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‘High desire’, or ‘merely’ an addiction? A response to Steele et al.

‘High desire’, or ‘merely’ an addiction? A response to Steele et al. | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"To trivialize, minimize, and de-pathologize compulsive sexuality is to fail to understand the central biological role of sexuality in human motivation and evolution. It demonstrates a naiveté with regard to what is now an accepted understanding of current reward neuroscience, in that it pronounces sexual desire as inherent, immutable, and uniquely immune from the possibility of change either qualitatively or quantitatively......

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: This is Donald Hilton's scathing response to a 2013 article in  Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology.  The details may seem arcane to a casual reader but the issues go to the heart of what neuroscience is attempting to discern about just what is meant by "desire" and its relation to the concept of addiction.  Other material referencing the original study can be found on this site by clicking this link.


Published 21 February 2014.

Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 2014, 4: 23833 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/snp.v4.23833.  

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Welcome to The Largest Online Source For Curated Information on Chronically Problematic Sexual Behavior

This curated website is dedicated to improving professional and public understanding about why  some people  repeatedly engage in sexual behavior that compromises their safety and personal values despite the knowledge of inevitably problematic consequences and a sincere but repeatedly unsuccessful desire to stop. 

 

Common phrases for this complex behavioral phenomenon include "sex addiction", "compulsive sexual behavior" and "hypersexuality". This site often uses the generic phrase "chronically problematic sexual behavior" (used as a description rather than a diagnosis) since it:


  • is broad enough to transcend theoretical limitations without being so vague that it loses all meaning,


  • is capable of describing clusters of symptoms and complaints rather than a singular clinical entity,


  • accommodates conditions that stem from varying individual, relational and societal sources,


  • is therefore a useful inter-disciplinary term to describe "patterns of sexual behavior that are out of control and have problematic consequences" (Bancroft and Vukadinovic, 2004*).


Information about this topic will be curated from every conceivable source and perspective, in order not to privilege one viewpoint over another to the detriment of an informed and expanded knowledge base that supports a continually evolving understanding of this subject.  Topics range from rigorous research to irreverent humor, representing the entire spectrum of attitudes, opinions and understanding about this topic.  Some items will have lasting significance while others are likely to merit only brief notice.


However, this curation does not focus on mere breadth and quantity of sources with a complete disregard for content.  Conscious effort is made to avoid excessive repetiton of content and to separate the wheat from the chaff, with judicious commentary accompanying almost every item or category.  An editorial or descriptive overview provides an orientation for almost every category or "tag" (see below).


This site is not designed to promote any specific service or treatment providers; hence there are no direct links to sites that do not contain some relevant information that enhances the knowledge base of the topic.  


Due to the volume of information on this site, it's best to  use the "Filter" feature near the top of the screen to find content related to a particular category or topic.  


Disclaimer: This site attempts to avoid any copyright infringement by linking directly to all sources instead of reproducing, preparing derivative works, distributing, or displaying them publicly.  This site will also not link to any material that appears to be available online as a result of copyright violation.


Feedback, commentary and suggestions are welcome since they will help build a stronger site.   Please consider "following" this site by clicking the button near the top right of the page  This is a great way to stay current on this topic and to help enhance the visibility of this site to others would may benefit from it.


This site is curated by Bill Herring, LCSW, CSAT, an Atlanta-based psychotherapist  who specializes in helping good people maintain consistent, safe and ethical sexual boundaries. 


This site was created December 7, 2011.

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*Bancroft, J. & Vukadinovic, Z. (2004).  Sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual impulsivity, or what? Toward a theoretical model. Journal of Sex Research: 41(3), 225-234. (Note, this article is easily available online. A direct link is not being provided to it in order to protect copyright.)



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Looker's comment, December 24, 2011 12:35 AM
Good site. Keep it up.
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Self-Reported Indicators of Hypersexuality and Its Correlates in a Female Online Sample

Self-Reported Indicators of Hypersexuality and Its Correlates in a Female Online Sample | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"The results of the current study do not support the idea of previous research that hypersexual women are typically engaged in more passive forms of sexual behavior. Rather female hypersexuality seems to be more characterized by impersonal sexual activity. An association between hypersexual behavior and sexual risk behavior was identified."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment:  Little research has focused specifically on the behavioral patterns of hypersexuality in women, making studies like this especially important

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The Relationship Between Online Sexual Compulsivity, Dissociation and Past Child Abuse Among Men Who Have Sex with Men

The Relationship Between Online Sexual Compulsivity, Dissociation and Past Child Abuse Among Men Who Have Sex with Men | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

The objective of this study was to measure the relationships between online sexual compulsivity, three dimensions of dissociation.....and past child abuse among men who have sex with men (MSM). A total of 517 MSM, recruited from Internet chat rooms, completed the survey. Results indicated that past child abuse was significantly related to dissociation but not online sexual compulsivity. It was also found that the amount of time MSM spent online in a one-week period, in general and specifically engaged in sexual activity, was significantly related to online sexual compulsivity and three dimensions of disssociation....."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

(2014).  Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling: Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 146-163. doi: 10.1080/15538605.2014.895663

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Sexual Picture Processing Interferes with Decision-Making Under Ambiguity

Sexual Picture Processing Interferes with Decision-Making Under Ambiguity | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:


Curator comment: The neurological impact of chronic cybersex is a contentious topic, making studies like this one very important to the development of a scientific knowledge base.


Archives of Sexual Behavior

April 2014, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 473-482


Abstract only. 

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Personality, coping, risky behavior, and mental disorders in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A comprehensive psychosocial assessment

Personality, coping, risky behavior, and mental disorders in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A comprehensive psychosocial assessment | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"(Offspring of parents with bipolar disorder) reported elevated high-risk sexual behavior relative to controls....."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:
Curator comment: It's well-accepted that people with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for hypersexual behavior.  This study suggests a similar increased risk for their offspring.
Authors: R. Nijjar, M.A. Ellenbogan, S. Hodgins
Published Online: April 28, 2014
Abstract only.
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Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated With Pornography Consumption

Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity Associated With Pornography Consumption | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"The negative association of self-reported pornography consumption with the right striatum (caudate) volume, left striatum (putamen) activation during cue reactivity, and lower functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could reflect change in neural plasticity as a consequence of an intense stimulation of the reward system, together with a lower top-down modulation of prefrontal cortical areas. Alternatively, it could be a precondition that makes pornography consumption more rewarding."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

 Curator comment: Note that although the researchers give support to the idea that frequent pornography consumption could structurally alter reward systems, this is not a longitudinal study, so these brain differences could have been present prior to the porn use.


This study is already making its way into the popular media, as in this article in the Daily Beast titled "Does Porn Cause Brain Shrinkage?"


Source:  JAMA Psychiatry. Published online May 28, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.93

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Dominique Strauss-Kahn to sue over 'sex addict' film

Dominique Strauss-Kahn to sue over 'sex addict' film | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"Former IMF chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn has instructed lawyers to sue the makers of a movie in which veteran French star Gerard Depardieu plays a sex addict who commits a sexual assault on a hotel maid."


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With No Formal Diagnosis or Treatment Plans, How Can Sex Addiction Exist?

With No Formal Diagnosis or Treatment Plans, How Can Sex Addiction Exist? | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"For the most part, those who believe that sexual addiction (also known as sexual compulsivity and hypersexuality disorder is simply a myth tend to offer some combination of the five challenges presented below. I thought it might be both interesting and useful to examine the validity/reality of these concerns here."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment:  A useful summation

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Thirteen Dimensions of Sex Addiction-Induced Trauma (SAIT) among Partners and Spouses Impacted by Sex Addiction

Thirteen Dimensions of Sex Addiction-Induced Trauma (SAIT) among Partners and Spouses Impacted by Sex Addiction | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

Ego-reality fragmentation then becomes one of the critical injuries of (sex addiction-induced trauma) and from this many......symptoms and trauma-inducing dynamics evolve.  The metaphor of “the foundation of a house fragmenting, slowly or suddenly or both” applies in order to conceptualize ego destruction and damage.

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment:  The author presents a nuanced and comprehensive approach to conceptualizing the levels of damage that can occur to a person who learns that a supposedly monogamous partner has been engaging in a calculated pattern of sexual deception with attendant psychological manipulation

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BK's curator insight, April 24, 9:51 AM

"The induction of fear into the psychological and relational system is one of the specific traumatic symptom processes of discovery trauma.  A discovery does not in any way mean a full awareness of reality or the truth for the partner or spouse.  It means a degree of awareness that there is reality incongruence and the open possibilities of a deceptive, compartmentalized, sexual or relational system, with no ability to confirm the extent or nature.  This can often induce severe panic, terror, and intense fear, horror, or helplessness.  It opens up an entire world of actual possibility, with no reliable source of reality, as it has been systematically denied and withheld from the intimate partner, with intention."

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Selena Gomez believes Justin Bieber is a sex addict

Selena Gomez believes Justin Bieber is a sex addict | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it


Selena Gomez fears that boyfriend teen idol Justin Bieber is a sex addict and that his womanizing ways will destroy their relationship soon.

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: The stated commitment of this site is to curate "every conceivable source and perspective" about this wide topic, including how the phrase "sex addiction" is used in popular culture.  That's the reason for this otherwise throwaway entry as well as another in which somebody named Dean McDermott "hints he may be a sex addict".   

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A Sex Addiction Expert Diagnoses Lars Von Trier’s ‘Nymphomaniac’

A Sex Addiction Expert Diagnoses Lars Von Trier’s ‘Nymphomaniac’ | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"What sex addicts want is an oxymoron: controllable intimacy, because they don’t want to allow themselves to be vulnerable in a healthy relationship. Sex addicts also choose intensity when what they really want is intimacy. They confuse the two. With Joe, von Trier has provided all the characteristics of a female sex addict and early trauma survivor—an underdeveloped sense of self, failure to thrive in life, and lack of empathy."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: Here's an interesting perspective on this controversial movie, which seems to provide some similar insight for female sex addiction as "Shame" did for did for men a couple of years back.

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The Emperor Has No Clothes: A Fractured Fairytale Posing As A Review

 "Ley et al. imply that concern about porn addiction is somehow proof of moralistic judgments calculated to suppress sexual expression and stigmatize sexual minorities. In fact, as the concept of porn addiction has gained currency, moral concerns about porn use, suppression of sexual expression and stigmatization of sexual minorities all seem to be declining sharply."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: This is a hard-hitting, lengthy, point-by-point rebuttal to a recent article that challenged almost every notion that pornography use can reach unhealthy levels for some people who find it difficult to stop or control despite negative consequences and a sincere desire. to do so.  It does not list authorship, which is unusual.  Unfortunately, the demeaning emotional tone it takes is likely to undercut its potent arguments.

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The relationship of “passionate attachment” for pornography with sexual compulsivity, frequency of use, and craving for pornography

The relationship of “passionate attachment” for pornography with sexual compulsivity, frequency of use, and craving for pornography | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"(W)e administered a pornography-specific modification of the Passion Scale and other psychological measures to a sample of undergraduate males who used pornography regularly......As one would expect of a sample of young, non-clinical, regularporn ography users, our participants reported relatively low rates of obsessive passion for pornography indicating that most retained the flexibility to engage or disengage in this specific activity."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment:  The authors have also recently published their findings related to the development of the Pornography Craving Questionnaire in the Archives of Sexual Behavior.


Available online 24 February 2014.  In Press, Corrected Proof.

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Brain activity in sex addiction mirrors that of drug addiction

Brain activity in sex addiction mirrors that of drug addiction | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"Pornography triggers brain activity in people with compulsive sexual behaviour – known commonly as sex addiction – similar to that triggered by drugs in the brains of drug addicts, according to a University of Cambridge study published in the journal PLOS ONE. However, the researchers caution that this does not necessarily mean that pornography itself is addictive."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: This is an interesting study, while it's important to note that neither its intent nor findings provide evidence of sex/porn addiction nor do they suggest that such behaviors are themselves addictive.


Here is the link to the actual study, Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals With and Without Compulsive Sexual Behavior.


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Methodological Review of Treatments for Nonparaphilic Hypersexual Behavior

Methodological Review of Treatments for Nonparaphilic Hypersexual Behavior | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"(T)he authors conducted a methodological review of empirical studies that evaluated a treatment for nonparaphilic hypersexual behavior.....(T)he findings from this review indicate that much of the outcome research in the field contains significant methodological limitations." 

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment:  The relative paucity of methodologically sound research articles on this subject is a major concern.  I have an opinion about this, which I'm always willing to share, focusing primarily on the tendency overly define rather than adequately describe the behavior in question.  


(2014). Methodological Review of Treatments for Nonparaphilic Hypersexual Behavior. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy: Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 294-308. doi: 10.1080/0092623X.2012.751075

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Cybersex addiction: Experienced sexual arousal when watching pornography and not real-life sexual contacts makes the difference

Cybersex addiction: Experienced sexual arousal when watching pornography and not real-life sexual contacts makes the difference | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"In a cue-reactivity paradigm 100 pornographic cues were presented to participants and indicators of sexual arousal and craving were assessed.The first study aimed at identifying predictors of cybersex addiction in a freely recruiting sample of 171 heterosexual males. The aim of the second study was to verify the findings of the first study by comparing healthy (n=25) and problematic (n=25) cybersex users.......The results show that indicators of sexual arousal and craving to Internet pornographic cues predicted tendencies towards cybersex in the first study. Moreover, it was shown that problematic cybersex users report greater sexual arousal and craving reactions resulting from pornographic cue presentation......The results support the gratification hypothesis, which assumes reinforcement, learning mechanisms, and craving to be relevant processes in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction.....".

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: Another interesting finding is that poor or unsatisfying sexual real-life contacts did not sufficiently explain cybersex addiction.



Laier, C., Pawlikowski, M., Pekal, J., Schulte, F. P., & Brand, M. (2013). 

Journal of Behavioral Addictions.

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Sex Addict Clothing

Sex Addict Clothing | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it
"THE SEX ADDICT CLOTHING LIFESTYLE IS  ALL ABOUT FREEDOM, INDEPENDENCE AND SUCCESS CREATING A SENSE OF CONFIDENCE AND ATTRACTIVENESS IN THE CONSUMER.  NO MATTER THE RACE, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, OR BODY TYPE, ANYONE WHO PURSUES THEIR GOALS AND TURNS THEIR DREAMS INTO REALITY REPRESENTS SEX ADDICT CLOTHING."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment:  It was only a matter of time.

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Scans Reveal Big Differences In Brains Of Porn Watchers

Scans Reveal Big Differences In Brains Of Porn Watchers | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"It's not clear......whether watching porn leads to brain changes or whether people born with certain brain types watch more porn.”
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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: This is another popular press report on the recent study published in JAMA Psychiatry, previously reported on this cite. Two other overwrought headlines include: 


Watching Porn? You're Messing With Your brain, Says New Study


Pea Brain: Watching Porn Will Wear Out Your Brain and Make It Shrivel

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Psychopathological Predictors Characterizing Sexual Compulsivity in a Non-Clinical Sample of Women

Psychopathological Predictors Characterizing Sexual Compulsivity in a Non-Clinical Sample of Women | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"(T)here is missing evidence on the relationship between psychological factors and sexual compulsivity in the absence of significant psychiatric disturbance...... Against this background, this study used a non-pathological frame to explore this relationship......Data suggested that when sexual compulsivity is measured as a continuous construct in a community sample of women, only some factors seem common to those found in severe forms of hypersexuality."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: Only the abstract is currently available online, so it's a bit unclear just what the findings are indicating.


Published online 16 May 2014.



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Gender-related differences in the associations between sexual impulsivity and psychiatric disorders

Gender-related differences in the associations between sexual impulsivity and psychiatric disorders | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"The robust associations between sexual impulsivity (SI) and psychopathology across genders suggest the need for screening and interventions related to SI for individuals with psychiatric concerns. The stronger associations between SI and psychopathology among women as compared to men emphasize the importance of a gender-oriented perspective in targeting SI. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the extent to SI predates, postdates or co-occurs with specific psychiatric conditions."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: This is the abstract only, so it's not clear what the authors are defining as "sexual impulsivity".   The NESARC, which appears to be the primary source for the data used for this analysis, can be reviewed at this site.


Published online 5 May 2014.

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Understanding service users’ and therapists’ experiences of pharmacological treatment for sexual preoccupation and/or hypersexuality in incarcerated sex offenders

Understanding service users’ and therapists’ experiences of pharmacological treatment for sexual preoccupation and/or hypersexuality in incarcerated sex offenders | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"This research comprises two qualitative studies understanding the experiences of (1) convicted sex offenders voluntarily receiving pharmacological treatment to reduce sexual preoccupation and (2) therapists working with these offenders. Understanding service users’ and therapists’ experiences of pharmacological treatment for sexual preoccupation and/or hypersexuality in incarcerated sex offenders."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment:  The relationship between sexual offending and sexually addictive/compulsive behavior is murky and contentious.  The two constructs are distinct but often overlapping.  In general the sexual offender research and treatment community is not especially supportive of concept of sex addiction, in large measure out of concern that it mediates against accountability.    The term sexual preoccupation is sometimes used instead, as in this study.  A companion piece was published along with this one, "Preliminary evaluation of the use of pharmacological treatment with convicted sexual offenders experiencing high levels of sexual preoccupation, hypersexuality and/or sexual compulsivity.  Both are available online only in abstract form.

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4 Ways to Tell the Person You’re Dating You’re a Sex Addict

4 Ways to Tell the Person You’re Dating You’re a Sex Addict | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"Dating is a way to weed out who’s right for you and who’s not. The person you’re seeing should be understanding and supportive of you, and even if they don’t respond well right away, if they really like you they’ll come around and be that understanding and supportive person you need. They won’t shame you for your past and guilt you in your present. And if they do, you’ll know they aren’t the person you should be with."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: Many people who struggle with their sexual behavior find it difficult to tell this part of their history with another person they are starting to date.  This writer advises an approach that is simple and direct.

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Is This the Golden Age of Sex Addiction Films?

Is This the Golden Age of Sex Addiction Films? | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"The reason why sex-addiction films have been trending as of late has felt a bit cultural: after all, the first generation of kids to grow up with porn just one click away are coming into their own as of late, and that creates a whole new cohort of people who have invented their own definitions of sexuality. And with that new round of kids comes a new round of art that wants to look at and detail the pains and frustrations that come along when people have all the options in the world and end up dealing with the corrosive effects of sex addiction."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: This is an interesting, enjoyable and insightful essay

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Compulsive Use of Internet-based Sexually Explicit Media: Adaptation and Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)

Compulsive Use of Internet-based Sexually Explicit Media: Adaptation and Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it


"This report investigates the psychometric properties of the 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale.......adapted to assess the severity of compulsive Internet (sexually explicit media) SEM use........The results offer preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of using an adapted version of the CIUS to understand compulsive Internet SEM use......"



Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment:  The study is based on an online survey of 265 men who have sex with men (MSM).  The idea that viewing sexually explicit media may contribute to, rather than be a correlate of, greater numbers of sexual partners, sexual risk-taking, etc. is not without controversy. 

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The Role of Maladaptive Cognitions in Hypersexuality Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

The Role of Maladaptive Cognitions in Hypersexuality Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"(W)e validated a measure of maladaptive cognitions about sex and examined its unique ability to predict hypersexuality…….(M)agnifying the necessity of sex and disqualifying the benefits of sex partially predicted minimized self-efficacy for controlling one’s sexual behavior, all of which predicted problematic hypersexuality……  Results suggest the utility of a cognitive approach for better understanding hypersexuality and the importance of developing treatment approaches that encourage adaptive appraisals regarding the outcomes of sex and one’s ability to control his sexual behavior."

Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment:The findings of this article raise some valuable questions regarding the nature of cognitions that seem to co-exist with hypersexual behavior among certain populations.  


The authors define maladaptive cognitions as "inaccurate appraisals of the meaning of situations, the consequences of one’s behavior, or one’s ability to exert control over life circumstances or personal behavior."  The three primary maladaptive cognitions explored in this study include

  1. magnifying the necessity of sex, 
  2. disqualifying the benefits of sex, and 
  3. minimizing one’s self-efficacy for controlling sexual thoughts and behaviors.  


The authors suggest that "treatment approaches that induce negative attitudes toward sexuality, fail to highlight the benefits of sex, and encourage the belief that one is not in control of his sexual behavior may unintentionally serve to perpetuate, rather than reduce, hypersexuality." The authors caution treatment providers against perpetuating "self-regulation fallacies" and note "the particularly central role of only perceiving harm, not benefit, from sex". The authors conclude that their findings about the importance of maladaptive cognitions offer "a more complete picture of hypersexuality than previously offered".


This study seems to suggest that many people who present for symptoms of hypersexuality are more capable of self-control than is generally assumed by classic "addiction" models of hypersexuality.  It also suggests the value of highlighting rather than "disqualifying" the positive benefits of sex.  The key disclaimer in all this is the recognition of "the possibility that maladaptive cognitions might follow problematic behavior or that an unmeasured third variable might explain the relationship between cognition and behavior." As is so often the case, the distinction between correlation and causation is of paramount importance.


While only the abstract is readily available online, this article is well worth reading in its entirety.  


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Pachankis, J. E., Rendina, H. J., Ventuneac, A., Grov, C., & Parsons, J. T. (2014). The Role of Maladaptive Cognitions in Hypersexuality Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men. Archives of sexual behavior, 1-15.


Abstract only.

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Addicted to Brain Scans

Addicted to Brain Scans | Sex  Addiction | Scoop.it

"The debate about the nature of hypersexuality exemplifies a broader cultural confusion about addiction, a concept that has been medicalized to the point that people think it means both less and more than it really does."

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Bill Herring LCSW, CSAT's insight:

Curator comment: Stanton Peele fleshes out a position he originally expressed in a blog post last year in reaction to the  2013 UCLA study that has garnered so much attention in the field since its initial publication. He remains wholly unimpressed by attempts to isolate the nature of addiction via brain scans and continues to advocate for a subjective, experiential definition of addiction.


Source: Reason.com: "Free minds and free markets." March 2014.

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