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Dynamics of Social Interaction
Curated by Ashish Umre
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Companion Robot Can Talk to You in 19 Languages [VIDEO]

Companion Robot Can Talk to You in 19 Languages [VIDEO] | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Designed for companionship, a new toddler-sized robot can hold a conversation in 19 different languages.

 

Built by Paris-based robotics company Aldebaran and infused with language-learning software developed by voice-technology company Nuance, the robot has a voice that doesn't sound much older than it looks. The android can walk, brace itself if it falls and will develop its own personality as it gets better at speaking through repetition.

 

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A Neuroscientist's Radical Theory of How Networks Become Conscious

A Neuroscientist's Radical Theory of How Networks Become Conscious | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

It’s a question that’s perplexed philosophers for centuries and scientists for decades: Where does consciousness come from? We know it exists, at least in ourselves. But how it arises from chemistry and electricity in our brains is an unsolved mystery.

 

Neuroscientist Christof Koch, chief scientific officer at the Allen Institute for Brain Science, thinks he might know the answer. According to Koch, consciousness arises within any sufficiently complex, information-processing system. All animals, from humans on down to earthworms, are conscious; even the internet could be. That’s just the way the universe works.

 

“The electric charge of an electron doesn’t arise out of more elemental properties. It simply has a charge,” says Koch. “Likewise, I argue that we live in a universe of space, time, mass, energy, and consciousness arising out of complex systems.”

 

What Koch proposes is a scientifically refined version of an ancient philosophical doctrine called panpsychism — and, coming from someone else, it might sound more like spirituality than science. But Koch has devoted the last three decades to studying the neurological basis of consciousness. His work at the Allen Institute now puts him at the forefront of the BRAIN Initiative, the massive new effort to understand how brains work, which will begin next year.

Koch’s insights have been detailed in dozens of scientific articles and a series of books, including last year’s Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist. WIRED talked to Koch about his understanding of this age-old question.

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Exercising While Pregnant Gives Newborns a Real Head Start

Exercising While Pregnant Gives Newborns a Real Head Start | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Many doctors suggest that women take it easy during their pregnancies. However, being active might actually be the best thing for newborn noggins. New research shows that as little as 20 minutes of exercise, three times a week, is enough to give their babies a head start in brain development.

 

Scientists at the University of Montreal wondered if the benefits of exercise for cognition might transfer from mother to baby.

 

To study this, they asked a group of pregnant women to work out for a minimum of 20 minutes, three times per week, at a moderate intensity of 55 percent of their maximal aerobic capacity. The researchers met with the subjects monthly to ensure they adapted their intensity levels to their advancing pregnancy. The participants of a control group were asked not to exercise, and were excluded if they worked out more than the minimal amount performed by the exercise group. The control group was also monitored monthly.  

 

Ten days after each infant was born, the child’s brain activity was measured using electroencephalography (EEG). Each infant’s auditory memory and ability to discriminate sounds was also measured by studying his or her brain’s electrical activity in reaction to pitches while asleep in the mother’s lap. Different brain reactions to new sounds confirmed a child’s ability to discriminate among the sounds. “We then measured auditory memory by means of the brains unconscious response to repeated and novel sounds,” Élise Labonté-LeMoyne, an exercise science graduate student, said in a prepared statement.

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How to launch a startup without knowing a line of code

How to launch a startup without knowing a line of code | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Tal Raviv is the co-founder of Ecquire. This post was originally published on OnStartups.


There is an unspoken rule: to launch a startup, you need to build a product, and to do that you need someone that can write code.

 

Whether that means chasing down a technical co-founder, learning to code, or even building that “Lean MVP” – the conventional wisdom is that without tech abilities you’re nothing more than a dude (or dudette) with a Powerpoint.

 

A growing number of startups, however, are quietly disproving this assumption.

 

They’re getting their first customers with minimal technology, and often no code at all. Instead of building fancy technology from the outset, they’re hacking together inexpensive online tools such as online forms, drag-and-drop site builders, advanced WordPress plugins, and eCommerce providers.

 

They’re jumping right in to serve customers in any way possible – heading right for their first paying customers.

 

Most importantly, unlike the majority of their peers, by the time they start building a product, they already have a humming business.

 

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Interdependent Networks: Structure, Dynamics and Evolution, CASM special issue

Not only are our interactions limited and thus best described not by well-mixed models but rather by models entailing networks, it is also a fact that these networks are often interconnected and indeed very much interdependent. From the World economy to Google Circles, it is clear that processes taking place in one network might affect what is happening in many other networks. Within an interdependent system, each type of interaction has certain relevance or meaning, so that treating all the links identically inevitably leads to information loss. Interdependent or multiplex networks are therefore a much better description of such systems, and this Special Issue is devoted to their structure, dynamics and evolution, as well as to the study of emergent properties in multi-layered systems in general. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the spread of epidemics and information, synchronization, diffusion, random walks, collective behavior and evolutionary games on interdependent networks.

Deadline for submissions: June 30, 2014

 

http://www.casmodeling.com

Click here to edit the content


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Computation, Cognition and Constructivism: Introduction to the Special Issue

Computation, Cognition and Constructivism: Introduction to the Special Issue | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Context: Most constructivist discourse is situated at the philosophical-conceptual level, where arguments appeal to the intuition of the reader, while formal-computational models have only been taken into account to a very limited degree so far. Problem: Two types of problems need to be addressed: Synthetically, can constructivist concepts be turned into actual computational implementations? Can these be further conceptual developments in constructivist theory as such, or are they just an application thereof? Conceptually, does the notion of computation square with constructivist approaches at all? Method: Paradigmatically, we discuss the meaning of “computational” in cognitive agents that comply with constructivist concepts. Also, we summarize the contributions. Results: From a constructivist point of view, the concept of “computational model” is ambiguous and depends on whether it is used in the sense of the computational(ist) theory of mind or simply as a tool. Implications: The insights presented in the contributions to this special issue point in the direction of a computational extension of constructivist approaches as well as a constructivist extension to computational approaches. However, while many of the questions we posed were discussed in the contributions and open peer commentaries, some of them were largely neglected and thus are subject to further discussion.
Key words: Artificial intelligence, artificial life, cognitive sciences, computation, computational theory of mind, constructivism, models

 

Riegler A., Stewart J. & Ziemke T. (2013) Computation, Cognition and Constructivism: Introduction to the Special Issue. Constructivist Foundations 9(1): 1–6. Available at http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/journal/9/1/001.riegler


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The Math of Segregation

The Math of Segregation | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In the 1960s Schelling devised a simple model in which a mixed group of people spontaneously segregates by race even though no one in the population desires that outcome. Initially, black and white families are randomly distributed. At each step in the modeling process the families examine their immediate neighborhood and either stay put or move elsewhere depending on whether the local racial composition suits their preferences. The procedure is repeated until everyone finds a satisfactory home (or until the simulator’s patience is exhausted).


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Ants 2014: Ninth International Conference on Swarm Intelligence

Ants 2014: Ninth International Conference on Swarm Intelligence | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

September10-12,  2014.  Brussels, Belgium

http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/ants2014

 

Swarm intelligence is a relatively new discipline that deals with the study of self-organizing processes both in nature and in artificial systems. Researchers in ethology and animal behavior have proposed many models to explain interesting aspects of social insect behavior such as self-organization and shape-formation. Recently, algorithms inspired by these models have been proposed to solve difficult computational problems.
An example of a particularly successful research direction in swarm intelligence is ant colony optimization, the main focus of which is on discrete optimization problems. Ant colony optimization has been applied successfully to a large number of difficult discrete optimization problems including the traveling salesman problem, the quadratic assignment problem, scheduling, vehicle routing, etc., as well as to routing in telecommunication networks. Another interesting approach is that of particle swarm optimization, that focuses on continuous optimization problems. Here too, a number of successful applications can be found in the recent literature. Swarm robotics is another relevant field. Here, the focus is on applying swarm intelligence techniques to the control of large groups of cooperating autonomous robots.

ANTS 2014 will give researchers in swarm intelligence the opportunity to meet, to present their latest research, and to discuss current developments and applications.


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june holley's curator insight, November 20, 2013 11:07 AM

This would be so interesting!

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SmartThings Gets $12.5 Million to Develop the Internet of Things

SmartThings Gets $12.5 Million to Develop the Internet of Things | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

In a vote of confidence for the Internet of Things, a startup in the category, SmartThings, announced Tuesday that it has received $12.5 million in Series A funding.

 

The round brings SmartThings' total to $15.5 million. SmartThings, which was founded in April 2012, provides an open platform for the Internet of Things — the shorthand description of Internet-infused objects that can be controlled via your smartphone, like thermostats, lights, locks and smoke alarms. Some 3,000 inventors and developers use SmartThings' technology to create such devices.

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Single-Neuron Mechanisms Underlying Cost-Benefit Analysis in Frontal Cortex

Effective decision-making requires consideration of costs and benefits. Previous studies have implicated orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in cost-benefit decision-making. Yet controversy remains about whether different decision costs are encoded by different brain areas, and whether single neurons integrate costs and benefits to derive a subjective value estimate for each choice alternative. To address these issues, we trained four subjects to perform delay- and effort-based cost-benefit decisions and recorded neuronal activity in OFC, ACC, DLPFC, and the cingulate motor area (CMA). Although some neurons, mainly in ACC, did exhibit integrated value signals as if performing cost-benefit computations, they were relatively few in number. Instead, the majority of neurons in all areas encoded the decision type; that is whether the subject was required to perform a delay- or effort-based decision. OFC and DLPFC neurons tended to show the largest changes in firing rate for delay- but not effort-based decisions; whereas, the reverse was true for CMA neurons. Only ACC contained neurons modulated by both effort- and delay-based decisions. These findings challenge the idea that OFC calculates an abstract value signal to guide decision-making. Instead, our results suggest that an important function of single PFC neurons is to categorize sensory stimuli based on the consequences predicted by those stimuli.

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Stepanov Sergey Mikhailovich's curator insight, November 3, 2013 11:43 AM

REFLECTION
Teaching Technology for Beginners.
Synapse transmission between neurons in different systems of dimension - how can it improve the music education for beginners ?

Physiological Base
The physiological substantiation on the application of the digital system for coding and decoding of a melody is the following : children begin their contact with digits already in preschool age , when they are taught to count , and this system is learned by children quite firmly , since it is often used in their daily life. But the generally accepted music grammar is new for them and, naturally, requires some additional period of time to be acquired by children.It is for that reason that in the initial period of musical teaching, children inevitably spend a lot of time and efforts to read a melody written down in music signs.Naturally, it slows down rate of training, causes psychoemotional discomfort , lowers the child’s interest to music. Therefore , in the initial stage of teaching , besides work with the generally accepted music grammar , will be useful to replace it with a digital system for a certain period. This does not mean that we want to do without standard music grammar, but at the initial stages of musical education, the system of digital coding and decoding of music sounds is undoubtedly useful , as it speeds up teaching of children.

Neurophysiological Aspect
It is well known that the difficulties in the perception of any information, including musical one, cause strain of the main functional systems in the child’s organism. The developed digital technology of musical training is perspective, has a practical result, but it requires the physiologic and psychology researches devoted to studying of an influence of a recommended method to psychoemotional status and to a condition of the main functional systems of the child’s organism : the central nervous system, the muscular system and others. For this purpose , the experimental researches are to be performed, namely: ENG, EMG, EEG – tests to study the degree of mental load that the child has received in perception of the information recorded in the note signs compared to the load that a child has received in perception of the music information written down in number signs.Test Electronystagmography allows us to investigate eyeshot, positional nystagmus and also to determine the quantity of fluctuations of the eyeballs during the perception of melody written in the music marks and digital symbols. Electromyography test, allows us to investigate the threshold of muscular irritability ( min – max ) and amplitude of muscle tension , depending on effort and accuracy of pressing of a key on the keyboard of the instrument. The method of ENG and EMG joins the visual analyzer with neuro motor function of the hands and explains, on the scientific point of view, the ratio between the load on muscles of eyes and muscles of hands, and also it proves the possibility of development of muscular fatigue in hands depending on the quantity of eyeballs’ fluctuations. EEG - test allows us to make up the comparative diagrams of dynamics of the proceeding neurophysiological processes, and also it offers an opportunity to investigate the functional activity of neurons during the synthesis both of music and digital patterns.The realization of the described scientific researches in this direction will allow us to approach closer to understanding of more subtle mechanisms of the child’s mental activity and to detect the new creative abilities.

Parallel Description
In practice, using the generally accepted music grammar, the child connects the definition of the location of the melody to the pitch i.e., to the system of dimension , which is written down in the form of an expanded construction , both on x – the horizontal and on y - the vertical. By reading the music information ,the direction of eyeballs’ movements is spasmodic, and it has a multistep combination both on y – the vertical , from the G - key up to the F - key , and on x - the horizontal often with a return of eyesight to the starting point of support. For an integration , synthesis and the modification of the complex pattern of the received information the structures of the central nervous system require an additional period of time. It is a neurophysiological process proceeding in an interval of time between the moment of perception of the music information from the sheet and the moment of the hands’ response on the keyboard of an instrument. A great number of irregular nervous impulses are transferred to the central nervous system per unit of time and , as the consequence of this , the fatigue of hand muscles is considerably increased (Berosov, Korovkin1990). An amplitude of muscle tension is directly dependent on the frequency of innervation, where each subsequent nervous impulse coincides with the phase of increased excitability of the muscle ( Green, Stout,Taylor 1990 ). At the level of the synaptic terminal we can see untimely synthesis of the neurotransmitter, deep and stable depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane and,as a result,the convulsive reflexes are thus formed.An important neurophysiological moment has been marked : within a short time interval the contracture , that is , constantly high muscular tension is formed, which in turn , is harmfully reflected on the content and character of the melody.
In practice , using the method of the digital key, the child connects the definition of digital melody to the system of dimension which is written down in the form of an integral construction both on x – the horizontal and on y – the vertical . Reading the digital information the trajectory of eyeballs’ movements on y– the vertical is projected to the exact determinant ( digit ,sign, symbol ), the trajectory of eyeballs’ movements on x – the horizontal is projected in one direction, forward. In the given system of dimension the integration of the digital information proceeds instantly, its realization on an instrument proceeds in reflexive time - ratio. The paradoxical phenomenon is revealed : the time interval between the moment of perception of the digital information and the moment of the hands’ response on the keyboard of an instrument, is contracted to the minimum .We achieve a reduction of load on hand muscles at the expense of decreasing of an amplitude between muscle tension and the resulting movement and, consequently , the time intervals between effort and accuracy of pressing of a key are considerably shortened .At the level of the synaptic terminal we can see an allocation of neurotransmitter directly proportionally to the frequency of generated impulses by neurons and , as a result , the coordinated reflexes are thus formed. An important neurophysiological moment has been marked : the reciprocal muscular innervation is formed , that is, the rational distribution of the manual technique on the keyboard of an instrument, which in turn, is considerably reflected on the content and character of the melody. Grain of truth lies in the fact that at the expense of perception of melody by means of digits its realization becomes faster and easier, which in turn , is positively reflected on the psychoemotional status of the child and enables him to dynamically realize the potential music abilities in psychosomatic action as a result .

Entire description on related research You can read at the webpages :
http://educationinjapan.wordpress.com/2011/02/04/considering-the-benefits-of-digital-music-grammar-in-a-music-educational-program/
http://www.m-piremagazine.com/Sergey.html review by Joe Gentile
http://reflectionmusic.ucoz.com/

List of References

1.Beresov T.T. & Korovkin B.F.,(1990). The role of mediators in transmission of nervous impulses. Biological chemistry. p.498-500. Moscow .

2.Green A.P.Q. & Stout G.W.& Taylor D.J.,(1990).Contracting reaction. Synapse. Biological science.
vol.3.p.19-20,23,26.vol.2.p.253-258.Moscow.

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Science in a Complex World: You love math; it’s in your music

Science in a Complex World: You love math; it’s in your music | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

You love math. You really do. I’m not talking about the kind of math that makes cellphones work or the kind that bankers use. I’m talking about math in its purest, most natural form — the kind that moves the planets in their orbits, gives flowers their shape and makes a chorus sound like angels.

 

Maybe you’re thinking: “No, I don’t love math. I hated math in school and I still do.” Not so. You only think you hate math because of the way it was taught to you.

 

Most people are taught in school that mathematics is a mechanical process: Plug the numbers in, turn the crank, follow the rules. If you get the right answer, you get a gold star. If it’s wrong, you get a big red X.

 

But this isn’t what math is about, any more than English (or Spanish) is about spelling and grammar. Language is about beautiful poetry and great stories, not about dry rules and memorization. If we taught English the way we teach math, no child would be allowed to read a poem until they could spell it and diagram its sentences. No wonder so many people are turned off. (Sadly, our focus on standardized tests is only making this worse.)

 

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Infants' maths skills predict their potential

Infants' maths skills predict their potential | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Infants who score highly on detecting number changes do better on standard tests by the time they reach preschool.

 

An infant's innate sense for numbers predicts how their mathematical aptitude will develop years later, a team of US researchers has found.

 

Babies can spot if a set of objects increases or decreases in number — for instance, if the number of dots on a screen grows, even when dot size, colour and arrangement also change. But until recently, researchers could generally only determine the number sense of groups of babies, thus ruling out the ability to correlate this with later mathematics skills in individuals.

 

In 2010, Elizabeth Brannon, a neuroscientist at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and her colleagues demonstrated that they could test and track infants' number sense over time1. To do this, six-month-old babies are presented with two screens. One shows a constant number of dots, such as eight, changing in appearance, and the other also shows changing dots but presents different numbers of them — eight sometimes and 16 other times, for instance. An infant who has a good primitive number sense will spend more time gazing at the screen that presents the changing number of dots.

 

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Control of the socio-economic systems using herding interactions

Collective behavior of the complex socio-economic systems is heavily influenced by the herding, group, behavior of individuals. The importance of the herding behavior may enable the control of the collective behavior of the individuals. In this contribution we consider a simple agent-based herding model modified to include agents with controlled state. We show that in certain case even the smallest fixed number of the controlled agents might be enough to control the behavior of a very large system.

 

Paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.6105

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SFI MOOC: Introduction to Dynamical Systems and Chaos

SFI MOOC: Introduction to Dynamical Systems and Chaos | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

This course will begin on January 6, 2014.  If you are enrolled, you will receive email notification that the course has started. 
In this course you'll gain an introduction to the modern study of dynamical systems, the interdisciplinary field of applied mathematics that studies systems that change over time. 
Topics to be covered include: phase space, bifurcations, chaos, the butterfly effect, strange attractors, and pattern formation.

 

Introduction to Dynamical Systems and Chaos (Winter, 2014)
Instructor: David Feldman

http://www.complexityexplorer.org/online-courses/4


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Evolutionary perspectives on collective decision making: Studying the implications of diversity and social network structure with agent-based simulations

Collective, especially group-based, managerial decision making is crucial in organizations. Using an evolutionary theory approach to collective decision making, agent-based simulations were conducted to investigate how collective decision making would be affected by the agents' diversity in problem understanding and/or behavior in discussion, as well as by their social network structure. Simulation results indicated that groups with consistent problem understanding tended to produce higher utility values of ideas and displayed better decision convergence, but only if there was no group-level bias in collective problem understanding. Simulation results also indicated the importance of balance between selection-oriented (i.e., exploitative) and variation-oriented (i.e., explorative) behaviors in discussion to achieve quality final decisions. Expanding the group size and introducing non-trivial social network structure generally improved the quality of ideas at the cost of decision convergence. Simulations with different social network topologies revealed that collective decision making on small-world networks with high local clustering tended to achieve highest decision quality more often than on random or scale-free networks. Implications of this evolutionary theory and simulation approach for future managerial research on collective, group, and multi-level decision making are discussed.

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Worm-like movements propel octopus ballet: Although apparently lacking in central coordination, tentacles can execute complex movements.

Worm-like movements propel octopus ballet: Although apparently lacking in central coordination, tentacles can execute complex movements. | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

To researchers who study how living things move, the octopus is an eight-legged marvel, managing its array of undulating appendages by means of a relatively simple nervous system. Some studies have suggested that each of the octopus’s tentacles has a 'mind' of its own, without rigid central coordination by the animal’s brain

 

Now neuroscientist Guy Levy and his colleagues at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem report that the animals can rotate their bodies independently of their direction of movement, reorienting them while continuing to crawl in a straight line. And, unlike species that use their limbs to move forward or sideways relative to their body's orientation, octopuses tend to slither around in all directions.

 

The team presented its findings on 10 November at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in San Diego, California.

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Multidisciplinary applications of complex networks modeling, simulation, visualization, and analysis

(...) complex systems are characterized by the interactions between their numerous elements. The word ‘complex’ comes from the Latin plexus which means entwined. In other words, it is difficult to correlate global properties of complex systems with the properties of the individual constituent components. This is primarily because the interactions between these individual elements partly determine the future states of the system (Gershenson 2013). If these interactions are not included in the developed models, the models would not be an accurate reflection of the modelled phenomenon.

 

Gershenson, C. & M. A. Niazi (2013). Multidisciplinary applications of complex networks modeling, simulation, visualization, and analysis. Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling 1:17  http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2194-3206-1-17


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Complex Human Dynamics - From Mind to Societies, by Nowak, Winkowska-Nowak, and Bree

Complex Human Dynamics - From Mind to Societies, by Nowak, Winkowska-Nowak, and Bree | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

This book, edited and authored by a closely collaborating network of social scientists and psychologists, recasts typical research topics in these fields into the language of nonlinear, dynamic and complex systems. The aim is to provide scientists with different backgrounds - physics, applied mathematics and computer sciences - with the opportunity to apply the tools of their trade to an altogether new range of possible applications. At the same time, this book will serve as a first reference for a new generation of social scientists and psychologists wishing to familiarize themselves with the new methodology and the "thinking in complexity".


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How Many Friends Can Your Brain Handle?

How Many Friends Can Your Brain Handle? | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Being a social butterfly just might change your brain: In people with a large network of friends and excellent social skills, certain brain regions are bigger and better connected than in people with fewer friends, a new study finds.

 

The research, presented here Tuesday (Nov. 12) at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, suggests a connection between social interactions and brain structure.

 

"We're interested in how your brain is able to allow you to navigate in complex social environments," study researcher MaryAnn Noonan, a neuroscientist at Oxford University, in England, said at a news conference. Basically, "how many friends can your brain handle?" Noonan said.

 

Scientists still don't understand how the brain manages human behavior in increasingly complex social situations, or what parts of the brain are linked to deviant social behavior associated with conditions like autism and schizophrenia.

 

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Evolution in Four Dimensions

Evolution in Four Dimensions | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Ideas about heredity and evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. New findings in molecular biology challenge the gene-centered version of Darwinian theory according to which adaptation occurs only through natural selection of chance DNA variations. In Evolution in Four Dimensions, Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb argue that there is more to heredity than genes. They trace four "dimensions" in evolution—four inheritance systems that play a role in evolution: genetic, epigenetic (or non-DNA cellular transmission of traits), behavioral, and symbolic (transmission through language and other forms of symbolic communication). These systems, they argue, can all provide variations on which natural selection can act. Evolution in Four Dimensions offers a richer, more complex view of evolution than the gene-based, one-dimensional view held by many today. The new synthesis advanced by Jablonka and Lamb makes clear that induced and acquired changes also play a role in evolution.

 

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Designing complex dynamics in cellular automata with memory

Since their inception at Macy conferences in later 1940s, complex systems have remained the most controversial topic of interdisciplinary sciences. The term "complex system" is the most vague and liberally used scientific term. Using elementary cellular automata (ECA), and exploiting the CA classification, we demonstrate elusiveness of "complexity" by shifting space-time dynamics of the automata from simple to complex by enriching cells with memory. This way, we can transform any ECA class to another ECA class — without changing skeleton of cell-state transition function — and vice versa by just selecting a right kind of memory. A systematic analysis displays that memory helps "discover" hidden information and behavior on trivial — uniform, periodic, and nontrivial — chaotic, complex — dynamical systems.

 

Martinez, G. J., Adamatzky, A. and Alonso-Sanz, R. (2013) Designing complex dynamics in cellular automata with memory. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 23 (10). p. 1330035. ISSN 0218-1274

http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/21980/


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Neuroelectronics: Smart connections - Computer chips inspired by human neurons can do more with less power.

Neuroelectronics: Smart connections - Computer chips inspired by human neurons can do more with less power. | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Kwabena Boahen got his first computer in 1982, when he was a teenager living in Accra. “It was a really cool device,” he recalls. He just had to connect up a cassette player for storage and a television set for a monitor, and he could start writing programs.

 

But Boahen wasn't so impressed when he found out how the guts of his computer worked. “I learned how the central processing unit is constantly shuffling data back and forth. And I thought to myself, 'Man! It really has to work like crazy!'” He instinctively felt that computers needed a little more 'Africa' in their design, “something more distributed, more fluid and less rigid”.

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Simulating Social Complexity: A Handbook (by Bruce Edmonds & Ruth Meyer)

Simulating Social Complexity: A Handbook (Understanding Complex Systems)

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Social systems are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible and natural language approaches inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. However, individual- and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems.

 Simulating Social Complexity examines all aspects of using agent- or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having each their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes these elements "social" is that they are usefully interpretable as interacting elements of an observed society. In this, the focus is on human society, but can be extended to include social animals or artificial agents where such work enhances our understanding of human society.

 

This handbook is intended to help in the process of maturation of this new field. It brings together, through the collaborative effort of many leading researchers, summaries of the best thinking and practice in this area and constitutes a reference point for standards against which future methodological advances are judged.


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The Network City

The Network City | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

“Only connect,” the writer E. M. Forster said famously — and modern scientists working with network structures are learning how right he was. Forster was talking about how to tell a good story, but it turns out that the same principles for creating richly interconnected structures do apply to making good cities, or other good designs. And what’s all the more interesting (and important) is how bad we’ve gotten at this in recent years — and why that came to pass. Jane Jacobs, the great urbanist and economist, put these ideas to intelligent use in her observation of what made cities such evident crucibles of economic productivity. It was proximities, she said, and networks of proximity, that allowed people to exchange knowledge and creative activities.

 

The Network City
Michael Mehaffy, Nikos Salingaros

http://www.biourbanism.org/network-city/


Via Complexity Digest
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SoulFireMage's curator insight, October 28, 2013 5:16 AM

It's spooky how what happens in the brain, in small groups and in other systems appears so self similar. Makes me wonder if, in amongst the deep similarities and simple rules, there isn't some way to predict and even shape more.

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The Science of Sin

The Science of Sin | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Everything good in life is illegal, immoral or fattening—or so the saying goes. A few centuries ago religious authorities sought to codify that sentiment into a handy list, which we know today as the seven deadly sins. In this special issue devoted to them, we explore how desires take shape and influence our thoughts, alongside the scientific insights that can help us meet our goals.

 

We often think of temptations as the ruin of diets, oaths and ambitions, yet their pull is a natural part of life. They can even be meaningful. As psychologists Jan Crusius and Thomas Mussweiler suggest in “Envy: The Feeling Can Help Us Even When It Hurts,” envy may alert us that we face a disadvantage, thus motivating us to take action.

 

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