p.4

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Table 7. Costs (in year 2000 dollars) for building new levees, raising existing levees, and building
new seawalls
Cost
($ per linear foot) Location Sources
New Levee $725–$2,228 San Francisco, CA Pang (2008)
Average New Levee $1,500
Raise Levee $319 Central Valley, CA Mount and Twiss (2005)
$223–$1,085 San Francisco, CA
Moffatt and Nichol
Engineers (2005)
$278–$944 Central Valley, CA Mount and Twiss (2005)
Average Levee Upgrade $530
New Seawall $1,292 New England Kanak (2008)
$3,828 Southern California Gustaitis (2002)
$2,646–$6,173 Northern California Stamski (2005)
$5,654–$8,078 Philadelphia PennPraxis (2008)
$4,847 California Crampton (2008)
Average New Seawall $5,300

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