Social Foraging
67.9K views | +0 today
Follow
Social Foraging
Dynamics of Social Interaction
Curated by Ashish Umre
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Fluctuation-Driven Flocking Movement in Three Dimensions and Scale-Free Correlation

Fluctuation-Driven Flocking Movement in Three Dimensions and Scale-Free Correlation | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Recent advances in the study of flocking behavior have permitted more sophisticated analyses than previously possible. The concepts of “topological distances” and “scale-free correlations” are important developments that have contributed to this improvement. These concepts require us to reconsider the notion of a neighborhood when applied to theoretical models. Previous work has assumed that individuals interact with neighbors within a certain radius (called the “metric distance”). However, other work has shown that, assuming topological interactions, starlings interact on average with the six or seven nearest neighbors within a flock. Accounting for this observation, we previously proposed a metric-topological interaction model in two dimensions. The goal of our model was to unite these two interaction components, the metric distance and the topological distance, into one rule. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the metric-topological interaction model could explain a real bird flocking phenomenon called scale-free correlation, which was first reported by Cavagna et al. In this study, we extended our model to three dimensions while also accounting for variations in speed. This three-dimensional metric-topological interaction model displayed scale-free correlation for velocity and orientation. Finally, we introduced an additional new feature of the model, namely, that a flock can store and release its fluctuations.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Ashish Umre from CxAnnouncements
Scoop.it!

Discrete Dynamics Lab, June 2013 update

Discrete Dynamics Lab, June 2013 update | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Network (and jump) graph nodes contract down to 1 pixel -- improving the scolling tube for large 1d networks, improvements to enlarged DDLab window layout, load/save ascii seed files.
The Derrida plot (described in EDD#22) is usually applied as an order-chaos measure for large RBN in the context of models of genetic regulatory networks, but it also provides Liapunov-like insights into CA rules. New options allow automatic plots of sets of rules in ascending decimal order, filtering out equivalent binary rcode and tcode, and listing equivalence classes and rule clusters.

For Null Boundary Conditions, inputs beyond the network's edges are held at a constant value of zero. All DDLab functions can now be easily switched between Periodic and Null. Null boundaries are of interest in pattern recognition, and where the system is grounded or quenched, or bounded by an edge, skin or membrane.
The new 2d hex/triangular neighborhoods for k3 and k4 permit investigating the dynamics on these simpler lattices, with many instances of complexity.

 

http://www.ddlab.com


Via Complexity Digest
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Temperature dependence of trophic interactions are driven by asymmetry of species responses and foraging strategy

Temperature dependence of trophic interactions are driven by asymmetry of species responses and foraging strategy | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Environmental temperature has systematic effects on rates of species interactions, primarily through its influence on organismal physiology.We present a mechanistic model for the thermal response of consumer–resource interactions. We focus on how temperature affects species interactions via key traits – body velocity, detection distance, search rate and handling time – that underlie per capita consumption rate. The model is general because it applies to all foraging strategies: active-capture (both consumer and resource body velocity are important), sit-and-wait (resource velocity dominates) and grazing (consumer velocity dominates).The model predicts that temperature influences consumer–resource interactions primarily through its effects on body velocity (either of the consumer, resource or both), which determines how often consumers and resources encounter each other, and that asymmetries in the thermal responses of interacting species can introduce qualitative, not just quantitative, changes in consumer–resource dynamics. We illustrate this by showing how asymmetries in thermal responses determine equilibrium population densities in interacting consumer–resource pairs.We test for the existence of asymmetries in consumer–resource thermal responses by analysing an extensive database on thermal response curves of ecological traits for 309 species spanning 15 orders of magnitude in body size from terrestrial, marine and freshwater habitats. We find that asymmetries in consumer–resource thermal responses are likely to be a common occurrence.Overall, our study reveals the importance of asymmetric thermal responses in consumer–resource dynamics. In particular, we identify three general types of asymmetries: (i) different levels of performance of the response, (ii) different rates of response (e.g. activation energies) and (iii) different peak or optimal temperatures. Such asymmetries should occur more frequently as the climate changes and species' geographical distributions and phenologies are altered, such that previously noninteracting species come into contact.By using characteristics of trophic interactions that are often well known, such as body size, foraging strategy, thermy and environmental temperature, our framework should allow more accurate predictions about the thermal dependence of consumer–resource interactions. Ultimately, integration of our theory into models of food web and ecosystem dynamics should be useful in understanding how natural systems will respond to current and future temperature change.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Ashish Umre from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Caltech Talk: Can humans create a super intelligence and how would it evolve?

Suzanne Gildert's talk at Humanity+ @ Caltech ( http://www.humanityplus.org/conferences/ ) about "What do super-intelligences REALLY want?" and will they outsmart mankind during in a singularity event.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
Bian Wu's curator insight, October 12, 2014 6:24 PM

artificial super intelligence. a lot of video reference

Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Inputs-Outputs Conference 2013: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Causality in Engagement, Immersion, Presence and Related Concepts in Human-Computer Interaction

Inputs-Outputs Conference 2013:     Interdisciplinary Approaches to Causality in Engagement, Immersion, Presence and Related Concepts in Human-Computer Interaction | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Causality in Engagement, Immersion, Presence and Related Concepts in Human-Computer Interaction

 

Engagement, and related concepts such as immersion, presence, and motivation, are much sought after in the public discourse of policy, theatre and education. This conference brings together an interdisciplinary spectrum of academics from science and media, performance art and game design practitioners to facilitate discussion and collaboration around the subject of engagement:


• The relationship between physical, emotional, and intellectual engagement
• Results from assessment and quantification of engagement in different fields
• Methodologies and modalities for measuring engagement in different fields

 

Listen to Radio 4′s Digital Human, where Aleks Krotoski and Harry Witchel from the Inputs-Outputs team discuss the science behind the amazing experiences created by horror film makers and immersive theatre to engage their audiences:

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Science in a Complex World: What is ‘democracy,’ and does everybody want it?

Science in a Complex World: What is ‘democracy,’ and does everybody want it? | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Everybody wants to live in a democracy. Right? Isn’t that why we fought the British? And isn’t that what the 2011 Arab Spring was all about? Like most Americans, this is what I had assumed, until I started gathering the thoughts of people in one of the world’s newest democracies: Mongolia.

 

This question of whether democracy is a universal human desire or a conceit of U.S. policy is, I think, a good one for my field, anthropology. It’s also a question that relates to the research of some of my colleagues at the Santa Fe Institute, who are interested in how complex societies and institutions have emerged in human history, co-evolving with human culture, biology, the environment and economic organization, for example.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Parents influenced by evolutionary tendency when naming children

Parents influenced by evolutionary tendency when naming children | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Parents' choice of baby names is influenced by an evolutionary tendency to make boys sound large and girls sound small, thus improving their chances of procreating, scientists have claimed.

 

Popular boys' names - like Thomas, Oliver and Jack - are far more likely to contain broad vowels that we associate with largeness, while common names for girls - like Emily, Olivia and Sophie - tend to be smaller-sounding by comparison, researchers said.

 

The study, carried out by psychologists and an anthropologist at Queen Mary, University of London, drew on previous research which found that people have a strong sense of “sound symbolism” - associating different vowel sounds with different sizes and shapes - because our brains are hardwired to associate low frequency noises with large, dominant or threatening people or animals, while high frequency sounds are connected with smaller vocalisers.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Basketball and Biology: A Tale of Two Social Networks

A systems biologist looks at basketball games through the prism of graph theory
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

The evolution of division of labor in digital organisms

Division of labor is a hallmark strategy employed by a wide variety of groups ranging in complexity from bacteria to human economies. Within these groups, some individuals, such as worker ants, sacrifice their ability to reproduce and instead dedicate their lives to the maintenance of the colony and success of their kin. A worker ant may spend its entire life performing a single task, such as defending the colony or tending to the brood. The complexity of the strategies employed by these groups, combined with their rampant success, gives rise to questions regarding why division of labor exists. While extensive research has been done to better understand the patterns and mechanisms of division of labor, exploring this topic in an evolutionary context remains challenging to study due to the slow pace of evolution and imperfect historical data.

 

Understanding how and why division of labor arises is pertinent not just for understanding biological phenomena, but also as a means to enable evolutionary computation techniques to address complex problems using problem decomposition. The objective of problem-decomposition approaches is to have a group of individuals cooperatively solve a complex task by breaking it into pieces, having specialist individuals solve the pieces, and reassembling the solution. Essentially, problem-decomposition approaches use division of labor to enable groups to solve more challenging problems than any individual could alone. Unfortunately, human engineers have struggled with creating effective, automated problem-decomposition approaches.

 

In this dissertation, I use digital evolution (i.e., populations of self-replicating computer programs that undergo open-ended evolution) to investigate questions related to the evolution of division of labor and to apply these insights to problem decomposition techniques. This dissertation has three primary components: First, we provide experimental evidence that evolutionary computation techniques can evolve groups of individuals that exhibit division of labor. Second, we explore two hypotheses for the evolution of division of labor. Specifically, we find support for the hypothesis that temporal polyethism (i.e., where a worker’s age is related to the task it performs within the colony) may result from the evolutionary pressures of aging and risks associated with tasks. Additionally, we find support for a hypothesis initially proposed by Adam Smith, the premier economist, that the presence of task-switching costs results in an increase in the amount of division of labor exhibited by groups. Third, we describe how our analyses revealed that groups of organisms evolved as part of our task-switching work exhibit complex problem decomposition strategies that can potentially be applied to other evolutionary computation challenges. This work both informs biological studies of division of labor and also provides insights that can enable the development of new mechanisms for using evolutionary computation to solve increasingly complex engineering problems.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behaviour

Swarming behaviours in animals have been extensively studied owing to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition and predator–prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favour the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary model of a predator–prey system, we show that predator confusion provides a sufficient selection pressure to evolve swarming behaviour in prey. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the evolutionary effect of predator confusion on prey could in turn exert pressure on the structure of the predator's visual field, favouring the frontally oriented, high-resolution visual systems commonly observed in predators that feed on swarming animals. Finally, we provide evidence that when prey evolve swarming in response to predator confusion, there is a change in the shape of the functional response curve describing the predator's consumption rate as prey density increases. Thus, we show that a relatively simple perceptual constraint—predator confusion—could have pervasive evolutionary effects on prey behaviour, predator sensory mechanisms and the ecological interactions between predators and prey.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Great Technological Moments in Food History

Great Technological Moments in Food History | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
more...
foodofhistory's curator insight, February 7, 2015 12:19 PM

A fascinating timeline of food -- and the tools / technology that has changed the way we  make and consume it

Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Information Driven Self-Organization of Complex Robotic Behaviors

Information Driven Self-Organization of Complex Robotic Behaviors | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Information theory is a powerful tool to express principles to drive autonomous systems because it is domain invariant and allows for an intuitive interpretation. This paper studies the use of the predictive information (PI), also called excess entropy or effective measure complexity, of the sensorimotor process as a driving force to generate behavior. We study nonlinear and nonstationary systems and introduce the time-local predicting information (TiPI) which allows us to derive exact results together with explicit update rules for the parameters of the controller in the dynamical systems framework. In this way the information principle, formulated at the level of behavior, is translated to the dynamics of the synapses. We underpin our results with a number of case studies with high-dimensional robotic systems. We show the spontaneous cooperativity in a complex physical system with decentralized control. Moreover, a jointly controlled humanoid robot develops a high behavioral variety depending on its physics and the environment it is dynamically embedded into. The behavior can be decomposed into a succession of low-dimensional modes that increasingly explore the behavior space. This is a promising way to avoid the curse of dimensionality which hinders learning systems to scale well.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Changes in the Hydrocarbon Proportions of Colony Odor and Their Consequences on Nestmate Recognition in Social Wasps

Changes in the Hydrocarbon Proportions of Colony Odor and Their Consequences on Nestmate Recognition in Social Wasps | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In social insects, colonies have exclusive memberships and residents promptly detect and reject non-nestmates. Blends of epicuticular hydrocarbons communicate colony affiliation, but the question remains how social insects use the complex information in the blends to discriminate between nestmates and non-nestmates. To test this we altered colony odor by simulating interspecific nest usurpation. We split Polistes dominulus paper-wasp nests into two halves and assigned a half to the original foundress and the other half to a P. nimphus usurper for 4 days. We then removed foundresses and usurpers from nests and investigated whether emerging P. dominulus workers recognized their never-before-encountered mothers, usurpers and non-nestmates of the two species. Behavioral and chemical analyses of wasps and nests indicated that 1) foundresses marked their nests with their cuticular hydrocarbons; 2) usurpers overmarked foundress marks and 3) emerging workers learned colony odor from nests as the odor of the female that was last on nest. However, notwithstanding colony odor was usurper-biased in usurped nests, workers from these nests recognized their mothers, suggesting that there were pre-imaginal and/or genetically encoded components in colony-odor learning. Surprisingly, workers from usurped nests also erroneously tolerated P. nimphus non-nestmates, suggesting they could not tell odor differences between their P. nimphus usurpers and P. nimphus non-nestmates. Usurpers changed the odors of their nests quantitatively, because the two species had cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that differed only quantitatively. Possibly, P. dominulus workers were unable to detect differences between nestmate and non-nestmate P. nimphus because the concentration of some peaks in these wasps was beyond the range of workers' discriminatory abilities (as stated by Weber's law). Indeed, workers displayed the least discrimination abilities in the usurped nests where the relative odor changes due to usurpation were the largest, suggesting that hydrocarbon variations beyond species-specific ranges can alter discrimination abilities.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Using the quaternion's representation of individuals in swarm intelligence and evolutionary computation

This paper introduces a novel idea for representation of individuals using quaternions in swarm intelligence and evolutionary algorithms. Quaternions are a number system, which extends complex numbers. They are successfully applied to problems of theoretical physics and to those areas needing fast rotation calculations. We propose the application of quaternions in optimization, more precisely, we have been using quaternions for representation of individuals in Bat algorithm. The preliminary results of our experiments when optimizing a test-suite consisting of ten standard functions showed that this new algorithm significantly improved the results of the original Bat algorithm. Moreover, the obtained results are comparable with other swarm intelligence and evolutionary algorithms, like the artificial bees colony, and differential evolution. We believe that this representation could also be successfully applied to other swarm intelligence and evolutionary algorithms.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

UCLA life scientists present new insights on climate change and species interactions

UCLA life scientists present new insights on climate change and species interactions | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
UCLA life scientists provide important new details on how climate change will affect interactions between species in research published online May 21 in the Journal of Animal Ecology. This knowledge, they say, is critical to making accurate predictions and informing policymakers of how species are likely to be impacted by rising temperatures. "There is a growing recognition among biologists that climate change is affecting how species interact with one another, and that this is going to have very important consequences for the stability and functioning of ecosystems," said the senior author of the research, Van Savage, an assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and of biomathematics at UCLA. "However, there is still a very limited understanding of exactly what these changes will be. Our paper makes progress on this very important question."
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

World Science Festival: Self-Aware Robots and Living among Thinking Machines

In recent years, machines have grown increasingly capable of listening, communicating, and learning—transforming the way they collaborate with us, and significantly impacting our economy, health, and daily routines. Who, or what, are these thinking machines? As we teach them to become more sophisticated, how will they complement our lives? What will separate their ways of thinking from ours? And what happens when these machines understand data, concepts, and behaviors too big or impenetrable for humans to grasp? We were joined by IBM's WATSON, the computer Jeopardy! champion, along with leading roboticists and computer scientists, to explore the thinking machines of today and the possibilities to come in the not-too-distant future.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Bayes' Theorem in the 21st Century

The term "controversial theorem" sounds like an oxymoron, but Bayes' theorem has played this part for two-and-a-half centuries. Twice it has soared to scientific celebrity, twice it has crashed, and it is currently enjoying another boom. The theorem itself is a landmark of logical reasoning and the first serious triumph of statistical inference, yet is still treated with suspicion by most statisticians. There are reasons to believe in the staying power of its current popularity, but also some signs of trouble ahead.

 Note: You will need a login to read the full text.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Increased facial width-to-height ratio and perceived dominance in the faces of the UK's leading business leaders

Increased facial width-to-height ratio and perceived dominance in the faces of the UK's leading business leaders | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The relative proportion of the internal features of a face (the facial width-to-height ratio, FWH) has been shown to be related to individual differences in behaviour in males, specifically competitiveness and aggressiveness. In this study, we show that the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the leading UK businesses have greater FWHs than age- and sex-matched controls. We demonstrate that perceivers, naive as to the nature of the stimuli, rate the faces of CEOs as higher in dominance or success, and that ratings of dominance or success are themselves correlated with the FWH ratio. We find no association with other inferred traits such as trustworthiness, attraction or aggression. The latter is surprising given previous research demonstrating a link between FWH and ratings of aggression. We speculate that the core association may be between FWH and drive for dominance or power, but this can be interpreted as aggression only in particular circumstances (e.g., when the stimuli are comprised of faces of young, as opposed to middle-aged, men).

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Natural selection – it takes two: Darwin's rival Alfred Russel Wallace recognised at last

Natural selection – it takes two: Darwin's rival Alfred Russel Wallace recognised at last | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

It's pretty much accepted that the origin of the theory of natural selection lies in the writings of Charles Darwin. But it seems the long-known scientific theory on evolution was itself subject to survival of the fittest. Experts are now claiming that at least some of the credit for everything we believe about how species develop should have gone to someone else.

 

Alfred Russel Wallace, they say, was the first to write a paper on the theory, but his efforts were crushed by the greater fame of the "gentleman naturalist" Darwin.

 

Dr George Beccaloni, a curator at the Natural History Museum, said yesterday: "Wallace was the one who had the paper ready for publication, and if he'd sent it directly to a journal it would have been published and natural selection would have been Wallace's discovery."

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Learn Good Management From Bees and Golfers

Learn Good Management From Bees and Golfers | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Delegate. Develop others. Build consensus. Be decisive. Think strategically. Ah, yes, the keys to being an effective manager and leader all tied up in such neat little buzzwords and phrases. So neat, in fact, that it can be hard to unpack these concepts and dive into what it actually means to effectively delegate or develop others.

 

Decoding the most important but hard-to-explain qualities that set the best leaders apart from the rest is the focus of a new column on the newly-launched BBC Capital.

 

Turns out, you can learn a lot from the world of professional golf about delegation. Consider the relationship between golfers and their caddies.

“Caddies don’t just carry around a pro-golfer’s bag. They spend hours doing course research so they can suggest which club to use on each shot,” writes Eric Barton in Leader Board.

 

And it doesn’t always work out, as Barton details in the debut column, “Real delegation requires something unexpected.” Sometimes, the caddie suggests a shot and it goes all wrong. But it’s rare for a golfer to place blame on his caddie or regret delegating such a big decision. That’s largely because the relationship is built on trust and, ahem, letting go of control of important tasks—even when the outcome impacts you directly.

 

The caddie-golfer relationship is an example of all that goes right with effective delegation, writes Barton. Too often managers want to hand out only secondary assignments to the people who work for them, keeping the best or key tasks as their own. It’s human nature—we want to be responsible for our own professional fates. But the most effective delegators hand down plumb assignments and support employees while they figure out how to complete them. The key: Hiring and developing people you can trust.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) store both food and information in honeypots

Social insect foragers often transmit information about food sources to nest mates. In bumble bees (Bombus terrestris), for example, successful foragers use excited motor displays and a pheromone as communication signals. In addition, bees could make use of an indirect pathway of information flow, via the honey stores. We show here that, indeed, bees in the nest continuously monitor honeypots and sample their contents, thus obtaining information on supply and demand of nectar. When there is an influx of nectar into the nest, the colony deploys more workers for foraging. The number of new foragers depends on sugar concentration. Foragers returning with high-quality sugar solution display more "excited runs" on the nest structure. The recruits' response, however, does not depend on modulated behavior by foragers: more workers start to forage with high quality of incoming nectar, even when this nectar is brought by a pipette. Moreover, we show that the readiness of bees to respond to recruitment signals or incoming nectar also depends on colony demand. When colony nectar stores are full, the response of bees to equal amounts of nectar influx is smaller than when stores are empty. When colony nectar stores are depleted, foragers spend more time running excitedly and less time probing pots in the nest and run with higher average speed, possibly to disperse the alerting pheromone more efficiently. However, more bees respond to nectar influx to empty stores, whether or not this is accompanied by forager signals. Thus, honeypots serve to store information as well as food.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Temporal dynamics and network analysis

Temporal dynamics and network analysis | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Summary

1. Network analysis is widely used in diverse fields and can be a powerful framework for studying the structure of biological systems. Temporal dynamics are a key issue for many ecological and evolutionary questions. These dynamics include both changes in network topology and flow on the network. Network analyses that ignore or do not adequately account for the temporal dynamics can result in inappropriate inferences.

2. We suggest that existing methods are currently under-utilized in many ecological and evolutionary network analyses and that the broader incorporation of these methods will considerably advance the current field. Our goal is to introduce ecologists and evolutionary biologists interested in studying network dynamics to extant ideas and methodological approaches, at a level appropriate for those new to the field.

3. We present an overview of time-ordered networks, which provide a framework for analysing network dynamics that addresses multiple inferential issues and permits novel types of temporally informed network analyses. We review available methods and software, discuss the utility and considerations of different approaches, provide a worked example analysis and highlight new research opportunities in ecology and evolutionary biology.

more...
Harpal S.sandhu's curator insight, July 9, 2013 6:10 PM

dynamics in systems

Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Discovering one reason why swarming evolved offers tantalizing clues on how intelligence developed

Discovering one reason why swarming evolved offers tantalizing clues on how intelligence developed | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Many animals – from locusts to fish – live in groups and swarm, but scientists aren't sure why or how this behavior evolved. Now a multidisciplinary team of Michigan State University scientists has used a model system to show for the first time that predator confusion can make prey evolve swarming behavior.

Swarming allows groups of animals to accomplish tasks that they can't do alone, such as defending themselves from a much larger predator.

"There are both costs and benefits to swarming and all other behaviors," said Christoph Adami, MSU professor of microbiology and molecular genetics. "The benefits are discussed all the time. But the litmus test is whether a behavior evolves because of those benefits. If it doesn't evolve, it doesn't mean it's not beneficial, but if it does evolve, it's proof that the behavior has benefits that outweigh its costs. Our model system shows that predator confusion was enough of a selection pressure to evolve swarming behavior in prey."

The paper "Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behavior," is published online today by the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.

Many animals – from locusts to fish – live in groups and swarm, but scientists aren't sure why or how this behavior evolved. Now a multidisciplinary team of Michigan State University scientists has used a model system to show for the first time that predator confusion can make prey evolve swarming behavior.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2013-06-swarming-evolved-tantalizing-clues-intelligence.html#jCpMany animals – from locusts to fish – live in groups and swarm, but scientists aren't sure why or how this behavior evolved. Now a multidisciplinary team of Michigan State University scientists has used a model system to show for the first time that predator confusion can make prey evolve swarming behavior.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2013-06-swarming-evolved-tantalizing-clues-intelligence.html#jCpMany animals – from locusts to fish – live in groups and swarm, but scientists aren't sure why or how this behavior evolved. Now a multidisciplinary team of Michigan State University scientists has used a model system to show for the first time that predator confusion can make prey evolve swarming behavior.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2013-06-swarming-evolved-tantalizing-clues-intelligence.html#jCpMany animals – from locusts to fish – live in groups and swarm, but scientists aren't sure why or how this behavior evolved. Now a multidisciplinary team of Michigan State University scientists has used a model system to show for the first time that predator confusion can make prey evolve swarming behavior.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2013-06-swarming-evolved-tantalizing-clues-intelligence.html#jCp
Ashish Umre's insight:

Paper here: http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/10/85/20130305

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Ashish Umre from Papers
Scoop.it!

Game of Life on Phyllosilicates: Gliders, Oscillators and Still Life

A phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines --- silicon nodes and oxygen nodes --- which mimics structure of the phyllosilicate. A node takes states 0 and 1. Each node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon) or six (oxygen) neighbours. Phyllosilicate automata exhibit localizations attributed to Conway's Game of Life: gliders, oscillators, still lifes, and a glider gun. Configurations and behaviour of typical localizations, and interactions between the localizations are illustrated.

 

Game of Life on Phyllosilicates: Gliders, Oscillators and Still Life

Andrew Adamatzky

http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.0253


Via Complexity Digest
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish

A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems.

more...
No comment yet.