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Multidisciplinary applications of complex networks modeling, simulation, visualization, and analysis

(...) complex systems are characterized by the interactions between their numerous elements. The word ‘complex’ comes from the Latin plexus which means entwined. In other words, it is difficult to correlate global properties of complex systems with the properties of the individual constituent components. This is primarily because the interactions between these individual elements partly determine the future states of the system (Gershenson 2013). If these interactions are not included in the developed models, the models would not be an accurate reflection of the modelled phenomenon.

 

Gershenson, C. & M. A. Niazi (2013). Multidisciplinary applications of complex networks modeling, simulation, visualization, and analysis. Complex Adaptive Systems Modeling 1:17  http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2194-3206-1-17


Via Complexity Digest
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Deep Neural Networks as a Computational Model for Human Shape Sensitivity

Deep Neural Networks as a Computational Model for Human Shape Sensitivity | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Author Summary Shape plays an important role in object recognition. Despite years of research, no models of vision could account for shape understanding as found in human vision of natural images. Given recent successes of deep neural networks (DNNs) in object recognition, we hypothesized that DNNs might in fact learn to capture perceptually salient shape dimensions. Using a variety of stimulus sets, we demonstrate here that the output layers of several DNNs develop representations that relate closely to human perceptual shape judgments. Surprisingly, such sensitivity to shape develops in these models even though they were never explicitly trained for shape processing. Moreover, we show that these models also represent categorical object similarity that follows human semantic judgments, albeit to a lesser extent. Taken together, our results bring forward the exciting idea that DNNs capture not only objective dimensions of stimuli, such as their category, but also their subjective, or perceptual, aspects, such as shape and semantic similarity as judged by humans.
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A Comparative Evaluation of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Algorithms for Multivariate Data

A Comparative Evaluation of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Algorithms for Multivariate Data | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Anomaly detection is the process of identifying unexpected items or events in datasets, which differ from the norm. In contrast to standard classification tasks, anomaly detection is often applied on unlabeled data, taking only the internal structure of the dataset into account. This challenge is known as unsupervised anomaly detection and is addressed in many practical applications, for example in network intrusion detection, fraud detection as well as in the life science and medical domain. Dozens of algorithms have been proposed in this area, but unfortunately the research community still lacks a comparative universal evaluation as well as common publicly available datasets. These shortcomings are addressed in this study, where 19 different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms are evaluated on 10 different datasets from multiple application domains. By publishing the source code and the datasets, this paper aims to be a new well-funded basis for unsupervised anomaly detection research. Additionally, this evaluation reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches for the first time. Besides the anomaly detection performance, computational effort, the impact of parameter settings as well as the global/local anomaly detection behavior is outlined. As a conclusion, we give an advise on algorithm selection for typical real-world tasks.
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Lenovo is using machine learning to analyse unstructured data from YouTube and Instagram

Lenovo is using machine learning to analyse unstructured data from YouTube and Instagram | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
The world's biggest PC maker Lenovo is analysing unstructured data from social channels including YouTube and Instagram to help the firm build products with customers' feedback in mind.

Mohammed Chaara, director of the Customer Insight Center of Excellence, Strategy & Analytics at Lenovo, explained that four years ago the firm had been an engineering and product-focused company.
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SA neuroscientists launch world’s first NeuroWine

SA neuroscientists launch world’s first NeuroWine | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
A South African team of neuromarketers and neuroscientists have announced the launch of the world’s first ever NeuroWine, a wine that was developed by taking the tools and technologies that are traditionally used in neuroscience and applying them to the art of wine-making.

Neural Sense, a local neuromarketing consultancy, partnered with Pieter Walser, a Cape winemaker from the BLANKBottle label, and using neuroscience and biometric technologies, tested 21 different white wine and 20 different red wine varietals from a number of different vineyards across the country. They assessed Walser’s emotional and cognitive responses to each taste testing experience to create the world’s first NeuroWine (one bottle of red and one white).

Dr David Rosenstein, from Neural Sense, explains. “One of the pieces of technology we used – known as electroencephalography or EEG – is a device which fits around the head and picks up the electrical activity on the surface of one’s scalp. It looks at how the brain is functioning and the associated brain waves, which in turn tells us various things about brain activity.
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Microsoft Extends FPGA Reach From Bing To Deep Learning

Microsoft Extends FPGA Reach From Bing To Deep Learning | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
After three years of research into how it might accelerate its Bing search engine using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), Microsoft came up with a scheme that would let it lash Stratix V devices from Altera to the two-socket server nodes in the minimalist Open Cloud Servers that it has designed expressly for its hyperscale datacenters. These CPU-FPGA hybrids were rolled out into production earlier this year to accelerate Bing page rank functions, and Microsoft started hunting around for other workloads with which to juice with FPGAs.

Deep learning was the next big job that Microsoft is pretty sure can benefit from FPGAs and, importantly, do so within the constraints of its hyperscale infrastructure. Microsoft’s systems have unique demands given that Microsoft is building systems, storage, and networks that have to support many different kinds of workloads – all within specific power, thermal, and budget envelopes.
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Kik beats Facebook to launching a bot store

Kik beats Facebook to launching a bot store | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Pretty soon, any messaging app that doesn’t have a platform for bots will be seriously left behind. “Messengers are the new browsers and bots are the new websites,” as Kik‘s Mike Roberts puts it to me.

With this in mind, the messaging app that’s big with America’s youth has today launched a bot store and developer platform to support it.
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Containerized Data Science and Engineering - Part 1, Dockerized Data Pipelines

Containerized Data Science and Engineering - Part 1, Dockerized Data Pipelines | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
I'm sure you have been hearing at least some of the hype over "containers" and Docker this past year. In fact, Bryan Cantrill (CTO at Joyent) and Ben Hindman (founder at Mesosphere) recently declared that 2015 was the "year of the container" (see their webinar here) So what's all the hype and how does this relate to what's happening in the data science and engineering world?

If you have been living in a hole this past year, here is an introduction to containers along with some advantages of using them. Here, however, I am going to provide some resources for those wishing to containerize their data pipelines.
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Data-Mining Algorithm Reveals the Stormy Evolution of Mathematics over 700 Years

Data-Mining Algorithm Reveals the Stormy Evolution of Mathematics over 700 Years | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Mathematical thinking dominates our understanding of the universe. Now network theorists have discovered the tipping points in the evolution of ideas that have shaped the modern mathematical landscape.
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Virtual Analyst: Adobe gives marketers a data-science boost with new cloud services

Virtual Analyst: Adobe gives marketers a data-science boost with new cloud services | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
If the marketer's goal is to reach customers with the right message, in the right place, at the right time, it stands to reason that deeper insight into any of those dimensions could only be a good thing. Enter Adobe, which just rolled out a raft of new data-science tools designed to help make that happen.

Scheduled to be introduced Tuesday at the company's Adobe Summit event in Las Vegas, the services bring new algorithms to the Adobe Marketing Cloud with the goal of helping brands deliver optimal customer experiences.

In the Marketing Cloud's Adobe Experience Manager, for example, a new Smart Tag feature taps machine learning to help marketers find Creative Cloud assets such as photos or videos. Smart Tag is available now.
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XGBoost: A Scalable Tree Boosting System

Tree boosting is a highly effective and widely used machine learning method. In this paper, we describe a scalable end-to-end tree boosting system called XGBoost, which is used widely by data scientists to achieve state-of-the-art results on many machine learning challenges. We propose a novel sparsity-aware algorithm for sparse data and weighted quantile sketch for approximate tree learning. More importantly, we provide insights on cache access patterns, data compression and sharding to build a scalable tree boosting system. By combining these insights, XGBoost scales beyond billions of examples using far fewer resources than existing systems.
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My Databox Project – EPSRC Project on Privacy-Aware Personal Data Platform

My Databox Project – EPSRC Project on Privacy-Aware Personal Data Platform | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
The Databox envisions an open-source personal networked device, augmented by cloud-hosted services, that collates, curates, and mediates access to an individual’s personal data by verified and audited third party applications and services. The Databox will form the heart of an individual’s personal data processing ecosystem, providing a platform for managing secure access to data and enabling authorised third parties to provide the owner with authenticated services, including services that may be accessed while roaming outside the home environment

The Databox project will run for 3 years and starts in September 2016. It is funded by EPSRC, Trust, Identity, Privacy and Security in the Digital Economy theme. Industry partners include the BBC, BT, Microsoft Research, and Telefonica. The project is also supported by the Internet Society, Cornell Tech, and the Horizon Digital Economy Research Institute. The open source platform and app ecosystem code will appear on the repository on GitHub.
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Personal Data: Thinking Inside the Box

We propose there is a need for a technical platform enabling people to engage with the collection, management and consumption of personal data; and that this platform should itself be personal, under the direct control of the individual whose data it holds. In what follows, we refer to this platform as the Databox, a personal, networked service that collates personal data and can be used to make those data available. While your Databox is likely to be a virtual platform, in that it will involve multiple devices and services, at least one instance of it will exist in physical form such as on a physical form-factor computing device with associated storage and networking, such as a home hub.
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Towards a Neuronal Gauge Theory

Towards a Neuronal Gauge Theory | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Recent innovations such as optogenetics and neuroimaging enable us to characterise the relationship between the activity of neurons and their system-level behaviour. These technical innovations call for theories that describe neuronal interactions and reveal the underlying principles. In physics, electromagnetism, the general theory of relativity, and the quantum field theory have been consolidated within the rigorous and holistic framework of a gauge theory [1]. Here, we propose that a gauge-theoretic formalism in neurosciences might not only provide a quantitative framework for modelling neural activity but also show that neuronal dynamics across scales—from single neurons to population activity—are described by the same principle. This paper suggests that if we could formulate a gauge theory for the brain—or cast an existing theory as a gauge theory—then many aspects of neurobiology can be seen as consequences of fundamental invariance properties. This approach could clarify the intimate relationship between apparently distinct phenomena (e.g., action and perception) and, potentially, offer new tools for computational neuroscience and modelling.
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Apache Spark powers live SQL analytics in SnappyData

Apache Spark powers live SQL analytics in SnappyData | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
The team behind Pivotal's GemFire in-memory transactional data store recently unveiled a new database solution powered by GemFire and Apache Spark, called SnappyData.


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SnappyData is another recent example of Spark employed as a component in a larger database solution, with or without other pieces from Apache Hadoop.
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The Untold Story of Magic Leap, the World’s Most Secretive Startup

The Untold Story of Magic Leap, the World’s Most Secretive Startup | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Virtual reality is posed to become a fundamental technology, and outfits like Magic Leap have an opportunity to become some of the largest companies ever.
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Amazon Kinesis Firehose adds Amazon Elasticsearch Data Ingestion and Enhanced Monitoring Features

Amazon Kinesis Firehose adds Amazon Elasticsearch Data Ingestion and Enhanced Monitoring Features | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Amazon Kinesis Firehose, the easiest way to load streaming data into AWS, now supports Amazon Elasticsearch Service as a data delivery destination. You can now use Amazon Kinesis Firehose to stream data to your Amazon Elasticsearch domains continuously and in near real time. Amazon Kinesis Firehose automatically scales to match the throughput of your data and handles all the underlying stream management. For more information, see the Amazon Kinesis Firehose website and developer guide.
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Prediction of Cascading Failures in Spatial Networks

Prediction of Cascading Failures in Spatial Networks | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Cascading overload failures are widely found in large-scale parallel systems and remain a major threat to system reliability; therefore, they are of great concern to maintainers and managers of different systems. Accurate cascading failure prediction can provide useful information to help control networks. However, for a large, gradually growing network with increasing complexity, it is often impractical to explore the behavior of a single node from the perspective of failure propagation. Fortunately, overload failures that propagate through a network exhibit certain spatial-temporal correlations, which allows the study of a group of nodes that share common spatial and temporal characteristics. Therefore, in this study, we seek to predict the failure rates of nodes in a given group using machine-learning methods.

We simulated overload failure propagations in a weighted lattice network that start with a center attack and predicted the failure percentages of different groups of nodes that are separated by a given distance. The experimental results of a feedforward neural network (FNN), a recurrent neural network (RNN) and support vector regression (SVR) all show that these different models can accurately predict the similar behavior of nodes in a given group during cascading overload propagation.
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How an Internet Mapping Glitch Turned a Random Kansas Farm Into a Digital Hell

How an Internet Mapping Glitch Turned a Random Kansas Farm Into a Digital Hell | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Why people living on a farm in the geographical center of the United States were repeatedly accused of crimes they did not commit.
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Containerized Data Science and Engineering - Part 2, Dockerized Data Science

Containerized Data Science and Engineering - Part 2, Dockerized Data Science | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
(This is part 2 of a two part series of blog posts about doing data science and engineering in a containerized world, see part 1 here) Let's admit it, data scientists are developing some pretty sweet (and potentially valuable) models, optimizations, visualizations, etc. Unfortunately, many of these models will never
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EY alliance with Adobe to help companies accelerate digital transformation

EY and Adobe have today announced a new strategic alliance that will expand digital experience and web content services to help clients with their digital transformations. Adobe, a leader in digital marketing solutions, will team with EY to help companies improve cost efficiency and gain competitive advantage through digital transformation programs.

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The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Deep Learning on Spark

The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Deep Learning on Spark | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
For the past three years, our smartest engineers at Databricks have been working on a stealth project. Today, we are unveiling DeepSpark, a major new milestone in Apache Spark. DeepSpark uses cutting-edge neural networks to automate the many manual processes of software development, including writing test cases, fixing bugs, implementing features according to specs, and reviewing pull requests (PRs) for their correctness, simplicity, and style.
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XGBoost4J: Portable Distributed XGBoost in Spark, Flink and Dataflow

XGBoost4J: Portable Distributed XGBoost in Spark, Flink and Dataflow | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
XGBoost is a library designed and optimized for tree boosting. Gradient boosting trees model is originally proposed by Friedman et al. By embracing multi-threads and introducing regularization, XGBoost delivers higher computational power and more accurate prediction. More than half of the winning solutions in machine learning challenges hosted at Kaggle adopt XGBoost (Incomplete list). XGBoost has provided native interfaces for C++, R, python, Julia and Java users. It is used by both data exploration and production scenarios to solve real world machine learning problems.
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Pigeons Are London's Newest Pollution Fighters

Pigeons Are London's Newest Pollution Fighters | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Pigeons in London have a bad reputation. Some people call them flying rats. And many blame them for causing pollution with their droppings. But now the birds are being used to fight another kind of pollution in this city of 8.5 million.

"The problem for air pollution is that it's been largely ignored as an issue for a long time," says Andrea Lee, with the London-based environmental organization ClientEarth. "People don't realize how bad it is, and how it actually affects their health."

London's poor air quality is linked to nearly 10,000 early deaths a year, Lee says, citing a report released by the mayor last year. If people were better informed about the pollution they're breathing, she says, they could pressure the government to do something about it.
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How a Box Could Solve the Personal Data Conundrum

How a Box Could Solve the Personal Data Conundrum | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
Software known as a Databox could one day both safeguard your personal data and sell it, say computer scientists.
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The Sadness and Beauty of Watching Google’s AI Play Go

The Sadness and Beauty of Watching Google’s AI Play Go | Social Foraging | Scoop.it
At first, the Go champion thought the move was rather odd. Then he saw it was wonderful.
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