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Social Foraging
Dynamics of Social Interaction
Curated by Ashish Umre
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MQTT Telemetry Transport: Is a machine-to-machine (M2M)/"Internet of Things" connectivity protocol

MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M)/"Internet of Things" connectivity protocol. It was designed as an extremely lightweight publish/subscribe messaging transport. It is useful for connections with remote locations where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium. For example, it has been used in sensors communicating to a broker via satellite link, over occasional dial-up connections with healthcare providers, and in a range of home automation and small device scenarios. It is also ideal for mobile applications because of its small size, low power usage, minimised data packets, and efficient distribution of information to one or many receivers

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Asymptotic Behaviour and Ratios of Complexity in Cellular Automata

We study the asymptotic behaviour of symbolic computing systems, notably one-dimensional cellular automata (CA), in order to ascertain whether and at what rate the number of complex versus simple rules dominate the rule space for increasing neighbourhood range and number of symbols (or colours), and how different behaviour is distributed in the spaces of different cellular automata formalisms. Using two different measures, Shannon's block entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, the latter approximated by two different methods (lossless compressibility and block decomposition), we arrive at the same trend of larger complex behavioural fractions. We also advance a notion of asymptotic and limit behaviour for individual rules, both over initial conditions and runtimes, and we provide a formalisation of Wolfram's classification as a limit function in terms of Kolmogorov complexity.

 

Asymptotic Behaviour and Ratios of Complexity in Cellular Automata

Hector Zenil, Elena Villarreal-Zapata

http://arxiv.org/abs/1304.2816


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Birdsong, Speech, and Language: Exploring the Evolution of Mind and Brain

Scholars have long been captivated by the parallels between birdsong and human speech and language. In this book, leading scholars draw on the latest research to explore what birdsong can tell us about the biology of human speech and language and the consequences for evolutionary biology. They examine the cognitive and neural similarities between birdsong learning and speech and language acquisition, considering vocal imitation, auditory learning, an early vocalization phase ("babbling"), the structural properties of birdsong and human language, and the striking similarities between the neural organization of learning and vocal production in birdsong and human speech. After outlining the basic issues involved in the study of both language and evolution, the contributors compare birdsong and language in terms of acquisition, recursion, and core structural properties, and then examine the neurobiology of song and speech, genomic factors, and the emergence and evolution of language.

 

 


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ACM SIGCOMM 2013 - Hong Kong 12-16 Aug 2013

ACM SIGCOMM 2013 - Hong Kong 12-16 Aug 2013 | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The organizing committee is delighted to invite you to ACM SIGCOMM 2013, to be held in Hong Kong, China between August 12 and August 16, 2013!

 

SIGCOMM is the flagship annual conference of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM) on the applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communication.

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Why we abruptly forget a person's name

Why we abruptly forget a person's name | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
It is an embarrassing scenario for many in a social situation but British scientists have offered a potential explanation into why we forget people's names but remember them hours later.
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Bit.ly for competitive intelligence

Bit.ly for competitive intelligence | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Bit.ly is an URL shortener (like tinyurl.com), but it offers much more than redirect services (everybody can create a redirect service), thanks to its interesting reporting capabilities. They recently hired a famous data scientist, Hilary Mason, see picture below.

 

And this service it is an example of great big data - provided you are aware of their incredibly simple - yet incredibly powerful dashboard (I love simple dashboards). It is also a classical example of big data that is useless unless you are aware of the features coming with it, and how to leverage it. So here's what I found to be especially useful. Below is a screenshot of the dashboard in question.

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Robot Discovers 2,000-Year-Old Burial Chambers

Robot Discovers 2,000-Year-Old Burial Chambers | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

A small robot has uncovered three 2,000-year-old chambers under an ancient temple in Mexico, archaeologists from the National Anthropology and History Institute announced this week.

 

The robot, named Tlaloc II-TC after Mexico's ancient god of rain, found the chambers under the Temple of the Feathered Serpent (also called the Temple of Quetzalcoatl) in the Mesoamerican ruins of Teotihuacan, which is just 30 miles from Mexico City. The ancient city, thought to have been established around 100 BC, had more than 100,000 inhabitants at its peak, but had long been abandoned before the Aztecs arrived in the 1300s.

 

In the 1980s, the remains of over 200 warriors were found in the core of the Temple of the Serpent. Archaeologists found a tunnel under the same temple in 2011 using radar technology. They then deployed the remote-controlled robot, which is equipped with an infrared camera and a scanner that generates detailed maps of the chambers beneath the temple. Three feet long, it can squeeze into tight spaces where a person would otherwise be unable to explore.

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Google Predicts Stock-Market Crashes, Study Suggests

Google Predicts Stock-Market Crashes, Study Suggests | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

On Tuesday (April 23), a tweet from a hacked Associated Press account claiming there had been explosions at the White House sent the Dow Jones Industrial Average plummeting 145 points almost instantaneously. The incident was an example of how quickly the Internet can send shock waves through the financial world, given how many trades are completed by computers rather than humans.

 

But new research finds the financial world doesn't just respond to the Internet; the Internet can also predict what the stock market will do. The research isn't the first to find such online clairvoyance. For example, Google may even be able to predict medication side effects before doctors can, thanks to people's tendencies to self-diagnose using the search engine. Google searches can also forecast the spread of the flu.

 

The new study, however, takes the extra step of testing out how well stock-buying would go, using Google search trends as guidance. The result: a pretty nice return.

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The honey and the ivy – why gardeners’ foe is the bees’ friend

The honey and the ivy – why gardeners’ foe is the bees’ friend | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The research, carried out by scientists at the Laboratory of Apiculture and Social Insects (LASI), is published online today (Friday 26 April) in the journal Insect Conservation and Diversity.

 

 

The researchers surveyed ivy flowers from rural and urban locations to count the honey bees and other insects foraging for nectar and pollen. They also identified the pollen brought back to hives by honey bee workers to determine the proportion from ivy and then surveyed ivy to determine how widespread it is.

 

 

In addition, the researchers measured the sugar concentration in nectar collected from ivy flowers by honey bee workers, and determined what proportion of honey bee foragers on ivy were collecting nectar versus pollen.

 

The data collected from hives on campus, from nearby Falmer village and from Brighton’s Dorothy Stringer School showed that, contrary to what might be expected, bee foraging distances decreased from summer to the autumn.

 

 

As ivy blooms mainly in September and October, this suggested that the plant was having a beneficial effect on bee foraging, resulting in the bees having to fly shorter distances to find high-quality flowers.

 

 

Having access to high-quality supplies of nectar and pollen late on in the flower season improves the chances of successful over-wintering for the hive.

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Physicist Proposes New Way To Think About Intelligence: A radical concept could revise theories addressing cognitive behavior.

Physicist Proposes New Way To Think About Intelligence: A radical concept could revise theories addressing cognitive behavior. | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

A single equation grounded in basic physics principles could describe intelligence and stimulate new insights in fields as diverse as finance and robotics, according to new research.

 

Alexander Wissner-Gross, a physicist at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Cameron Freer, a mathematician at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, developed an equation that they say describes many intelligent or cognitive behaviors, such as upright walking and tool use.

The researchers suggest that intelligent behavior stems from the impulse to seize control of future events in the environment. This is the exact opposite of the classic science-fiction scenario in which computers or robots become intelligent, then set their sights on taking over the world.

The findings describe a mathematical relationship that can "spontaneously induce remarkably sophisticated behaviors associated with the human 'cognitive niche,' including tool use and social cooperation, in simple physical systems," the researchers wrote in a paper published today in the journal Physical Review Letters.

"It's a provocative paper," said Simon DeDeo, a research fellow at the Santa Fe Institute, who studies biological and social systems. "It's not science as usual."

Wissner-Gross, a physicist, said the research was "very ambitious" and cited developments in multiple fields as the major inspirations.

The mathematics behind the research comes from the theory of how heat energy can do work and diffuse over time, called thermodynamics. One of the core concepts in physics is called entropy, which refers to the tendency of systems to evolve toward larger amounts of disorder. The second law of thermodynamics explains how in any isolated system, the amount of entropy tends to increase. A mirror can shatter into many pieces, but a collection of broken pieces will not reassemble into a mirror.

The new research proposes that entropy is directly connected to intelligent behavior.

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Coevolutionary Games on Spatial Structures

Collective Dynamics of Complex Systems Research Group Seminar Series April 24, 2013 Genki Ichinose (CoCo Visiting Scholar; Anan National College of Technology,…

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Betty Cares's curator insight, April 25, 2013 11:23 AM

From SUNY Binghamton's CoCo Research Group yesterday.  Japan's Genki Ichinose, visiting scholar, presents on Coevolutionary Games on Spatial Structures. 

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Remote Guidance of Untrained Turtles by Controlling Voluntary Instinct Behavior

Remote Guidance of Untrained Turtles by Controlling Voluntary Instinct Behavior | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Recently, several studies have been carried out on the direct control of behavior in insects and other lower animals in order to apply these behaviors to the performance of specialized tasks in an attempt to find more efficient means of carrying out these tasks than artificial intelligence agents. While most of the current methods cause involuntary behavior in animals by electronically stimulating the corresponding brain area or muscle, we show that, in turtles, it is also possible to control certain types of behavior, such as movement trajectory, by evoking an appropriate voluntary instinctive behavior. We have found that causing a particular behavior, such as obstacle avoidance, by providing a specific visual stimulus results in effective control of the turtle's movement. We propose that this principle may be adapted and expanded into a general framework to control any animal behavior as an alternative to robotic probes.

 

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There's a New Law in Physics and It Changes Everything

There's a New Law in Physics and It Changes Everything | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

I first came across the work of Adrian Bejan through my old friend, J. Peder Zane who emailed a bunch of classmates about a new book he had co-written with Bejan called Design in Nature, How the Constructal Law Governs Evolution in Biology, Physics, Technology and Social Organization. I called Peder up to talk about it and found myself immediately sucked in.

 

How could there be a new law in physics that nobody outside of academia seems to know about? There must be something wrong with it, or else I would already know about it, right? But science is on a slower news cycle than technology and, as author William Gibson once joked, “The future is already here—it’s just not evenly distributed.” And so it is with the Constructal Law, already here but not evenly distributed.

 

Because Bejan has identified a basic Law of Physics that describes and predicts how design patterns emerge over time, he contends that one can construct a “constructal theory” about any system, animate, inanimate or technological (see more about this at Constructal Theory Web Portal). This last one of course got my attention and I have been peppering my posts with little constructal tidbits ever since. Anybody who has participated in the phenomenon of viral social media understands, intuitively, what Bejan is describing mathematically. There are characteristic ways that flows change their configuration over time to flow more (and more!).

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Marcelo Errera's curator insight, May 17, 2013 5:17 PM

Testing...

NigelReading|ASYNSIS's curator insight, December 8, 2013 12:01 AM

Constructal Law Thermodynamics + Asynsis Principle Temporal-Spatial Geometries. ASYNSIS: Form follows Flow - Da Vinci's Dynamical Divine Proportion - Cosmomimetic Complexity in Time.
Optimal, Sustainable, Beautiful "Divine Proportion" Geometries in Time as Nature's Innate Design Code. Intelligent Design - but not as we know it. Geometry (the Relationship of Relationships), itself as a Secular Universal Architect?

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Stephen Hawking’s advice for twenty-first century grads: Embrace complexity

 A few years ago, Hawking was asked what he thought of the common opinion that the twentieth century was that of biology and the twenty-first century would be that of physics. Hawking replied that in his opinion the twenty-first century would be the “century of complexity”. That remark probably holds more useful advice for contemporary students than they realize since it points to at least two skills which are going to be essential for new college grads in the age of complexity: statistics and data visualization.


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Harshal Hayatnagarkar's curator insight, April 25, 2013 2:17 PM
Exactly, Sir !
Dmitry Alexeev's curator insight, April 29, 2013 7:15 AM

Complexity is us)

Murray McKercher's curator insight, April 30, 2013 7:39 AM

"century of complexity" sounds like we should therefore concentrate on simplicity in all things mobile...

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The Golden Ticket: P, NP, and the Search for the Impossible: Lance Fortnow

The Golden Ticket: P, NP, and the Search for the Impossible

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The P-NP problem is the most important open problem in computer science, if not all of mathematics. The Golden Ticket provides a nontechnical introduction to P-NP, its rich history, and its algorithmic implications for everything we do with computers and beyond. In this informative and entertaining book, Lance Fortnow traces how the problem arose during the Cold War on both sides of the Iron Curtain, and gives examples of the problem from a variety of disciplines, including economics, physics, and biology. He explores problems that capture the full difficulty of the P-NP dilemma, from discovering the shortest route through all the rides at Disney World to finding large groups of friends on Facebook. But difficulty also has its advantages. Hard problems allow us to safely conduct electronic commerce and maintain privacy in our online lives.

 
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IDEAL'13 – Special Session on Swarm Intelligence and Data Mining (SDIM 2013)

The 14th International Conference on Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning (IDEAL'2013).

 

Swarm intelligence is a recent trend in computational intelligence and popular for the simplicity of its realizations, such as particle swarm optimization (PSO), ant colony optimization (ACO), bee colony optimization (BCO), and the like. As optimization techniques, methods in swarm intelligence have been applied to many aspects in the fields of data engineering and automated learning. For example, as reported in the literature, PSO has been adopted to handle data clustering, and ACO has been employed to solve the problem of classification.

 

On the other hand, advances in data mining, an important section in data engineering and automated learning, also assist optimization algorithm designers to develop better methods. For instance, Apriori algorithm has been utilized for finding the relationship among decision variables for optimizers. In order to bridge the concepts and methodologies from the two ends, this special session concentrates on the related topics of integrating and utilizing algorithms in swarm intelligence and data mining. It provides the opportunity for practitioners handling their data mining issues by using swarm intelligence methodologies and for researchers investigating swarm intelligence with data mining approaches to share findings and look into future directions.

 
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The collateral damage of internet censorship by DNS injection

The collateral damage of internet censorship by DNS injection | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Some ISPs and governments (most notably the Great Firewall of China) use DNS injection to block access to "unwanted" websites. The censorship tools inspect DNS queries near the ISP's boundary routers for sensitive domain keywords and inject forged DNS responses, blocking the users from accessing censored sites, such as twitter and facebook. Unfortunately this causes collateral damage, affecting communication beyond the censored networks when outside DNS traffic traverses censored links. In this paper, we analyze the causes of the collateral damages and measure the Internet to identify the injecting activities and their effect. We find 39 ASes in China injecting forged DNS replies. Furthermore, 26 of 43,000 measured open resolvers outside China, distributed in 109 countries, may suffer some collateral damage from these forged replies. Different from previous work that considers the collateral damage being limited to queries to root servers (F, I, J) located in China, we find that most collateral damage arises when the paths between resolvers and some TLD name servers transit through ISPs in China.

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You Can Benefit from a Rival’s New Product - Harvard Business Review

When a company comes out with a new product, its competitors typically go on the defensive, doing whatever they can to reduce the odds that the offering will eat into their sales. Responses might include cranking up marketing efforts, offering discounts to channel partners, and even lobbying for regulations that would hinder the rival’s expansion. In many cases, though, such actions are misguided. Although the conventional wisdom that a rival’s launch will hurt profits is often correct, my research shows that companies sometimes see profits increase after a rival’s rollout—even when they don’t aggressively seek ways to squelch the new product’s sales.

 

The underlying mechanism is pretty simple: When a company extends a product line, it often raises the prices of its existing products. The hikes might be designed to make the new product look cheaper and thus more attractive by comparison or to capture the value customers place on a broader line of offerings. As that company adjusts its pricing, its competitors can follow suit without risking customer defections over price.

 

Consider what happened when Yoplait became the first major producer to market low-fat yogurt in the United States. Although Dannon took a 5% hit in units sold during the new product’s initial year, the vast majority of its customers didn’t defect to Yoplait; they preferred Dannon’s style of yogurt. And because Yoplait had raised prices across its product line, Dannon raised its prices as well, by more than 10%. So despite the 5% decrease in volume, Dannon’s revenue increased by 5%.

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Gage underwood's curator insight, April 29, 2013 12:29 PM

This scoop helped show me different methods to counter act a competitors business by counter acting negative sale approaches and beating sales without losing revenue.

 

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Evolution of cooperation - Martin Nowak

Lecture by Martin Nowak (evolutionary dynamics), Harvard University, at the Understanding and Managing Complex Systems Symposium (5 March 2012)
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World's first smartphone for the blind, made in India

World's first smartphone for the blind, made in India | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The world's first smartphone for blind people is here. Soon, they will be able to read SMSes and emails on this phone, which converts all text into Braille patterns.

 

"We have created the world's first Braille smartphone," says its innovator, Sumit Dagar, whose company is being incubated at the Centre for Innovation Incubation and Entrepreneurship, located in IIM Ahmedabad campus. "This product is based on an innovative 'touch screen' which is capable of elevating and depressing the contents it receives to transform them into 'touchable' patterns," he says.

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Computer scientists start second project to improve access to NHS patient database

Computer scientists start second project to improve access to NHS patient database | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Two Sussex academics have begun work on developing a system for assessing the quality of patient information held in a new NHS database.

 

Dr Rosemary Tate, a medical statistician and computer scientist in Informatics, and Dr Natalia Beloff, Senior Lecturer in Software Engineering, worked with Brighton-based company Dataline Software to develop a system, called TRIALVIZ, that allows users to extract real-time information from the database and to search based on a specified set of criteria. Prior to this, extracting such information was time-consuming and required considerable expertise.
 
The current application of this tool will help in the development of new medicines, by enabling users to select suitable patients for a clinical trial. But the flexible design means that many other healthcare applications are possible.
 
Now, in a second project, Dr Tate has been awarded a one-year Senior Research Fellowship to develop a mechanism for assessing – and improving – the quality of the data held within the CPRD.
 
Working with Dr Beloff, Dr Tate will develop a protocol and framework for measuring data quality, and will also create a software component for extracting data-quality statistics and constructing practice-based quality scores.

 

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Hadoop+Ubuntu : The Big Fat Wedding

Now, here is a treat for all you Hadoop and Ubuntu lovers. Last month, Canonical, the organization behind the Ubuntu operating system, partnered with MapR, one of the Hadoop heavyweights, in an effort to make Hadoop available as an integrated part of Ubuntu through its repositories. The partnership announced that MapR's M3 Edition for Apache Hadoop will be packaged and made available for download as an integrated part of the Ubuntu operating system. Canonical and MapR are also working to develop a Juju Charm that can be used by OpenStack and other customers to easily deploy MapR into their environments.

The free MapR M3 Edition includes HBase, Pig, Hive, Mahout, Cascading, Sqoop, Flume and other Hadoop-related components for unlimited production use. MapR M3 will be bundled with Ubuntu 12.04 LTS and 12.10 via the Ubuntu Partner Archive. MapR also announced that the source code for the component packages of the MapR Distribution for Apache Hadoop is now publicly available on GitHub.

MapR is the only distribution that enables Linux applications and commands to access data directly in the cluster via the NFS interface that is available with all MapR Editions. The MapR M5 and M7 Editions for Apache Hadoop, which provide enterprise-grade features for HBase and Hadoop such as mirroring, snapshots, NFS HA and data placement control, will also be certified for Ubuntu.

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An Introduction to Social Media for Scientists

An Introduction to Social Media for Scientists | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In many ways, the fast-paced evolution of the internet parallels the move toward “big data” in science. In less than a decade, online tools have exploded in popularity and witnessed rapid expansion (Figure 1), with an increasing number of scientists now looking to take advantage of these web-based resources (see Box 1 and Table 1 for an overview and comparison of existing tools). Social media portals in particular undergo regular reinvention and transformation, with different tools becoming popular for different populations [1]. Although a number of guides exist online, many researchers still feel overwhelmed and hesitant toward the virtual world, lacking sufficient information and guidance through formal scientific channels such as peer-reviewed journals. To better familiarize researchers with existing internet resources, here we discuss prospective benefits that can stem from online science conversations, explain how scientists can efficiently and effectively harness online resources, and provide an overview of popular online tools.

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The Hand, an Organ of the Mind

The Hand, an Organ of the Mind | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Cartesian-inspired dualism enforces a theoretical distinction between the motor and the cognitive and locates the mental exclusively in the head. This collection, focusing on the hand, challenges this dichotomy, offering theoretical and empirical perspectives on the interconnectedness and interdependence of the manual and mental. The contributors explore the possibility that the hand, far from being the merely mechanical executor of preconceived mental plans, possesses its own know-how, enabling “enhanded” beings to navigate the natural, social, and cultural world without engaging propositional thought, consciousness, and deliberation.

 

The contributors consider not only broad philosophical questions—ranging from the nature of embodiment, enaction, and the extended mind to the phenomenology of agency—but also such specific issues as touching, grasping, gesturing, sociality, and simulation. They show that the capacities of the hand include perception (on its own and in association with other modalities), action, (extended) cognition, social interaction, and communication. Taken together, their accounts offer a handbook of cutting-edge research exploring the ways that the manual shapes and reshapes the mental and creates conditions for embodied agents to act in the world.

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Beware the Unstoppable Cyborg Turtle

Beware the Unstoppable Cyborg Turtle | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

We've turned insects into cyborgs using nerve stimulation, and that's pretty cool. But insects aren't scary. You know what's scary? Turtles. Turtles are scary. Researchers at KAIST in South Korea have managed to hack a live turtle, adding a noninvasive steering system that they've successfully used to get the animal to follow an arbitrary winding path. Yes, this means that we have cyborg turtles now. Everybody very slowly panic.
The concept here is so absurdly simple that I can't believe we all don't have remote control pets already: the turtles (they're red-eared sliders) get an attachment to their shells consisting of a half-cylinder that can be remotely rotated with a servo. By rotating the half-cylinder around to present the turtle with what looks like an obstacle on one side or another, the turtle can be encouraged to move towards whatever direction appears to be obstacle-free.

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