Social Foraging
Follow
Find
65.1K views | +13 today
Social Foraging
Dynamics of Social Interaction
Curated by Ashish Umre
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Kinect system tracks household objects

Two researchers from the Department of Computer Science at the University of Virginia (Charlottesville, VA, USA) have developed algorithms that can be used with Microsoft Kinect hardware to locate and track household objects.

 

Tracking algorithms are computationally intensive, and as the number of objects in a scene grows, the computation time becomes comparable to the frame rate, making it unfeasible to track many objects at once.

 

Shahriar Nirjon and John Stankovic's so-called Kinsight system, however, makes the assumption that the location of the objects only changes due to the action of an individual. By tracking individuals in a scene and detecting and recognizing objects from the way that the individual interacts with them, the computational burden is lower.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Mission begins to view ants in 3D

Mission begins to view ants in 3D | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Scientists are embarking on a mission to capture a 3D image of every ant species known to science.

The US team is visiting museums around the world to photograph all of the ant specimens in their collections.

 

They are using a technique that, for the first time, allows microscopic anatomical detail of the insects' bodies to be photographed.

The aim is to make an online catalogue called Antweb, providing a unique tool for scientists who study the insects.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Consciousness Models in Action: Comparisons

Consciousness Models in Action: Comparisons | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

This paper discusses various theoretical models of the evolution of consciousness as well as critically evaluates and integrates the models into a single organising framework, which is then applied to leadership theory.

 

The construct of consciousness as described by the Spiral Dynamics (SD) model of Clare Graves is linked to the work of other developmental and consciousness theorists, namely Wilber, Gebser, Piaget, May, Kohlberg, Perry, Loevinger, Maslow and Kegan. The spiritual perspectives of Wilber, Myss, Tolle, Atmananda and Hurtak as well as the work of McTaggart, Pribram and Hawkins representing a physics perspective of consciousness development, are discussed. The spiritual and scientific perspectives are addressed to contextualise the consciousness models. In addition, current leadership theory which primarily seems to focus on individual, group and organisational behaviour, is reviewed from an integral perspective to emphasise the relevance of consciousness theory within the leadership domain.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Building Artificial Brains: Nanotechology to Mimic Synapses

Building Artificial Brains: Nanotechology to Mimic Synapses | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The synapse is the basic unit of neural communication. Representing a synapse by a single device is a challenging task that lies at the intersection of neuroscience and artificial intelligence. The structure of a biological synapse is very complex, with hundreds of proteins and other chemicals interacting in a complicated manner; nevertheless, there is always a gap (synaptic cleft) across which a signal is transmitted.

 

Now, new research seeks to reproduce a synapse using a single solid-state electrochemical nanodevice called a Cu2S-gap type atomic switch. In this device, there is a gap which is bridged by a copper filament under a voltage pulse stimulation. This causes a change in conductance which is time-dependent. The change in conductance can be considered to be analogous to the change in strength of a biological synaptic connection.

Therefore, this device can be considered to mimic the major features of the human memory; namely, the sensory, short-term, and long-term memories. In addition, the fact that it responses to the presence of air and the change in temperature enables it to be distinguished as an advanced synthetic synapse with the potential to perceive environment, just like the human brain.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Why Rumors Spread Fast in Social Networks

Why Rumors Spread Fast in Social Networks | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Information spreads fast in social networks. This could be observed during recent events. Now computer scientists from the German Saarland University provide the mathematical proof for this and come up with a surprising explanation.

 

“It is fascinating,” Tobias Friedrich of the Cluster of Excellence on “Multimodal Computing and Interaction” says. He points out that so far, it has been assumed that the uncontrolled growth in social networks creates a structure on which information spreads very fast. “But now we can prove it in a mathematical way,” says Friedrich, who leads the independent research group “Random Structures and Algorithms.”

 

Together with his research colleagues Benjamin Doerr, adjunct professor for algorithms and complexity at Saarland University, and the PhD student Mahmoud Fouz he proved that information spreads in social networks much faster than in networks where everyone communicates with everyone else, or in networks whose structure is totally random.

 

The scientists explain their results through the successful combination of persons with many contacts and persons with only a few contacts. “A person who keeps only a few connections can inform all of these contacts very fast,” Friedrich says. Additionally, it can be proved that among these few contacts there always is a highly networked person who is contacted by a lot of other people in the social network, the scientist points out. “Therefore everybody in these networks gets informed rapidly.”

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

New record low-power multi-standard transceiver for sensor networks

New record low-power multi-standard transceiver for sensor networks | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Imec and Holst Centre announce a 2.3/2.4GHz transmitter for wireless sensor applications compliant with 4 wireless standards (IEEE802.15.6/4/4g and Bluetooth Low Energy). The transmitter has been fabricated in a 90nm CMOS process, and consumes only 5.4mW from a 1.2V supply (2.7nJ/bit) at 0dBm output. This is 3 to 5 times more power-efficient than the current state-of-the-art Bluetooth-LE solutions. These results have been obtained in collaboration with Panasonic, within imec and Holst Centre’s program for ultralow-power wireless communication.

 

Applications for wireless sensor networks, personal healthcare, remote monitoring, smart building and logistics all require wireless low-power solutions. A common requirement is that they can operate for a reasonable long period on a small battery or harvester source. For such applications, standardization bodies have defined 2.4GHz wireless standards in the worldwide available ISM band, including IEEE802.15.6 (BAN) for body area networks, IEEE802.15.4 (Zigbee) and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). But all recent transmitters that comply to these standards use in the range of 20~50mW, which is still too high for use in autonomous and semi-autonomous sensor nodes.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Does cooperation require both reciprocity and alike neighbours?

Does cooperation require both reciprocity and alike neighbours? | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Max Planck scientists develop new theoretical model on the evolution of cooperation

Evolution by definition is cold and merciless: it selects for success and weeds out failure. It seems only natural to expect that such a process would simply favour genes that help themselves and not others. Yet cooperative behaviour can be observed in many areas, and humans helping each other are a common phenomenon.Thus, one of the major questions in science today is how cooperative behaviour could evolve. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Plön, Harvard University, and the University of Amsterdam have now developed a new model combining two possible explanations - direct reciprocity and population structure - and found that both repetition and structured population are essential for the evolution of cooperation. The researchers conclude that human societies can best achieve high levels of cooperative behaviour if their individuals interact repeatedly, and if populations exhibit at least a minor degree of structure.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Clothes Will Sew Themselves in Darpa’s Sweat-Free Sweatshops

Clothes Will Sew Themselves in Darpa’s Sweat-Free Sweatshops | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

The Pentagon’s made plenty of progress towards slicker, more specialized uniforms for soldiers. Better camouflage patterns? Check. Sweat-wicking t-shirts? Oh, heck yes. Threads that can take a pulse and monitor pee for signs of a chemical attack? Getting there. Then there’s the Kevlar underwear.

But there’s still one big problem with soldier attire, at least as far as the military’s mad-science agency is concerned: Someone’s gotta stitch the clothes together.

Enter the sartorial specialists at Darpa. Usually the Pentagon’s far-out researchers are more concerned with four-legged robots and preventing pandemics than with the contents of a soldier’s closet. But they’ve doled out $1.25 million to fully automate the sewing process. The agency aspires to “complete production facilities that produce garments with zero direct labor.” And those are a lot of garments: One 2010 estimate put the military’s annual clothing budget at $4 billion dollars.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

The Probability of Your Existence

The Probability of Your Existence | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

At some point after first learning about the birds and the bees as a child (possibly after watching the opening credits of Look Who's Talking or thinking too hard about the implications of Back to the Future), it occurred to me that I could have easily been someone else. Had my parentsnot happened to meet when they did, and happened to conceive at the moment they did, with a specific pair of egg and sperm, I wouldn't be here. Apart from being a minor existential crisis, this realization made me feel incredibly lucky. Out of an infinite number of possible people, I was one of those who got a chance at life.

 

I recently came across a lovely (if statistically questionable) visual demonstration of one person's attempt to approximate the odds that each of us came into the world and exist as we are today. It incorporates probabilities ranging from our parents' first encounter to our unbroken line of ancestors to the emergence of the first single celled organism, concluding with the following analogy: The probably that we as unique individuals came to be is equivalent to "the probability of two million people getting together each to play a game of dice with trillion-sided die. They each roll the dice, and they all come up with the exact same number - for example, 550, 343, 279, 001. The odds that you exist at all are basically zero" (Ali Binazer, 2011).

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Insect-Inspired Device Skates Between Oil And Water

Insect-Inspired Device Skates Between Oil And Water | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Ideas from nature have often provoked materials scientists, who have made self-cleaning surfaces inspired by lotus leaves, for example, and adhesive feet for robots that can climb walls as geckos do. Now researchers have imitated water-striding insects, constructing a device that can skate at the interface between oil and water (ACS Nano, DOI: 10.1021/nn301550v). To do so they created a surface on the device’s legs that repels oil underwater.

 

Researchers had previously discovered that water striders’ legs work through the chemistry and physics of microprojections lined with nanogrooves on the bugs’ legs (Nature, DOI: 10.1038/432036a). Shutao Wang, of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, thought that he could use similar structures to solve a materials problem: Most materials that repel oil, known as oleophobic materials, don’t work if they get wet. Superoleophobic coatings that work when wet could keep bugs from sticking to car windshields, scientists think, and enable robots to move through and clean up oil spills.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

See Like Superman? MIT Video Software Can Capture Human Pulse, Vibrating Guitar Strings

See Like Superman? MIT Video Software Can Capture Human Pulse, Vibrating Guitar Strings | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Seeing a person’s pulse through their skin seems like it should be a power relegated to superhero comics. But researchers at MIT have developed new video processing software that does just that and more — allowing an observer to identify tiny, otherwise imperceptible changes, such as a person’s breathing, blood flow and even the slight vibrating of still guitar strings, just from a few frames of video footage seconds apart.

The resulting images created by the technique, called Eulerian Video Magnification are eerily similar to the popular animated GIF images found on the Web today.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Research at Stanford may lead to computers that understand humans

Research at Stanford may lead to computers that understand humans | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

After decades of trial and error, artificial intelligence applications that aim to understand human language are slowly starting to lose some of their brittleness. Now, a simple mathematical model developed by two psychologists at Stanford University could lead to further improvements, helping transform computers that display the mere veneer of intelligence into machines that truly understand what we are saying.

 

The Loebner Prize is a competition of the world's best "chatbots" - computer programs designed to simulate how a human interacts in a normal written conversation - that promises a grand prize of US$100,000 to the first program that can interact with another human in a natural way, undistinguishable from another human. The competition started in 1991, but the prize is still up for grabs and the transcripts from each year's winners tell us just how far we are (the answer: very) from ever reaching that goal.

 

However, there is hope yet. A new trend has emerged in the past few years and has led to the development of technologies like Siri, iPhone's "personal assistant." It entails using mathematical tools, namely probability and statistics, to try and model how people use language to communicate in social situations. The work at Stanford builds directly on this branch of research.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Algorithms help prevent swinging cargo from upsetting drones

Algorithms help prevent swinging cargo from upsetting drones | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Researchers at the University of New Mexico have developed algorithms that allow drone quadrocopters to compensate for the motion-induced swinging of hanging loads.

 

Drones are increasingly used for hauling cargo through the air to get supplies to dangerous areas. In order to do this, helicopters tend to carry stuff suspended on ropes below them. This causes the cargo to swing around fairly violently, particularly if the vehicle needs to manoeuvre. This can make it very hazardous to fly with a suspended load as it changes the flight characteristics of the vehicle.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

New Cloud-Based Assortment Intelligence Solution from Upstream Commerce Aims To Transform the Way Retailers Merchandise

Upstream Commerce today unveiled the latest tool in its Retail Intelligence Suite -- Assortment Intelligence -- a powerful tool allowing retailers to track assortment changes at competitors' websites in real-time, and adjust their own product-mix accordingly.

 

The Upstream Commerce Retail Intelligence Suite is a cloud-based Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) solution that uses advanced artificial intelligence, semantic analysis, data-mining, and image-recognition algorithms to give retailers comprehensive, real-time competitive price monitoring and analysis, as well as product and assortment intelligence.

 

With the new Assortment Intelligence tool, retailers can view, compare and analyze the overlap between their own and their competitors' assortments; identify competitors' products that they don't currently carry (but may wish to add); and identify products which they may currently carry exclusively (for which they could elect to command higher prices).

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Frogs, Foam and Fuel: UC Researchers Convert Solar Energy to Sugars

Frogs, Foam and Fuel: UC Researchers Convert Solar Energy to Sugars | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Engineers from the University of Cincinnati devise a foam that captures energy and removes excess carbon dioxide from the air — thanks to semi-tropical frogs.

 

In natural photosynthesis, plants take in solar energy and carbon dioxide and then convert it to oxygen and sugars. The oxygen is released to the air and the sugars are dispersed throughout the plant — like that sweet corn we look for in the summer. Unfortunately, the allocation of light energy into products we use is not as efficient as we would like. Now engineering researchers at the University of Cincinnati are doing something about that.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Are You a Social Network Junkie?

Are You a Social Network Junkie? | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Things are all atwitter in the social networking sphere after Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg took the risky decision to float a proportion of shares for the site last week. Although this may not have been as successful as planned, social networking sites are constantly accessible, incredibly popular and seem to be unavoidable. Following revelations earlier this year that Twitter is more difficult to resist than cigarettes or alcohol, research released this week indicates that there might also be deeper psychological roots to our love of Facebook: we might be addicted to logging in.

 

The study, led by Dr Cecilie Andreassen of the University of Bergen, monitored the behaviour of 423 male and female students and developed a six-point assessment named the ‘Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale’. Facebook has amassed a staggering 900 million users worldwide. “Bearing in mind that some of these users may become addicted to the social network, we aimed to construct a sound procedure to measure this phenomenon,” explains Andreassen. The scale includes criteria concerning how you think about Facebook, how often you use it, unsuccessful attempts to cut down on using the site and the negative impact that Facebook has on your job or studies. The scale inferred that addiction is linked to extraversion, and is more likely amongst users that are young, socially insecure, less ambitious, disorganised, and female.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

The AI game that knows you better than anyone

The AI game that knows you better than anyone | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

"WHEN I put my son to bed, I quite often tell him a story," says Peter Molyneux, a British game developer who recently left Microsoft to start his own studio, 22Cans. "I will have crafted that story around what I know about him, what he has done in the past few days. Those are the best stories I can tell him - better than Harry Potter, better than anything else because they pull his life into the story." Molyneux, who has worked in the industry for 30 years, wants to create an artificial intelligence that can offer players the same tailored experience in his next game.

Game developers have traditionally attempted to create AI systems that model realistic human behaviour and emotions, but Molyneux says this is too difficult with current technology. "Human beings can read emotion in faces down to a level of fidelity we can't even dream of in games at the moment," he says. Instead, he plans to harness the wealth of personal data shared on social media to learn what players enjoy and create characters that connect with them as individuals.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

European project reaches milestone bidirectional communication for thin-film RFIDs, enabling item-level RFID tags

European project reaches milestone bidirectional communication for thin-film RFIDs, enabling item-level RFID tags | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Imec, Holst Centre and their partners in the EU FP7 project ORICLA have fabricated the world’s first RFID (radio frequency identification) circuit made in low-temperature thin-film technology that allows reader-talks-first communication. The technology behind this prototype is indispensable to create RFID tags that are cheap enough and have enough performance to be used as intelligent item-level tags on the packaging of retail consumer goods. Such tags can be used to provide buyers with information on e.g. price, characteristics, or freshness, or to allow vendors to implement automated billing and inventory management.

 

Thin-film RFID chips are made on plastic foil, with organic or oxide thin-film semiconductors. Until now, RFID tags with such thin-film chips on plastic were based on a tag-talks-first principle: as soon as the RFID tag gets powered from the RF field of the RFID reader, it transmits its code to the reader. But in retail applications, many tags will try to contact the reader at the same time, requiring an effective anti-collision mechanism. Such a scheme has never before been implemented; tag-talks-first RFID anti-collision measures have been limited to about maximum 4 tags and come at the cost of a slow reading time.

“With this technology,” says Paul Heremans, imec director large-area electronics and coordinator of ORICLA, “we are for the first time able to realize a reader-talks-first low-temperature thin-film transistor (TFT) RFID circuit. When the RFID reader first powers and contacts the tag, it transmits a clock and identification data. The tag then uses this data and clock to determine when to send its code. This mechanism for the first time allows implementing a practical anti-collision scheme for thin-film RFID tags.”

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Slime moulds work on computer games

British computer scientists are taking inspiration from slime to help them find ways to calculate the shape of a polygon linking points on a surface. Such calculations are fundamental to creating realistic computer graphics for gaming and animated movies. The quicker the calculations can be done, the smoother and more realistic the graphics.

 

Andrew Adamatzky of the aptly named Unconventional Computing Centre, at the University of the West of England, in Bristol, UK, points out that computing a polygon defining a set of planar points is a classical problem of modern computational geometry. He has turned to the slime mould to help with such computations and explains in the International Journal of Bio-Inspired Computation how the organism can help.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

The first chemical circuit developed

The first chemical circuit developed | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Klas Tybrandt, doctoral student in Organic Electronics at Linköping University, Sweden, has developed an integrated chemical chip. The results have just been published in the prestigious journal Nature Communications.

 

The Organic Electronics research group at Linköping University previously developed ion transistors for transport of both positive and negative ions, as well as biomolecules. Tybrandt has now succeeded in combining both transistor types into complementary circuits, in a similar way to traditional silicon-based electronics.

An advantage of chemical circuits is that the charge carrier consists of chemical substances with various functions. This means that we now have new opportunities to control and regulate the signal paths of cells in the human body.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Plants may be able to 'hear' others

Plants may be able to 'hear' others | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

THEY can "smell" chemicals and respond to light, but can plants hear sounds? It seems chilli seeds can sense neighbouring plants even if those neighbours are sealed in a box, suggesting plants have a hitherto-unrecognised sense.

 

Plants are known to have many of the senses we do: they can sense changes in light level, "smell" chemicals in the air and "taste" them in the soil (New Scientist, 26 September 1998, p 24). They even have a sense of touch that detects buffeting from strong winds.

 

The most controversial claim is that plants can hear, an idea that dates back to the 19th century. Since then a few studies have suggested that plants respond to sound, prompting somewhat spurious suggestions that talking to plants can help them grow.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Real-Time Traffic Info Gets More Real

Real-Time Traffic Info Gets More Real | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Most “real time” traffic reports are outdated by the time they’re delivered, or they’re so scattershot that they have nothing to do with the course you’ve set. But BMW thinks it may have a better solution in the form of a new service called Advanced Real-Time Traffic Information (ARTTI) that promises to deliver traffic info faster and more accurately.

 

It uses technology from traffic information titan Inrix, which supplies BMW and most other automakers as well as aftermarket navigation device suppliers and smartphone nav apps with data. The company aggregates data from DOTs and other governmental agencies and millions of “probe” vehicles and matches it with historical traffic patterns as well as live events such as concerts that can cause tie-ups.

But existing data pipelines — FM broadcast via the Radio Data System or satellite radio receivers – are the primary cause of delays in delivery of traffic information, Inrix spokesperson Jim Baks told Wired. “By the time incident data is reported and sent out over these networks, the traffic could clear up,” he says.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Stress may retard brain development in children

Stress may retard brain development in children, altering the growth of a specific part and the abilities tied to it, researchers say.

 

"There has been a lot of work on animals linking both acute and chronic stress to changes in a part of the brain called the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in complex cognitive abilities like holding on to important information for quick recall and use," says study co-author Jamie Hanson of Wisconsin-Madison, US.

"We have now found similar associations in humans. More exposure to stress is related to more issues with certain kinds of cognitive processes," adds Hanson, the Journal of Neuroscience reports.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Artificial noses as diseases busters

Artificial noses as diseases busters | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

Artificial noses have, until now, been used to detect diseases such as urinary tract infection, Helicobacter pylori, tuberculosis, ear, nose and throat conditions and even lung cancer. They have also been clinically tested for use in continuous monitoring of different disease stages.

 

Now, a multidisciplinary research team with eight European partners is collaborating under a EU-funded project called Bioelectronic Olfactory Neuron Device, dubbed BOND. Their aim is to develop a very sensitive and selective device that can detect and distinguish different types of smells.

 

This system relies on functionalized electrodes binding to olfactory receptors capable of sending tiny electric signals, which are subsequently detected and amplified.
The challenge is to develop whole new arrays of olfactory receptors to process different smells for different diseases.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ashish Umre
Scoop.it!

Synapses in order get sounds to brain

Synapses in order get sounds to brain | Social Foraging | Scoop.it

To be published today in the Journal of Neuroscience, the research focuses on a section of the brain called the cochlear nucleus, the first way-station in the brain for information coming from the ear. In particular, the study examined how the synapses transmit signals from the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus.

Plasticity relates to how quickly a synapse runs down the supply of neurotransmitter it uses to send signals, and can affect a synapse’s sensitivity to different qualities of sound. Synapses that unleash supplies rapidly may provide good information on when a sound began, while synapses that release neurotransmitter at a more frugal pace may provide better clues on traits like timbre that persist over the duration of a sound.

more...
No comment yet.