance or necessity?

Chaos, Solitons & Fractals - Evolving to the edge of chaos: Chance or necessity? | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

We show that ecological systems evolve to edges of chaos (EOC). This has been demonstrated by analyzing three diverse model ecosystems using numerical simulations in combination with analytical procedures. It has been found that all these systems reside on EOC and display short-term recurrent chaos (strc). The first two are non-linear food chains and the third one is a linear food chain. The dynamics of first two is dictated by deterministic changes in system parameters. In contrast to this, dynamics of the third model system (the linear food chain) is governed by both deterministic changes in system parameters as well as exogenous stochastic perturbations (unforeseen changes in initial conditions) of these dynamical systems.

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Influence of environmental noise on the dynamics of a realistic ecological model

The present paper investigates the influence of environmental noise on a fairly realistic three-species food chain model based on the Leslie-Gower scheme. The self- growth parameter for the prey species is assumed to be perturbed by white noise characterized by a Gaussian distribution with mean zero and unit spectral density. Using tools borrowed from the nonlinear dynamical system theory, we study the dynamical behavior of the model system. The behavior of the stochastic system (perturbed one) is studied and the fluctuations in the populations are measured both analytically (for the linearized system) and numerically by computer simulation. Varying one of the control parameters in its range, while keeping all the others constant, we monitor the changes in the dynamical behavior of the model system, thereby fixing the regimes in which the system exhibits chaotic dynamics. Our study suggests that the trophic level (top, middle or bottom) at which a population is positioned, the amplitude of environmental noise and the population's susceptibility to environmental noise play key roles in how noise affects the population dynamics.

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Dynamics of an ecological model living on the edge of chaos

Dynamics of an ecological model living on the edge of chaos | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

We present a new ecological model, which displays “edge of chaos” (EoC) in parameter space. This suggests that ecological systems are not chaotic, instead, their dynamics can be characterized as short-term recurrent chaos. The system’s dynamics is unpredictable and admits bursts of short-term predictability. We also provide results, which suggest that fully developed chaos will rarely be observed in natural systems.

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Deterministic Chaos Versus Stochastic Oscillation in a Prey-Predator-Top Predator Model

Deterministic Chaos Versus Stochastic Oscillation in a Prey-Predator-Top Predator Model | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The main objective of the present paper is to consider the dynamical analysis of a three dimensional prey-predator model within deterministic environment and the influence of environmental driving forces on the dynamics of the model system. For the deterministic model we have obtained the local asymptotic stability criteria of various equilibrium points and derived the condition for the existence of small amplitude periodic solution bifurcating from interior equilibrium point through Hopf bifurcation. We have obtained the parametric domain within which the model system exhibit chaotic oscillation and determined the route to chaos. Finally, we have shown that chaotic oscillation disappears in presence of environmental driving forces which actually affect the deterministic growth rates. These driving forces are unable to drive the system from a regime of deterministic chaos towards a stochastically stable situation. The stochastic stability results are discussed in terms of the stability of first and second order moments. Exhaustive numerical simulations are carried out to validate the analytical findings.

 

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Scientists make world's smallest animation with atoms

Scientists make world's smallest animation with atoms | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Researchers used a scanning tunnelling microscope to move thousands of carbon monoxide molecules to make an animated short film depicting a stick boy playing with his pet atom.

 

In the one-minute video, individual molecules are repeatedly rearranged to show a boy dancing, throwing a ball and bouncing on a trampoline.

 

The film, called A Boy and His Atom, is so small it can be seen only when magnified 100 million times.

 

The ability to move single atoms — the smallest particles of any element in the universe — is crucial to IBM's research in the field of atomic memory.

 

The company has honed atomic-manipulation technique after years of researching atomic data storage.

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