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Dynamics of Social Interaction
Curated by Ashish Umre
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Collective Intelligence 2014

IMPORTANT DATES

Extended abstract submission deadline:  January 15, 2014Notification of acceptance / rejection:  February 15, 2014Conference dates:  June 10-12, 2014

 

This interdisciplinary conference seeks to bring together researchers from a variety of fields relevant to understanding and designing collective intelligence of many types.

 

Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

human computationsocial computingcrowdsourcingwisdom of crowds (e.g., prediction markets)group memory and extended cognitioncollective decision making and problem-solvingparticipatory and deliberative democracyanimal collective behaviororganizational designpublic policy design (e.g., regulatory reform)ethics of collective intelligence (e.g., “digital sweatshops”)computational models of group search and optimizationemergence and evolution of intelligencenew technologies for making groups smarter

CONFERENCE FORMAT

The conference will take place at MIT and consist of:

Invited talks from prominent researchers in different areas related to collective intelligenceOral presentations (see below)Poster/Demo sessions (see below)“Ignite” sessions in which practitioners (e.g. policy makers) connect with researchers around collective-intelligence-based solutions to real-world problems
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An interactive map of more than 800,000 Scientific Papers that have influenced math and physics most

An interactive map of more than 800,000 Scientific Papers that have influenced math and physics most | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

ArXiv is an online archive that stores hundreds of thousands of scientific papers in physics, mathematics, and other fields. The citations in those papers link to one another, forming a web, but you're not going to see those connections just by sifting through the archive.

 

So physicist Damien George and Ph.D student Rob Knegjens took it on themselves to create Paperscape, an interactive infographic that beautifully and intuitively charts the papers.

 

The infographic is a mass of circles. Each circle represents a paper, and the bigger a circle is, the more highly cited it is. The papers are color-coded by discipline--pink for astrophysics, yellow for math, etc.--and papers that share many of the same citations are placed closer together.


Via Lauren Moss, Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Jay Ratcliff's curator insight, September 6, 2013 1:35 PM

This is cool!  It is like the map of the Internet done last year sometime.

I lucked out and found the section about SNA in the lower left hand side of the map.  Look for Network under the Quantitative Finance section, go figure.

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Altruism or manipulated helping? Altruism may have origins in manipulation

Altruism or manipulated helping? Altruism may have origins in manipulation | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Manipulation is often thought of as morally repugnant, but it might be responsible for the evolutionary origins of some helpful or altruistic behavior, according to a new study.

 

In evolutionary biology, manipulation occurs when an individual, the manipulator, alters the behavior of another individual in ways that is beneficial to the manipulator but may be detrimental to the manipulated individual. Manipulation not only occurs in humans and animals but also at the cellular level, such as among cells in a multicellular organism, or in parasites, which can alter the behavior of their hosts. Consider the case of the parasitic roundworm Myrmeconema neotropicum, which once ingested by the tropical ant Cephalotes atratus in Central and South America, causes the ant to grow a bright red abdomen, mimicking berries. This bright abdomen constitutes a phenotype manipulated by the roundworm. Birds eat the "berries," or infected ants, and then spread the parasite in their droppings, which are subsequently collected by foraging Cephalotes atratus and fed to their larva, and the cycle of manipulated behavior begins anew.

 

In the study published this week in the journal American Naturalist, the researchers developed a mathematical model for the evolution of manipulated behavior and applied it to maternal manipulation in eusocial organisms, such as ants, wasps, and bees, which form colonies with reproductive queens and sterile workers. In the model, mothers produce two broods, and they manipulate the first-brood offspring to stay in the maternal site and help raise the second brood. Mothers can do this by disrupting the offspring's development in some way, for example through poor feeding or aggressive behavior. Manipulated offspring of the first-brood stay and help to raise the second brood. Alternatively, first-brood offspring can resist manipulation and leave.

 

Citation: González-Forero M, Gavrilets S. 2013. Evolution of manipulated behavior. The American Naturalist. [Online]

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Neutron stars in the computer cloud: Einstein@Home discovers 24 new pulsars in archival data

Neutron stars in the computer cloud: Einstein@Home discovers 24 new pulsars in archival data | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
The combined computing power of 200,000 private PCs helps astronomers take an inventory of the Milky Way. The Einstein@Home project connects home and office PCs of volunteers from around the world to a global supercomputer. Using this computer cloud, an international team lead by scientists from the Max Planck Institutes for Gravitational Physics and for Radio Astronomy analysed archival data from the CSIRO Parkes radio telescope in Australia. Using new search methods, the global computer network discovered 24 pulsars – extraordinary stellar remnants with extreme physical properties. These can be used as testbeds for Einstein's general theory of relativity and could help to complete our picture of the pulsar population.
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Mouse Groups Reveal Complex Relationships: Mice living together exhibited a social structure based on multiple-level interactions

Mouse Groups Reveal Complex Relationships:  Mice living together exhibited a social structure based on multiple-level interactions | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
A common belief is that our modern, stimulation-filled environment encourages individualistic behavior (or anti-social behavior, depending on one’s point of view), while simpler surroundings give rise to a more developed community life. New research at the Weizmann Institute shows that this assumption – at least for mice – is based in reality: Mice that have been raised in a stimulus-rich environment have less complexity in their social interactions than those growing up in more Spartan conditions. The findings were based on two innovative developments: The first is an automated system that continuously tracks groups of mice living in semi-natural conditions; and the second is a mathematical framework for analyzing the data, which enabled the scientists to characterize, in detail, the nature of the mice’s collective behavior.
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Keyboard-Behavior-Based Authentication

Using a large corpus of keyboard behavior based on temporary workers employed in a simulated office environment, the authors show that stylometric techniques can help systems accurately distinguish between different users.

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Garment Personalization via Identity Transfer: Future of Online Fashion Business

Garment Personalization via Identity Transfer: Future of Online Fashion Business | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

This system creates a virtual experience akin to trying on clothing. It clones the user's photographic image into a catalog of images of models wearing the desired garments. The process takes into account the user's skin color and body dimensions.

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The Arecibo message sent into space 1974

The Arecibo message sent into space 1974 | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The Arecibo message was broadcast into space a single time via frequency modulated radio waves at a ceremony to mark the remodeling of the Arecibo radio telescope on 16 November 1974. It was aimed at the globular star cluster M13 some 25,000 light years away because M13 was a large and close collection of stars that was available in the sky at the time and place of the ceremony. The message consisted of 1679 binary digits, approximately 210 bytes, transmitted at a frequency of 2380 MHz and modulated by shifting the frequency by 10 Hz, with a power of 1000 kW. The "ones" and "zeros" were transmitted by frequency shifting at the rate of 10 bits per second. The total broadcast was less than three minutes.

 

The cardinality of 1679 was chosen because it is a semiprime (the product of two prime numbers), to be arranged rectangularly as 73 rows by 23 columns. The alternative arrangement, 23 rows by 73 columns, produces jumbled nonsense. The message forms the image, when translated into graphics characters and spaces.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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5th Annual Complexity in Business Conference, Washington D.C. 7-8 Nov 2013

5th Annual Complexity in Business Conference
Thursday and Friday, November 7 and 8, 2013 • Washington, DC

 

The Annual Complexity in Business Conference endeavors to be the premier meeting for the intersection of Complex Systems and Business. The 5th annual conference will be a one and a half day event and will include talks by thought leaders and an audience blend of academics and industry practitioners. We are very excited to announce that this year we will be having a concurrent track during the conference and will be accepting abstract submissions from the public. We are looking forward to a lively set of interactions among a very distinguished group of researchers and business leaders. On Thursday, November 7 at 3:00 p.m. a series of talks at the Ronald Reagan Building will kick off the conference, followed by a cocktail reception and dinner at a D.C. restaurant.

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Optimal Binary Prediction for Group Decision Making

Optimal Binary Prediction for Group Decision Making | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

We address the problem of optimally forecasting a binary variable for a heterogeneous group of decision makers facing various (binary) decision problems that are tied together only by the unknown outcome. A typical example is a weather forecaster who needs to estimate the probability of rain tomorrow and then report it to the public. Given a conditional probability model for the outcome of interest (e.g., logit or probit), we introduce the idea of maximum welfare estimation and derive conditions under which traditional estimators, such as maximum likelihood or (nonlinear) least squares, are asymptotically socially optimal even when the underlying model is misspecified.

 

(2010). Optimal Binary Prediction for Group Decision Making. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics: Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 308-319. doi: 10.1198/jbes.2009.06120

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The Complexity Challenge: How Businesses are bearing up (Economist Intelligence Unit)

The Complexity Challenge is an Economist Intelligence Unit report that investigates the rise of complexity in business and the challenges that increasing complexity creates. The report is sponsored by RBS. The Economist Intelligence Unit bears sole responsibility for the content of this report. Our editorial team executed the online survey, conducted the interviews and wrote the report. The findings and views expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Our research for this report drew on two main initiatives.1. We conducted an online survey of 300 executives from around the world in October-November 2010.The survey included companies from a range of industries.2. To supplement the survey results, we conducted a programme of qualitative research that included a series of in-depth interviews with industry experts. The author was Clint Witchalls and the editors were James Watson and Abhik Sen. We would like to thank all those who were involved in this research.
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Think uncertainty is a bad thing? It’s actually a mark of sound science

Think uncertainty is a bad thing? It’s actually a mark of sound science | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Scientists are challenging the idea that uncertainty in research is a reason for people to worry about the reliability of findings.

 

Researchers use uncertainty to express how confident they are in results, or to describe the boundaries of what is known and unknown, but in everyday language uncertainty is heard as ‘unreliable’.

 

In a new guide, Making Sense of Uncertainty, Sense About Science worked with researchers in climate science, disease modelling, epidemiology, weather forecasting, and natural hazard prediction to explain why we should be relieved when scientists describe the uncertainties in their work. We asked them to tell us why it is that the uncertainty in these areas doesn’t worry them, and to share these insights to help people engage more constructively with debates about uncertainty.

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How Poverty Taxes the Brain

How Poverty Taxes the Brain | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Human mental bandwidth is finite. You’ve probably experienced this before (though maybe not in those terms): When you’re lost in concentration trying to solve a problem like a broken computer, you’re more likely to neglect other tasks, things like remembering to take the dog for a walk, or picking your kid up from school. This is why people who use cell phones behind the wheel actually perform worse as drivers. It’s why air traffic controllers focused on averting a mid-air collision are less likely to pay attention to other planes in the sky.

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Festo BionicOpter: Robot Flies Like A Real Dragonfly

Festo BionicOpter: Robot Flies Like A Real Dragonfly | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

With the BionicOpter, Festo has technically mastered the highly complex flight characteristics of the dragonfly. Just like its model in nature, this ultralight flying object can fly in all directions, hover in mid-air and glide without beating its wings.

 

Thirteen degrees of freedom for unique flight manoeuvres: In addition to control of the shared flapping frequency and twisting of the individual wings, each of the four wings also features an amplitude controller. The tilt of the wings determines the direction of thrust. Amplitude control allows the intensity of the thrust to be regulated. When combined, the remote-controlled dragonfly can assume almost any position in space.

 

This unique way of flying is made possible by the lightweight construction and the integration of functions: components such as sensors, actuators and mechanical components as well as open- and closed-loop control systems are installed in a very tight space and adapted to one another.

 

With the remote-controlled dragonfly, Festo demonstrates wireless real-time communication, a continuous exchange of information, as well as the ability to combine different sensor evaluations and identify complex events and critical states.

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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IT's comment, September 6, 2013 5:04 AM
Real Dragon fly mě přivádí k šílenství
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Personality counts in bug 'cage match'

Personality counts in bug 'cage match' | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Looking at the personalities of one type of animal doesn’t predict predator-prey interactions as well as looking at the personalities of multiple species.

“If we’re interested in really understanding how individual personalities influence ecology, then we also have to acknowledge and accept that the personalities of many species or groups are also important,” says Jonathan Pruitt, assistant professor of behavioral ecology in the biological sciences department at the University of Pittsburgh.

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Underwater Intelligence: Scientists develop new method of estimating fish movements underwater

Underwater Intelligence: Scientists develop new method of estimating fish movements underwater | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

How do you track a fish?

 

There’s no “Google Maps” for finding fish.  The radio signals that are the backbone of traditional GPS cannot pass through seawater.  But sound travels remarkably well, so scientists often use acoustic telemetry to estimate an individual fish’s location. That means attaching an acoustic transmitter to a fish and then using a network of stationary underwater listening stations to monitor for the short clicking sounds that these tags emit. When a fish swims near to a receiver, its click is heard, and its individual code number is recorded.

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Penn biologists show that generosity leads to evolutionary success

With new insights into the classical game theory match-up known as the "Prisoner's Dilemma," University of Pennsylvania biologists offer a mathematically based explanation for why cooperation and generosity have evolved in nature.

 

Their work builds upon the seminal findings of economist John Nash, who advanced the field of game theory in the 1950s, as well as those of computational biologist William Press and physicist-mathematician Freeman Dyson, who last year identified a new class of strategies for succeeding in the Prisoner's Dilemma.

 

Postdoctoral researcher Alexander J. Stewart and associate professor Joshua B. Plotkin, both of Penn's Department of Biology in the School of Arts and Sciences, examined the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma as played repeatedly by a large, evolving population of players. While other researchers have previously suggested that cooperative strategies can be successful in such a scenario, Stewart and Plotkin offer mathematical proof that the only strategies that succeed in the long term are generous ones. They report their findings in PNAS the week of Sept. 2.

 

"Ever since Darwin," Plotkin said, "biologists have been puzzled about why there is so much apparent cooperation, and even flat-out generosity and altruism, in nature. The literature on game theory has worked to explain why generosity arises. Our paper provides such an explanation for why we see so much generosity in front of us."

 

The Prisoner's Dilemma is a way of studying how individuals choose whether or not to cooperate. In the game, if both players cooperate, they both receive a payoff. If one cooperates and the other does not, the cooperating player receives the smallest possible payoff, and the defecting player the largest. If both players do not cooperate, they receive a payoff, but it is less than what they would gain if both had cooperated. In other words, it pays to cooperate, but it can pay even more to be selfish.

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Marcelo Errera's curator insight, September 5, 2013 10:07 AM
Some patterns of association will prevail. Such patterns progressively facilitate the overall flow ("payoff") of the system. The system may grow to allow more complex associations.
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Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily.

Via Complexity Digest
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Designing Bespoke Interactive Devices

Advances in both software tools and digital fabrication technology have brought down the cost, time, and expertise required to design and prototype interconnected interactive devices.

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Internet of Things and Ubiquitous Sensing

Internet of Things and Ubiquitous Sensing | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

A pillar of the Future Internet, the Internet of Things (IoT) will comprise many billions of Internet-connected objects (ICOs) or "things" that can sense, communicate, compute, and potentially actuate, as well as have intelligence, multimodal interfaces, physical/virtual identities, and attributes. The IoT incorporates concepts from pervasive, ubiquitous, and ambient computing, which have been evolving since the late '90s and have now reached some level of maturity. It fuses the digital and physical worlds by bringing different concepts and technical components together. Along with the World Wide Web and mobility, IoT potentially represents the most disruptive technological revolution to date. With billions of ICOs and a diverse abundance of sensors, the IoT will be an enabler of ubiquitous sensing.

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Infographic: The Incredible Growth of Web Usage [1984-2013]

Infographic: The Incredible Growth of Web Usage [1984-2013] | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In the three decades since the Internet evolved from an experimental band of academic and government computer systems into a globe-spanning network of interconnected systems, the amount of time spent online has grown to rival (or even exceed) the time spent living offline. Personal computers, tablets and smartphones have made the connected life a reality, and the number of folks pursuing it has exploded.


Find more details at the link.


Via Lauren Moss
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Andrew Earnshaw's curator insight, September 20, 2013 3:23 PM

Yes, I too can remember when there wasn't an Internet. Is there an application that's not yet been produced. What next will we all wonder how we did without ?

Al Marqz's curator insight, September 27, 2013 7:14 PM

La humanidad en bloque ha optado por la gran Red y de ésta, por las redes sociales... ¡Larga vida a la web!

Pallab Kakoti's curator insight, April 16, 2014 7:44 AM

The rise & rise of web usage is one of the most unifying & reformative development to have impacted on a global scale. An insightful info-graphic that offers a unique purview from the inception days of internet to the latest trend of app usage estimating an annual revenue of $24 billion.

 

A pure delight that's not to be missed #PlbKkt for #hshdsh via #blogs4bytes //

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Embracing Complexity

Embracing Complexity | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In his job as chief investment strategist at Legg Mason Capital Management, Michael J. Mauboussin has developed a healthy appreciation for complexity. Along the way—through his reports, books, teaching at Columbia Business School, and frequent conference appearances—he has become a leading exponent of how to navigate complex systems in financial markets and other aspects of life. In this edited conversation with HBR senior editor Tim Sullivan, Mauboussin talks about how his views on complexity feed into his daily practices and attitudes.

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Decision Making Using Rating Systems: When Scale Meets Binary by Anna E. Bargagliotti, Lingfang (Ivy) Li

Decision Making Using Rating Systems: When Scale Meets Binary by Anna E. Bargagliotti, Lingfang (Ivy) Li | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Rating systems measuring quality of products and services (i.e., the state of the world) are widely used to solve the asymmetric information problem in markets. Decision makers typically make binary decisions such as buy/hold/sell based on aggregated individuals' opinions presented in the form of ratings. Problems arise, however, when different rating metrics and aggregation procedures translate the same underlying popular opinion to different conclusions about the true state of the world. This paper investigates the inconsistency problem by examining the mathematical structure of the metrics and their relationship to the aggregation rules. It is shown that at the individual level, the only scale metric (1,. . . ,N) that reports people's opinion equivalently in the a binary metric (-1, 0, 1) is one where N is odd and N-1 is not divisible by 4. At aggregation level, however, the inconsistencies persist regardless of which scale metric is used. In addition, this paper provides simple tools to determine whether the binary and scale rating systems report the same information at individual level, as well as when the systems differ at the aggregation level.

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Smith Business Close-Up: The Rise of E-Tail and Social Shopping

E-commerce and online sales have revolutionized holiday shopping. First there was the rise of Cyber Monday, but now the growth of mobile and tablet-based commerce makes it easier than ever to shop from anywhere at any time. Social media has accelerated this process, with consumers sharing shopping tips with friends and retailers offering special deals.

 

In this edition of Smith Business Close-Up with the University of Maryland’s Robert H. Smith School of Business, Bill Rand talks about how e-commerce and social media have revolutionized holiday shopping and the way we buy things throughout the year.

 

Rand is an assistant professor of marketing and directs the Smith School’s Center for Complexity in Business. He studies social networks, geographic information systems, and the way information spreads on the Internet. Rand also has an appointment with the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, and affiliate appointments with the departments of Decision, Operations & Information Technology and Computer Science.

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From the digital divide to inclusive innovation

In this report, the authors investigate one of the radical and rapid transformations in the commercial world: the rise of digital money. As well as highlighting the profound changes already wrought, their analysis paves the way for a future in which digital money could be used to address some of the most severe marginalisation and deprivation that exists within the global economy.

 

http://www.thersa.org/action-research-centre/enterprise-and-design/enterprise/reports/from-the-digital-divide-to-inclusive-innovation


Via Complexity Digest
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