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Social Foraging
Dynamics of Social Interaction
Curated by Ashish Umre
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Econometrics by Simulation: MSimulate Command

Econometrics by Simulation: MSimulate Command | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Stata has a wonderfully effective simulate function that allows users to easily simulate data and analysis in a very rapid fashion. * The only drawback is that when you run it, it will replace the data in memory with the simulated ...
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Behavior With Big Data: Your Customer is Going Digital

Behavior With Big Data: Your Customer is Going Digital | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Although many companies would argue that they understand their customers, companies who grow profitably also do the following:

Invest significantly more time and money in understanding their customersTarget specific customer segments without inhibitionsMarket their products in a sophisticated mannerStructure their entire organization around providing the products / services their customers seek

A fast-growing online grocery retailer in the UK, with over £500m in gross sales, has relatively easy access to vast quantities of data about its customers and their buying habits. What distinguishes it from its peers is what it does with this data. It thoroughly analyses customers’ responses to marketing campaigns, their buying habits, and the way in which they use the online store and applies this data to ensure that marketing is highly personalized and timed to create regular orders.


On the basis of a more focused research, the company identified a customer desire to interact through a variety of interfaces and, in response, created iPhone, Android and iPad applications. These new interfaces have complemented, rather than changed, services that customers already appreciate, like text messages, informing them of the timely delivery of their purchases.


There’s nothing new in the idea that companies should invest in understanding their customers. What’s important, particularly in a competitive market place, where switching costs are often low, is that they keep trying to do so and that they build an organization around what they learn.

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How Natural Selection Can Create Both Self- and Other-Regarding Preferences, and Networked Minds

How Natural Selection Can Create Both Self- and Other-Regarding Preferences, and Networked Minds | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Biological competition is widely believed to result in the evolution of selfish preferences. The related concept of the ‘homo economicus’ is at the core of mainstream economics. However, there is also experimental and empirical evidence for other-regarding preferences. Here we present a theory that explains both, self-regarding and other-regarding preferences. Assuming conditions promoting non-cooperative behaviour, we demonstrate that intergenerational migration determines whether evolutionary competition results in a ‘homo economicus’ (showing self-regarding preferences) or a ‘homo socialis’ (having other-regarding preferences). Our model assumes spatially interacting agents playing prisoner's dilemmas, who inherit a trait determining ‘friendliness’, but mutations tend to undermine it. Reproduction is ruled by fitness-based selection without a cultural modification of reproduction rates. Our model calls for a complementary economic theory for ‘networked minds’ (the ‘homo socialis’) and lays the foundations for an evolutionarily grounded theory of other-regarding agents, explaining individually different utility functions as well as conditional cooperation.

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Fast clustering algorithms for massive datasets

Fast clustering algorithms for massive datasets | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Here we discuss two potential algorithms that can perform clustering extremely fast, on big data sets, as well as the graphical representation of such complex clustering structures. By extremely fast, we mean a computational complexity of order O(n)and even faster such as O(n/log n). This is much faster than good Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering which are typicallyO(n^2 log n). By big data, we mean several millions, possibly a billion observations.


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An incredible map of which countries e-mail each other, and why

An incredible map of which countries e-mail each other, and why | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The Internet was supposed to let us bridge continents and cultures like never before. But after analyzing more than 10 million e-mails from Yahoo! mail, a team of computer researchers noticed an interesting phenomenon: E-mails tend to flow much more frequently between countries with certain economic and cultural similarities.

 

Among the factors that matter are GDP, trade, language, non-Commonwealth colonial relations, and a couple of academic-sounding cultural metrics, like power-distance, individualism, masculinity and uncertainty. (More on those later.)

 

The findings were released in a paper titled “The Mesh of Civilizations and International Email Flows,” written by researchers at Stanford, Cornell, Yahoo! and Qatar’s Computational Research Institute.

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Dynamics and Structure in Cell Signaling Networks: Off-State Stability and Dynamically Positive Cycles

Dynamics and Structure in Cell Signaling Networks: Off-State Stability and Dynamically Positive Cycles | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The signaling system is a fundamental part of the cell, as it regulates essential functions including growth, differentiation, protein synthesis, and apoptosis. A malfunction in this subsystem can disrupt the cell significantly, and is believed to be involved in certain diseases, with cancer being a very important example. While the information available about intracellular signaling networks is constantly growing, and the network topology is actively being analyzed, the modeling of the dynamics of such a system faces difficulties due to the vast number of parameters, which can prove hard to estimate correctly. As the functioning of the signaling system depends on the parameters in a complex way, being able to make general statements based solely on the network topology could be especially appealing. We study a general kinetic model of the signaling system, giving results for the asymptotic behavior of the system in the case of a network with only activatory interactions. We also investigate the possible generalization of our results for the case of a more general model including inhibitory interactions too. We find that feedback cycles made up entirely of activatory interactions (which we call dynamically positive) are especially important, as their properties determine whether the system has a stable signal-off state, which is desirable in many situations to avoid autoactivation due to a noisy environment. To test our results, we investigate the network topology in the Signalink database, and find that the human signaling network indeed has only significantly few dynamically positive cycles, which agrees well with our theoretical arguments.

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Competition over Personal Resources Favors Contribution to Shared Resources in Human Groups

Competition over Personal Resources Favors Contribution to Shared Resources in Human Groups | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one's own resources against others. We use a game theoretic “tug-of-war” model to predict that when such competition over personal resources is possible, players will contribute more towards a group resource, and also obtain higher payoffs from doing so. We test and find support for these predictions in two laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may be avoided, and highlight unifying features in the evolution of cooperation and competition in human and non-human societies.

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Modelling the Emergence and Dynamics of Perceptual Organisation in Auditory Streaming

Modelling the Emergence and Dynamics of Perceptual Organisation in Auditory Streaming | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes) with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives—a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual organisations) and the dynamics of human perception in auditory streaming.

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When are we going to learn to trust robots?

When are we going to learn to trust robots? | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

A new robot unveiled this week highlights the psychological and technical challenges of designing a humanoid that people actually want to have around.

Like all little boys, Roboy likes to show off.

 

He can say a few words. He can shake hands and wave. He is learning to ride a tricycle. And - every parent's pride and joy - he has a functioning musculoskeletal anatomy.

 

But when Roboy is unveiled this Saturday at the Robots on Tour event in Zurich, he will be hoping to charm the crowd as well as wow them with his skills.

 

"One of the goals is for Roboy to be a messenger of a new generation of robots that will interact with humans in a friendly way," says Rolf Pfeifer from the University of Zurich - Roboy's parent-in-chief.

 

As manufacturers get ready to market robots for the home it has become essential for them to overcome the public's suspicion of them. But designing a robot that is fun to be with - as well as useful and safe - is quite difficult.

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Harpal S.sandhu's curator insight, March 6, 2013 10:48 AM

SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

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Incredible algorithm reveals invisible motion in everyday video

Incredible algorithm reveals invisible motion in everyday video | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Researchers at MIT working at "the intersection of vision and graphics" have created a computer program that offers its users a stunning new way of looking at the world. The intriguing technique, which uses an algorithm that can amplify both movement and color, can be used to monitor everthing from breathing in a sleeping infant, to the pulse in a hospital patient. Its creators, led by computer scientist William Freeman, call it "Eulerian Video Magnification," and it's nothing short of stunning to watch in action.

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Moore’s law is not just for computers

Moore’s law is not just for computers | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Predicting the future of technology often seems a fool’s game. In 1946 for example, Thomas J. Watson, founder of International Business Machines — now known simply as IBM — is said to have made the prediction that the world would need just five computers. But US researchers now say that technological progress really is predictable — and back up the claim with evidence regarding 62 different technologies.

 

The claim is nothing new. But what a group of researchers at the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, have done is to put it to the test.

 

In a study published in PLoS One1, they compared several mathematical laws that purport to describe how the costs of technologies evolve, and found that the most accurate was one proposed as early as 1936.

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Big Neuroscience: Billions and Billions (Maybe) to Unravel Mysteries of the Brain

Big Neuroscience: Billions and Billions (Maybe) to Unravel Mysteries of the Brain | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The era of Big Neuroscience has arrived.

 

In late January, The Human Brain Project—an attempt to create a computer simulation of the brain at every scale from the nano nano to the macro biotic—announced that it had successfully arranged a billion Euro funding package for a 10-year run.

 

And then on Feb. 18, an article in The New York Times took the wraps off a plan to spend perhaps billions of dollars for an effort to record large collections of brain cells and figure out what exactly they are doing.

 

Is this the Large Hadron Collider vs. the Superconducting Supercollider redux?

Not yet. The billions for the Brain Activity Map, the U.S. project, are still a wish that has yet to be granted.

 

But, despite as-always hazy government finances, brain researchers are thinking large as they never have before, and invoking the attendant rhetoric of  moon shots, next-generation Human Genome Projects and the need for humankind to muster the requisite visionary zeal to tackle one of science’s “last frontiers.” Oy, spare me that last part.

 

The challenges these projects have set for themselves, though, illustrate the challenge of  going from today’s crude profiles of  a biological machine of incomprehensible complexity to an accurate rendering of the goings-on of some 100 billion neurons woven together by a pulsating tapestry of 100 trillion electrical interconnections.

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Luis Moniz Pereira's comment, March 6, 2013 4:40 AM
L. M. Pereira, Can we Copy the Human Brain in the Computer?
Invited commentary slides: http://centria.di.fct.unl.pt/%7Elmp/publications/slides/brain-org/Copy%20Human%20Brain.pdf
at “Brain.org”, Fórum Gulbenkian de Saúde, Lisboa, 9-10 October, 2012.

Can we not Copy the Human Brain in the Computer?
Invited commentary text: http://centria.di.fct.unl.pt/%7Elmp/publications/slides/brain-org/Commentary_Brain-Org.pdf
CineversityTV's curator insight, September 27, 2013 6:13 AM

The brain a biological machine of incomprehensible complexity, of some 100 billion neurons woven together by a pulsating tapestry of 100 trillion electrical interconnections.

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Study: Weather extremes linked to trapping of atmospheric waves

Study: Weather extremes linked to trapping of atmospheric waves | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Regional weather extremes in recent years, such as the 2011 U.S. heat wave or the 2010 Russia heat wave coinciding with the Pakistan flood, share a common physical cause, according to a new study by scientists at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) and SFI.

 

The study suggests that man-made climate change repeatedly disturbs the patterns of atmospheric flow around the globe's Northern hemisphere through a subtle resonance mechanism.

 

SFI External Professor Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, director of PIK, is co-author of the study, which is published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Online Edition.

 

“An important part of the global air motion in the mid-latitudes of the Earth normally takes the form of waves wandering around the planet, oscillating between the tropical and the Arctic regions. So when they swing up, these waves suck warm air from the tropics to Europe, Russia, or the US, and when they swing down, they do the same thing with cold air from the Arctic,” explains the study’s lead author, Vladimir Petoukhov.

 

“What we found is that during several recent extreme weather events these planetary waves almost freeze in their tracks for weeks. So instead of bringing in cool air after having brought warm air in before, the heat just stays. In fact, we observe a strong amplification of the usually weak, slowly moving component of these waves,” says Petoukhov.

 

Time is critical: two or three days of 30 degrees Celsius are no problem, but twenty or more days lead to extreme heat stress. Because many ecosystems and cities are not adapted to prolonged hot periods, these aberrations can result in a high death toll, forest fires, and harvest losses, suggest the authors.

 

The authors of the study developed equations that describe the wave motions in the extra-tropical atmosphere and show under what conditions those waves can grind to a halt and get amplified. They tested their assumptions using standard daily weather data from the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction.

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Neuroaesthetics and the Trouble with Beauty

Neuroaesthetics and the Trouble with Beauty | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The famous nineteenth-century psychophysicist Gustav Fechner was also a poet and art critic. Armed with the tools of science, Fechner sought to reconcile his various interests. He would doubtless be interested by technological developments in neuroscience that have revealed the operations of neurons at cellular resolution and have enabled us to peer almost unnoticed into each other's working brains. But can these tools advance our understanding of aesthetics beyond Fechner's insights [1]? The nascent field of neuroaesthetics claims it can. Here we consider what questions this new field is poised to answer. We underscore the importance of distinguishing between beauty, art, and perception—terms often conflated by “aesthetics”—and identify adjacent fields of neuroscience such as sensation, perception, attention, reward, learning, memory, emotions, and decision making, where discoveries will likely be informative.

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Balance between Noise and Information Flow Maximizes Set Complexity of Network Dynamics

Boolean networks have been used as a discrete model for several biological systems, including metabolic and genetic regulatory networks. Due to their simplicity they offer a firm foundation for generic studies of physical systems. In this work we show, using a measure of context-dependent information, set complexity, that prior to reaching an attractor, random Boolean networks pass through a transient state characterized by high complexity. We justify this finding with a use of another measure of complexity, namely, the statistical complexity. We show that the networks can be tuned to the regime of maximal complexity by adding a suitable amount of noise to the deterministic Boolean dynamics.(...) Our results suggest that the maximization of complexity near to the state transition might be a more general phenomenon in physical systems, and that noise present in a system may in fact be useful in retaining the system in a state with high information content.

 

Mäki-Marttunen T, Kesseli J, Nykter M (2013) Balance between Noise and Information Flow Maximizes Set Complexity of Network Dynamics. PLoS ONE 8(3): e56523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056523


Via Complexity Digest
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In-Memory Data Grids Allow Data Science at Faster Speeds

In-Memory Data Grids Allow Data Science at Faster Speeds | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In-Memory Data Grids (IDG) allow organizations to collect, store, analyze and distribute large, fast-changing data sets in near real-time. Organizations are increasingly using IDG's for the efficient sharing of fast-changing data across multiple sites. IDG's provide the scalability and low latency required to enable applications to handle large workloads with fast responsiveness.

 

Data scientists need to be able to access and analyze fast-changing data quickly and easily - without regard to where it originates. The difference between high-value data science and good data science is increasingly about the ability to analyze larger amounts of data at faster speeds. Speed kills in data science and the ability to provide valuable, actionable insights to the client in a timely fashion can mean the difference between competitive advantage and no or little value-added.

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Model Risk: When is a business analytics model 'validated'?

Model Risk: When is a business analytics model 'validated'? | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In Jorge Luis Borges’ parable “On Rigor in Science” (“Del rigor en la ciencia”), a lost empire attains such perfection in the art of cartography that a one-for-one scale map of the empire is produced, laid-out across the land.  In time, the creation is understandably deemed useless and subsequent generations ambivalently witness the decay of the map (Borges, 1975).  Borges’ critique is that of a science which seeks to perfectly validate, one-to-one, its experiments such that the efforts and impositions of testing and documentation overwhelm the utility and impact of the proofs.  Effective inquiry must enact efficiencies between the overhead of validation and the utility achieved from experimental models.  This notion sits as the foundation of this proposal regarding business model validation: given the impracticality, and indeed impossibility, of ‘perfect model validation’, what can be considered ‘robust’ from a commercial organizational standpoint? Is it possible to improve upon limitations in current model validation practices, particularly when organizational validation is viewed as an unstructured confidence-building exercise?

 
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Which Twitter tribe are you? Researchers discover new wave of online communities which even have their own languages

Which Twitter tribe are you? Researchers discover new wave of online communities which even have their own languages | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Twitter users are spontaneously forming tribe-like communities of like-minded people who even share their own distinct languages, new research has found.


Scientists from Royal Holloway, University of London, and Princeton University in New Jersey found they could use the language in Tweets to group users into communities with a common character, occupation or interest.


They suggest that the use of a common language could allow members of such 'Twitter tribes' to quickly identify like-minded users, and that further investigation could yield insights into how sub-cultures evolve online.

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Constructing a Stochastic Model of Bumblebee Flights from Experimental Data

Constructing a Stochastic Model of Bumblebee Flights from Experimental Data | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Members of social groups face a trade-off between investing selfish effort for themselves and investing cooperative effort to produce a shared group resource. Many group resources are shared equitably: they may be intrinsically non-excludable public goods, such as vigilance against predators, or so large that there is little cost to sharing, such as cooperatively hunted big game. However, group members' personal resources, such as food hunted individually, may be monopolizable. In such cases, an individual may benefit by investing effort in taking others' personal resources, and in defending one's own resources against others. We use a game theoretic “tug-of-war” model to predict that when such competition over personal resources is possible, players will contribute more towards a group resource, and also obtain higher payoffs from doing so. We test and find support for these predictions in two laboratory economic games with humans, comparing people's investment decisions in games with and without the options to compete over personal resources or invest in a group resource. Our results help explain why people cooperatively contribute to group resources, suggest how a tragedy of the commons may be avoided, and highlight unifying features in the evolution of cooperation and competition in human and non-human societies.

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Local Network Patterns in Protein-Protein Interfaces

Local Network Patterns in Protein-Protein Interfaces | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Protein-protein interfaces hold the key to understanding protein-protein interactions. In this paper we investigated local interaction network patterns beyond pair-wise contact sites by considering interfaces as contact networks among residues. A contact site was defined as any residue on the surface of one protein which was in contact with a residue on the surface of another protein. We labeled the sub-graphs of these contact networks by their amino acid types. The observed distributions of these labeled sub-graphs were compared with the corresponding background distributions and the results suggested that there were preferred chemical patterns of closely packed residues at the interface. These preferred patterns point to biological constraints on physical proximity between those residues on one protein which were involved in binding to residues which were close on the interacting partner. Interaction interfaces were far from random and contain information beyond pairs and triangles. To illustrate the possible application of the local network patterns observed, we introduced a signature method, called iScore, based on these local patterns to assess interface predictions. On our data sets iScore achieved 83.6% specificity with 82% sensitivity.

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Stimulus-dependent Maximum Entropy Models of Neural Population Codes

Stimulus-dependent Maximum Entropy Models of Neural Population Codes | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Neural populations encode information about their stimulus in a collective fashion, by joint activity patterns of spiking and silence. A full account of this mapping from stimulus to neural activity is given by the conditional probability distribution over neural codewords given the sensory input. For large populations, direct sampling of these distributions is impossible, and so we must rely on constructing appropriate models. We show here that in a population of 100 retinal ganglion cells in the salamander retina responding to temporal white-noise stimuli, dependencies between cells play an important encoding role. We introduce the stimulus-dependent maximum entropy (SDME) model—a minimal extension of the canonical linear-nonlinear model of a single neuron, to a pairwise-coupled neural population. We find that the SDME model gives a more accurate account of single cell responses and in particular significantly outperforms uncoupled models in reproducing the distributions of population codewords emitted in response to a stimulus. We show how the SDME model, in conjunction with static maximum entropy models of population vocabulary, can be used to estimate information-theoretic quantities like average surprise and information transmission in a neural population.

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As Math Grows More Complex, Will Computers Reign?

As Math Grows More Complex, Will Computers Reign? | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Shalosh B. Ekhad, the co-author of several papers in respected mathematics journals, has been known to prove with a single, succinct utterance theorems and identities that previously required pages of mathematical reasoning. Last year, when asked to evaluate a formula for the number of integer triangles with a given perimeter, Ekhad performed 37 calculations in less than a second and delivered the verdict: “True.”

 

Shalosh B. Ekhad is a computer. Or, rather, it is any of a rotating cast of computers used by the mathematician Doron Zeilberger, from the Dell in his New Jersey office to a supercomputer whose services he occasionally enlists in Austria. The name — Hebrew for “three B one” — refers to the AT&T 3B1, Ekhad’s earliest incarnation.

 

“The soul is the software,” said Zeilberger, who writes his own code using a popular math programming tool called Maple.

 

A mustachioed, 62-year-old professor at Rutgers University, Zeilberger anchors one end of a spectrum of opinions about the role of computers in mathematics. He has been listing Ekhad as a co-author on papers since the late 1980s “to make a statement that computers should get credit where credit is due.” For decades, he has railed against “human-centric bigotry” by mathematicians: a preference for pencil-and-paper proofs that Zeilberger claims has stymied progress in the field. “For good reason,” he said. “People feel they will be out of business.”

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The Hidden Costs of Cognitive Enhancement

The Hidden Costs of Cognitive Enhancement | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Gentle electrical zaps to the brain can accelerate learning and boost performance on a wide range of mental tasks, scientists have reported in recent years. But a new study suggests there may be a hidden price: Gains in one aspect of cognition may come with deficits in another.

 

Researchers who study transcranial electrical stimulation, which uses electrodes placed on the scalp, see it as a potentially promising way to enhance cognition in neurological patients, struggling students, and perhaps even ordinary people. Scientists have used it to speed up rehab in people whose speech or movement has been affected by a stroke, and DARPA has studied it as a way to accelerate learning in intelligence analysts or soldiers on the lookout for bad guys and bombs.

 

Until now, the papers coming out of this field have reported one good-news finding after another.

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Twitter Life After Death

Twitter Life After Death | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Tweeting from the grave? There’s an app for that!

 

A new app launching in March called LivesOn will allow social media accounts to live on even after you die. The creators of LivesOn say that the app uses artificial-intelligence that will analyze your past tweets, learn your likes and syntax, and then post similar tweets when you’re gone. Creepy? A little bit. Users who sign up for the app are asked to appoint an executor, who will control the account. So as you premeditate your departure from earth, make sure you find someone who will take the reins on your social media accounts and carry on your legacy!

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Secret alternative rules of Monopoly show how everyone can live in prosperity | A Very Beautiful Place

Secret alternative rules of Monopoly show how everyone can live in prosperity | A Very Beautiful Place | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

I am utterly astonished. We have heard of the DaVinci code, but there is a MONOPOLY code. The secret rules of the game from the early 1900s show how, by changing the rules, everyone can live in prosperity.

 

Back in the early 1900s a woman called Elizabeth J. Magie patented the Landlord’s game to be a “practical demonstration of the present system of land-grabbing with all its usual outcomes and consequences.” Elizabeth was not against capitalism, rather defeating monopoly in all its forms (but, particularly, monopoly of nature). Lizzie continued to work on the design of The Landlord’s Game as a way to explain how the political economy system of  Henry George would work in real life. Henry George was against all forms of taxation except from those who owned land.

 

Parker Brothers purchased Elizabeth’s patent in 1932 for $500, on condition that Parker Brothers would continue to publish The Landlord’s Game as well as Monopoly.  In the third edition, published in 1939, and consistent with the agreement with Elizabeth, the game came with two sets of rules. However, only the rules copyrighted by Parker Brothers were actually sold with the game. Purchases were required to contact Elizabeth Magie Phillips to obtain the alternative rules. Remarkably, Elizabeth’s rules were made available by Hasbro on the company’s website.

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Harpal S.sandhu's curator insight, March 4, 2013 8:52 PM

COLLECTIVE PROGRESS