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Complex Systems Science as a New Transdisciplinary Science, by Paul Bourgine

Complex Systems Science as a New Transdisciplinary Science, by Paul Bourgine | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

The new science of complex systems will be at the heart of the future of the Worldwide Knowledge Society. It is providing radical new ways of understanding the physical, biological, ecological, and techno-social universe. Complex Systems are open, value-laden, multi-level, multi-component, reconfigurable systems of systems, situated in turbulent, unstable, and changing environments. They evolve, adapt and transform through internal and external dynamic interactions. They are the source of very difficult scientific challenges for observing, understanding, reconstructing and predicting their multi-scale dynamics. The challenges posed by the multi-scale modelling of both natural and artificial adaptive complex systems can only be met with radically new collective strategies for research and teaching (...)


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Complexity Institute's insight:

Are we ready to recognize a Science as a "Transdisciplinary Science?
Complex systems science is not a science in itself, but it may be considered as a 'Science of Sciences'.
I think this is the most challenging issue to face for a Worldwide Knowledge Society, as Paul Bourgine states.
What are your opinions about this?

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june holley's curator insight, December 2, 2013 10:39 AM

The study of complex systems adds a lot of depth to understanding networks.

Edgar Francisco Pelayo Valencia's curator insight, December 20, 2013 5:26 PM

Future is here!!!

Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems
Exploring the self-organizing dynamics of interactive entities
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“Fisica sociale” tra scienza, fantascienza e spiritualità

“Fisica sociale” tra scienza, fantascienza e spiritualità | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

Nella rete dei libri collegati a "Fisica sociale" risultano inclusi 4 testi “canonici” della scienza della complessità, 4 testi di letteratura collegata alla fantascienza e 2 testi di spiritualità

 

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The pronoun 'I' is becoming obsolete

The pronoun 'I' is becoming obsolete | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Don't look now, but the pronoun "I" is becoming obsolete.

Recent microbiological research has shown that thinking of plants and animals, including humans, as autonomous individuals is a serious over-simplification.

A series of groundbreaking studies have revealed that what we have always thought of as individuals are actually "biomolecular networks" that consist of visible hosts plus millions of invisible microbes that have a significant effect on how the host develops, the diseases it catches, how it behaves and possibly even its social interactions.

"It's a case of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts," said Seth Bordenstein, associate professor of biological sciences at Vanderbilt University, who has contributed to the body of scientific knowledge that is pointing to the conclusion that symbiotic microbes play a fundamental role in virtually all aspects of plant and animal biology, including the origin of new species.

In this case, the parts are the host and its genome plus the thousands of different species of bacteria living in or on the host, along with all their genomes, collectively known as the microbiome.

(The host is something like the tip of the iceberg while the bacteria are like the part of the iceberg that is underwater: Nine out of every 10 cells in plant and animal bodies are bacterial. But bacterial cells are so much smaller than host cells that they have generally gone unnoticed.)

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The Globe of Economic Complexity: Visualize $15 Trillion of World Exports

The Globe of Economic Complexity: Visualize $15 Trillion of World Exports | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
One dot equals $100M of exports

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Ants Swarm Like Brains Think

Ants Swarm Like Brains Think | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
“As I watched films of these ant colonies, it looked like what was happening at the synapse of neurons. Both of these systems accumulate evidence about their inputs—returning ants or incoming voltage pulses—to make their decisions about whether to generate an output—an outgoing forager or a packet of neurotransmitter,” Goldman said. On his next trip to Stanford, he extended his stay. An unusual research collaboration had begun to coalesce: Ants would be used to study the brain, and the brain, to study ants.

 

http://nautil.us/issue/23/dominoes/ants-swarm-like-brains-think-rp


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The Fractured Nature of British Politics

The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to reveal them that treats Britain as a giant cluster of related places each defined from the intersections of the road network at a very fine spatial scale. We break this giant cluster into a detailed hierarchy of sub-clusters by successively reducing a distance threshold which first breaks off some of the Scottish Islands and then reveals the very distinct nations and regions that make up Britain, all the way down to the definition of the largest cities that appear when the threshold reaches 300m. We use these percolation clusters to apportion the 2010 voting pattern to a new hierarchy of constituencies based on these clusters, and this gives us a picture of how Britain might vote on purely geographical lines. We then examine this voting pattern which provides us with some sense of how important the new configuration of political parties might be to the election next week.

 

The Fractured Nature of British Politics
Carlos Molinero, Elsa Arcaute, Duncan Smith, Michael Batty

http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.00217


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Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory

Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations, which are the outcome of geographical, political and historical constraints. Using percolation theory on the street intersections and on the road network of Britain, we obtain hierarchies at different scales that are independent of administrative arrangements. Natural boundaries, such as islands and National Parks, consistently emerge at the largest/regional scales. Cities are devised through recursive percolations on each of the emerging clusters, but the system does not undergo a phase transition at the distance threshold at which cities can be defined. This specific distance is obtained by computing the fractal dimension of the clusters extracted at each distance threshold. We observe that the fractal dimension presents a maximum over all the different distance thresholds. The clusters obtained at this maximum are in very good correspondence to the morphological definition of cities given by satellite images, and by other methods previously developed by the authors (Arcaute et al. 2015).

 

Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory
Elsa Arcaute, Carlos Molinero, Erez Hatna, Roberto Murcio, Camilo Vargas-Ruiz, Paolo Masucci, Jiaqiu Wang, Michael Batty

http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.08318


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Scale taught in Comics

Scale taught in Comics | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

Such as a simple, powerful comic strip to teach the importance of scale.   If you prefer an image with a 'paper' look to it, try this image of the April 19, 2015 post of Mutts. 

 

Tags: scale, K12, location, fun.


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Karen Breznikar's comment, October 13, 2015 2:36 AM
Simple but effective method of teaching scale to students. Great resource.
Madeleine Carr's comment, October 23, 2015 1:32 AM
I would love to let my students create one of these using the website or by drawing their own. It is a personal way of thinking and I believe that students will be able to retain/grasp the concept of scale through this simple method. It would also be really enjoyable and would allow for creative students to express themselves in geography. Students could then compare their scales with others in the class and you could ask students who have had different yards/towns/country in their lives to share and enhance the enjoyment and importance of multiculturalism.
Matt Bond's comment, November 27, 2015 6:10 PM
Students today are interacting with cartoons through all different mediums from The Simpsons, Family Guy or even those in the newspaper. Cartoons can provide short but affective content transfer in an interesting way. They can be highly emotional and effective in all mediums which is why they are so prone into today's society, which is why as teachers it is important to use cartoons in our classroom to change up the sources in which we use.
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Complicated or complex - knowing the difference is important

Complicated or complex - knowing the difference is important | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Understanding the difference between complex and complicated systems is becoming important for many aspects of management and policy. With complicated problems or issues one can define the problem ...

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Keith Hamon's curator insight, June 3, 2014 7:28 AM

Discusses management & policy implications for dealing with complex issues rather than complicated issues.

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Economic complexity: A different way to look at the economy — Foundations & Frontiers — Medium

Economic complexity: A different way to look at the economy - Foundations & Frontiers - Medium
By W. Brian Arthur; External Professor, Santa Fe Institute; Visiting Researcher, Palo Alto Research Center

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Keith Hamon's curator insight, February 23, 2015 9:28 PM

We need a different way to look at education, a complex way.

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What Isn't Complexity?

The question What is Complexity? has occupied a great deal of time and paper over the last 20 or so years. There are a myriad different perspectives and definitions but still no consensus. In this paper I take a phenomenological approach, identifying several factors that discriminate well between systems that would be consensually agreed to be simple versus others that would be consensually agreed to be complex - biological systems and human languages. I argue that a crucial component is that of structural building block hierarchies that, in the case of complex systems, correspond also to a functional hierarchy. I argue that complexity is an emergent property of this structural/functional hierarchy, induced by a property - fitness in the case of biological systems and meaning in the case of languages - that links the elements of this hierarchy across multiple scales. Additionally, I argue that non-complex systems "are" while complex systems "do" so that the latter, in distinction to physical systems, must be described not only in a space of states but also in a space of update rules (strategies) which we do not know how to specify. Further, the existence of structural/functional building block hierarchies allows for the functional specialisation of structural modules as amply observed in nature. Finally, we argue that there is at least one measuring apparatus capable of measuring complexity as characterised in the paper - the human brain itself.

 

What Isn't Complexity?
Christopher R. Stephens

http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03199


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Complexity Theory: A short film (5')

A short film about complexity theory and the shift in paradigm from the Newtonian clockwork universe to complex systems. Enjoy : ) From http://www.fotonlabs.com

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Philippe Vallat's curator insight, January 14, 2015 10:47 AM

Nicely done

Leadership Learning Community's curator insight, January 23, 2015 11:31 AM

Visualizes complex systems and networks in a powerful way, brings clarity and a much deeper understanding to very abstract concepts

Jamie Billingham's curator insight, February 25, 2015 12:24 AM

Learning and the education system(s) are incredibly complex. 

 

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Topology: The Secret Ingredient In The Latest Theory of Everything

Topology: The Secret Ingredient In The Latest Theory of Everything | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

Combine topology with symmetry and add a sprinkling of quantum mechanics. The result? A powerful new theory of everything


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The World after Big Data: Building the Self-Regulating Society

The World after Big Data: Building the Self-Regulating Society. Dirk Helbing, ETH Zurich.

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IQ Test Result: Advanced AI Machine Matches Four-Year-Old Child's Score | MIT Technology Review

IQ Test Result: Advanced AI Machine Matches Four-Year-Old Child's Score | MIT Technology Review | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Artificial intelligence machines are rapidly gaining on humans, but they have some way to go on IQ tests.
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MIT claims to have found a “language universal” that ties all languages together

MIT claims to have found a “language universal” that ties all languages together | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Language takes an astonishing variety of forms across the world—to such a huge extent that a long-standing debate rages around the question of whether all languages have even a single property in common. Well, there’s a new candidate for the elusive title of “language universal” according to a paper in this week’s issue of PNAS. All languages, the authors say, self-organise in such a way that related concepts stay as close together as possible within a sentence, making it easier to piece together the overall meaning.

Language universals are a big deal because they shed light on heavy questions about human cognition. The most famous proponent of the idea of language universals is Noam Chomsky, who suggested a “universal grammar” that underlies all languages. Finding a property that occurs in every single language would suggest that some element of language is genetically predetermined and perhaps that there is specific brain architecture dedicated to language.

However, other researchers argue that there are vanishingly few candidates for a true language universal. They say that there is enormous diversity at every possible level of linguistic structure from the sentence right down to the individual sounds we make with our mouths (that’s without including sign languages).

There are widespread tendencies across languages, they concede, but they argue that these patterns are just a signal that languages find common solutions to common problems. Without finding a true universal, it’s difficult to make the case that language is a specific cognitive package rather than a more general result of the remarkable capabilities of the human brain.

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Le stategie dormienti - L'Impresa

Le stategie dormienti - L'Impresa | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

Il paradosso, sempre più evidente in questi ultimi anni, è che le strutture più robuste nei confronti dei pericoli prevedibili si dimostrano essere le più fragili di fronte a situazioni impreviste. John Doyle, scienziato del California Institute of Technology, ha coniato il termine “robust-yet-fragile” (“robusto-ma-fragile”) o “RYF” per descrivere l’architettura di sistemi di questo tipo, in grado di resistere di fronte ai pericoli previsti ma estremamente fragili rispetto a minacce impreviste. I sistemi RYF sono quelli più diffusi nel nostro ambiente economico e sociale: sono efficienti ed affidabili, spesso dando l’illusione di poter durare per sempre.”


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Twitter-based analysis of the dynamics of collective attention to political parties

Large-scale data from social media have a significant potential to describe complex phenomena in real world and to anticipate collective behaviors such as information spreading and social trends. One specific case of study is represented by the collective attention to the action of political parties. Not surprisingly, researchers and stakeholders tried to correlate parties' presence on social media with their performances in elections. Despite the many efforts, results are still inconclusive since this kind of data is often very noisy and significant signals could be covered by (largely unknown) statistical fluctuations.
In this paper we consider the number of tweets (tweet volume) of a party as a proxy of collective attention to the party, we identify the dynamics of the volume, and show that this quantity has some information on the elections outcome. We find that the distribution of the tweet volume for each party follows a log-normal distribution with a positive autocorrelation over short terms. Furthermore, by measuring the ratio of two consecutive daily tweet volumes, we find that the evolution of the daily volume of a party can be described by means of a geometric Brownian motion. Finally, we determine the optimal period of averaging tweet volume for reducing fluctuations and extracting short-term tendencies. We conclude that the tweet volume is a good indicator of parties' success in the elections when considered over an optimal time window. Our study identifies the statistical nature of collective attention to political issues and sheds light on how to model the dynamics of collective attention in social media.

 

Twitter-based analysis of the dynamics of collective attention to political parties
Young-Ho Eom, Michelangelo Puliga, Jasmina Smailović, Igor Mozetič, Guido Caldarelli

http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.06861


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Unveiling patterns of international communities in a global city using mobile phone data

We analyse a large mobile phone activity dataset provided by Telecom Italia for the Telecom Big Data Challenge contest. The dataset reports the international country codes of every call/SMS made and received by mobile phone users in Milan, Italy, between November and December 2013, with a spatial resolution of about 200 meters. We first show that the observed spatial distribution of international codes well matches the distribution of international communities reported by official statistics, confirming the value of mobile phone data for demographic research. Next, we define an entropy function to measure the heterogeneity of the international phone activity in space and time. By comparing the entropy function to empirical data, we show that it can be used to identify the city’s hotspots, defined by the presence of points of interests. Eventually, we use the entropy function to characterize the spatial distribution of international communities in the city. Adopting a topological data analysis approach, we find that international mobile phone users exhibit some robust clustering patterns that correlate with basic socio-economic variables. Our results suggest that mobile phone records can be used in conjunction with topological data analysis tools to study the geography of migrant communities in a global city.

 

Unveiling patterns of international communities in a global city using mobile phone data
Paolo Bajardi, Matteo Delfino, André Panisson, Giovanni Petri and Michele Tizzoni

EPJ Data Science 2015, 4:3  http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjds/s13688-015-0041-5 ;


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BionicANTs, una squadra di formiche bioniche da mettere al lavoro - Wired

BionicANTs, una squadra di formiche bioniche da mettere al lavoro - Wired | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Piccoli robot ispirati alla natura e perfettamente sincronizzati potrebbero essere il futuro dei nostri impianti industriali
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PNAS : Dynamical evidence for causality between galactic cosmic rays and interannual variation

"Dynamical evidence for causality between galactic cosmic rays and interannual variation in global temperature. Anastasios A. Tsonis et al (2015),  http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1420291112"

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Only ten midges needed to make a swarm

Only ten midges needed to make a swarm | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
High-speed cameras reveal when insects become self-organizing.

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Self-Organization, Emergence, and Constraint in Complex Natural Systems

Contemporary complexity theory has been instrumental in providing novel rigorous definitions for some classic philosophical concepts, including emergence. In an attempt to provide an account of emergence that is consistent with complexity and dynamical systems theory, several authors have turned to the notion of constraints on state transitions. Drawing on complexity theory directly, this paper builds on those accounts, further developing the constraint-based interpretation of emergence and arguing that such accounts recover many of the features of more traditional accounts. We show that the constraint-based account of emergence also leads naturally into a meaningful definition of self-organization, another concept that has received increasing attention recently. Along the way, we distinguish between order and organization, two concepts which are frequently conflated. Finally, we consider possibilities for future research in the philosophy of complex systems, as well as applications of the distinctions made in this paper.

 

Self-Organization, Emergence, and Constraint in Complex Natural Systems
Jonathan Lawhead

http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.01476


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Eli Levine's curator insight, February 14, 2015 9:23 PM

We are naturally constrained by many natural laws in our universe.  Our governments are likewise constrained by physical laws of nature as well as the natural laws behind people, societies, economies, and ecosystems.  Where the constraints came from in nature, I don't know.  But what I do see, is that like the natural laws of the universe, societies impose other constraints upon our actions, behaviors, perceptions, chosen courses of action, abilities to frame issues and topics, abilities to define conditions within our social systems.  Governments can likewise make and define constraints for behaviors or willingness and ability to behave on the part of the citizenry, either by offering incentives to get people to behave in a particular way or to penalize and possibly limit some actions and chosen patterns of behavior. 

 

It should be noted that the laws and chosen constraints and incentives of the government on this level of existence can only be as good as the people who sit within them and make choices.  They are also limited by the physical laws of the universe and the natural laws, conditions, desires, and motives of the general public that composes the whole of society in aggregate and as that which is greater than the aggregate; the combined whole of human thought, behavior, and sentiment. 

 

These human-made constraints (created by governments and social authority figures) are also imperfect in their ability to contain and constrain the society, since the society and its members have autonomy from the government.  Humans and human societies are more constrained by the natural laws and the limitations of knowledge and perception that are present in our brains and neural systems.  Therefore, it can be said that human-made social constraints are less important than the natural ones that exist amongst ourselves and within the universe that we are apart of.

 

Therefore, I think that in order to continue to advance humanity and contribute to our potential to survive, endure, and thrive, we should be constantly and safely pushing at the constraints of what we already know and can do as individuals and as a species.  Our government(s) should focus on studying the universal natural laws of societies, economies, human behavior, and environmental functions in addition to the particular laws of their own societies, making laws and legal systems that work better and better with the natural laws of their own societies and amongst all human societies.  We should capitalize on our differences of perspective and opinion, sifting out those that don't fall into line with discovered reality while using that which is accurate to complete the puzzles of our universe in order to produce something greater than what we've presently got and to continue to advance ourselves safely and in accordance with what is actually helpful, healthful, and ethical for all sentient life in the universe.  Study, research, observation, and exploration are what will make tomorrow better than today, even as the natural laws and some conditions remain the same.  Health, well-being, quality of life, sustainability, and the ability to thrive for all are what we need to prioritize and produce as a society over financial profits and short term economic gains for a few.  Some constraints can be pushed, some can't, and some really shouldn't from the perspective of health, well-being, quality of life, and the ability to thrive for all.  Welcome to nature.

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Scenari complessi - Come si organizzano le cellule terroristiche?

Scenari complessi - Come si organizzano le cellule terroristiche? | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Scenari complessi - Come si organizzano le cellule terroristiche? La scorsa settimana, dopo i tragici eventi di Parigi, Marinella De Simone, Claudio Bergamini e Valerio Eletti - docenti della Compl...
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Applause is Contagious Like a Disease - D-brief

Applause is Contagious Like a Disease - D-brief | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Applause spreads linearly, like a disease. The amount of time an individual feels like clapping is a factor, but not nearly as much as peer pressure.

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Cat Perrin's curator insight, July 12, 2013 6:11 AM

La foule.. et son effet de masse...

robyns tut's curator insight, October 14, 2013 1:04 PM

This is interesting, how peer pressure can factor into little things. Would be good to see what makes the brain do these things and what chemical reactions occure.

-Tanah

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War: Origins and Effects

The International System is a self-organized system and shows emergent behavior. During the timeframe (1495 - 1945), a finite-time singularity and four accompanying accelerating log-periodic cycles shaped the dynamics of the International System. The accelerated growth of the connectivity of the regulatory network of the International System, in combination with its anarchistic structure, produce and shape the war dynamics of the system. Accelerated growth of the connectivity of the International system is fed by population growth and the need for social systems to fulfill basic requirements. The finite-time singularity and accompanying log-periodic oscillations were instrumental in the periodic reorganization of the regulatory network of the International System, and contributed to a long-term process of social expansion and integration in Europa. The singularity dynamic produced a series of organizational innovations. At the critical time of the singularity (1939) the connectivity of the system reached a critical threshold, resulting in a critical transition. This critical transition caused a fundamental reorganization of the International System: Europe transformed from an anarchistic system to cooperative security community. This critical transition also marks the actual globalization of the International System. During the life span of cycles, the war dynamics show chaotic characteristics. Various early-warning signals can be identified, and can probably be used in the current International System. These findings have implications for the social sciences and historical research.

 

War: Origins and Effects
Ingo Piepers

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.6163


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Eli Levine's curator insight, September 26, 2014 11:31 AM

Thus we delve closer into the hidden language of our social world.

 

Way cool science!