Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems
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Emergono schemi dentro schemi...

Emergono schemi dentro schemi... | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

L’approccio complesso si potrebbe definire come la ricerca di schemi dentro altri schemi. Per riconoscere gli schemi – o pattern – è necessario avere una visione di insieme: più si va nel dettaglio, più lo schema scompare. 

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Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems
Exploring the self-organizing dynamics of interactive entities
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Complexity research in Nature Communications

This web collection showcases the potential of interdisciplinary complexity research by bringing together a selection of recent Nature Communications articles investigating complex systems. Complexity research aims to characterize and understand the behaviour and nature of systems made up of many interacting elements. Such efforts often require interdisciplinary collaboration and expertise from diverse schools of thought. Nature Communications publishes papers across a broad range of topics that span the physical and life sciences, making the journal an ideal home for interdisciplinary studies.

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Schuman Day – Convegno all’Università D’Annunzio di Pescara

Schuman Day – Convegno all’Università D’Annunzio di Pescara | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Schuman Day all’Università D’Annunzio di Pescara Lunedì 9 maggio 2016, in occasione dello Schuman Declaration Day – Festa dell’Unione Europea – presso l’Aula Caf…
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Alcune riflessioni sull’Europa – 2. L’Europa è un sistema complesso

Alcune riflessioni sull’Europa – 2. L’Europa è un sistema complesso | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Alcune riflessioni di approfondimento in margine all’intervento “Europa come sistema complesso”fatto all’incontro “Polis Europa” di Merano   Alcune riflessioni s…
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Collapse des systèmes complexes

Collapse des systèmes complexes | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

Pourquoi parler d’effondrement et de collapse de notre civilisation ? Parce que le faisceau d’informations factuelles est très convergent, parce que cela a à voir avec les systèmes complexes, et parce que la résilience, individuelle et collective, commence par l’acceptation de la réalité telle qu’elle est.


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Pierre Mongin 's curator insight, April 28, 2016 4:14 AM
juin excellente synthése du film Demain 
Jürgen Kanz's curator insight, May 1, 2016 11:57 AM
The authors are referring to the paper of Graham M. Turner "On the cusp of global collapse?". This document is available here: https://www.ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/usys/ites/ecosystem-management-dam/documents/EducationDOC/Readings_DOC/Turner_2012_GAIA_LimitsToGrowth.pdf
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“Fisica sociale” tra scienza, fantascienza e spiritualità

“Fisica sociale” tra scienza, fantascienza e spiritualità | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

Nella rete dei libri collegati a "Fisica sociale" risultano inclusi 4 testi “canonici” della scienza della complessità, 4 testi di letteratura collegata alla fantascienza e 2 testi di spiritualità

 

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The pronoun 'I' is becoming obsolete

The pronoun 'I' is becoming obsolete | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Don't look now, but the pronoun "I" is becoming obsolete.

Recent microbiological research has shown that thinking of plants and animals, including humans, as autonomous individuals is a serious over-simplification.

A series of groundbreaking studies have revealed that what we have always thought of as individuals are actually "biomolecular networks" that consist of visible hosts plus millions of invisible microbes that have a significant effect on how the host develops, the diseases it catches, how it behaves and possibly even its social interactions.

"It's a case of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts," said Seth Bordenstein, associate professor of biological sciences at Vanderbilt University, who has contributed to the body of scientific knowledge that is pointing to the conclusion that symbiotic microbes play a fundamental role in virtually all aspects of plant and animal biology, including the origin of new species.

In this case, the parts are the host and its genome plus the thousands of different species of bacteria living in or on the host, along with all their genomes, collectively known as the microbiome.

(The host is something like the tip of the iceberg while the bacteria are like the part of the iceberg that is underwater: Nine out of every 10 cells in plant and animal bodies are bacterial. But bacterial cells are so much smaller than host cells that they have generally gone unnoticed.)

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The Globe of Economic Complexity: Visualize $15 Trillion of World Exports

The Globe of Economic Complexity: Visualize $15 Trillion of World Exports | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
One dot equals $100M of exports

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Ants Swarm Like Brains Think

Ants Swarm Like Brains Think | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
“As I watched films of these ant colonies, it looked like what was happening at the synapse of neurons. Both of these systems accumulate evidence about their inputs—returning ants or incoming voltage pulses—to make their decisions about whether to generate an output—an outgoing forager or a packet of neurotransmitter,” Goldman said. On his next trip to Stanford, he extended his stay. An unusual research collaboration had begun to coalesce: Ants would be used to study the brain, and the brain, to study ants.

 

http://nautil.us/issue/23/dominoes/ants-swarm-like-brains-think-rp


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The Fractured Nature of British Politics

The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to reveal them that treats Britain as a giant cluster of related places each defined from the intersections of the road network at a very fine spatial scale. We break this giant cluster into a detailed hierarchy of sub-clusters by successively reducing a distance threshold which first breaks off some of the Scottish Islands and then reveals the very distinct nations and regions that make up Britain, all the way down to the definition of the largest cities that appear when the threshold reaches 300m. We use these percolation clusters to apportion the 2010 voting pattern to a new hierarchy of constituencies based on these clusters, and this gives us a picture of how Britain might vote on purely geographical lines. We then examine this voting pattern which provides us with some sense of how important the new configuration of political parties might be to the election next week.

 

The Fractured Nature of British Politics
Carlos Molinero, Elsa Arcaute, Duncan Smith, Michael Batty

http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.00217


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Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory

Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations, which are the outcome of geographical, political and historical constraints. Using percolation theory on the street intersections and on the road network of Britain, we obtain hierarchies at different scales that are independent of administrative arrangements. Natural boundaries, such as islands and National Parks, consistently emerge at the largest/regional scales. Cities are devised through recursive percolations on each of the emerging clusters, but the system does not undergo a phase transition at the distance threshold at which cities can be defined. This specific distance is obtained by computing the fractal dimension of the clusters extracted at each distance threshold. We observe that the fractal dimension presents a maximum over all the different distance thresholds. The clusters obtained at this maximum are in very good correspondence to the morphological definition of cities given by satellite images, and by other methods previously developed by the authors (Arcaute et al. 2015).

 

Hierarchical organisation of Britain through percolation theory
Elsa Arcaute, Carlos Molinero, Erez Hatna, Roberto Murcio, Camilo Vargas-Ruiz, Paolo Masucci, Jiaqiu Wang, Michael Batty

http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.08318


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Scale taught in Comics

Scale taught in Comics | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

Such as a simple, powerful comic strip to teach the importance of scale.   If you prefer an image with a 'paper' look to it, try this image of the April 19, 2015 post of Mutts. 

 

Tags: scale, K12, location, fun.


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Karen Breznikar's comment, October 13, 2015 2:36 AM
Simple but effective method of teaching scale to students. Great resource.
Madeleine Carr's comment, October 23, 2015 1:32 AM
I would love to let my students create one of these using the website or by drawing their own. It is a personal way of thinking and I believe that students will be able to retain/grasp the concept of scale through this simple method. It would also be really enjoyable and would allow for creative students to express themselves in geography. Students could then compare their scales with others in the class and you could ask students who have had different yards/towns/country in their lives to share and enhance the enjoyment and importance of multiculturalism.
Matt Bond's comment, November 27, 2015 6:10 PM
Students today are interacting with cartoons through all different mediums from The Simpsons, Family Guy or even those in the newspaper. Cartoons can provide short but affective content transfer in an interesting way. They can be highly emotional and effective in all mediums which is why they are so prone into today's society, which is why as teachers it is important to use cartoons in our classroom to change up the sources in which we use.
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Complicated or complex - knowing the difference is important

Complicated or complex - knowing the difference is important | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Understanding the difference between complex and complicated systems is becoming important for many aspects of management and policy. With complicated problems or issues one can define the problem ...

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Keith Hamon's curator insight, June 3, 2014 7:28 AM

Discusses management & policy implications for dealing with complex issues rather than complicated issues.

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Economic complexity: A different way to look at the economy — Foundations & Frontiers — Medium

Economic complexity: A different way to look at the economy - Foundations & Frontiers - Medium
By W. Brian Arthur; External Professor, Santa Fe Institute; Visiting Researcher, Palo Alto Research Center

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Keith Hamon's curator insight, February 23, 2015 9:28 PM

We need a different way to look at education, a complex way.

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The Self-Organizing Society: A Grower's Guide

Can a human society be constrained in such a way that self-organization will thereafter tend to produce outcomes that advance the goals of the society? Such a society would be self-organizing in the sense that individuals who pursue only their own interests would none-the-less act in the interests of the society as a whole, irrespective of any intention to do so. This paper identifies the conditions that must be met if such a self-organizing society is to emerge. It demonstrates that the key enabling requirement for a self-organizing society is consequence-capture. Broadly this means that all agents in the society must capture sufficient of the benefits (and harms) that are produced by their actions on the goals of the society. Consequence-capture can be organized in a society by appropriate management (systems of evolvable constraints) that suppresses free riders and supports pro-social actions. In human societies these constraints include institutions such as systems of governance and social norms. The paper identifies ways of organizing societies so that effective governance will also self-organize. This will produce a fully self-organizing society in which the interests of all agents (including individuals, associations, firms, multi-national corporations, political organizations, institutions and governments) are aligned with the interests of the society as a whole.

 

The Self-Organizing Society: A Grower's Guide
John E. Stewart


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Boundaries of a Complex World (by Andrei Ludu)

The central theme of this book is the extent to which the structure of the free dynamical boundaries of a system controls the evolution of the system as a whole. Applying three orthogonal types of thinking - mathematical, constructivist and morphological, it illustrates these concepts using applications to selected problems from the social and life sciences, as well as economics.

 In a broader context, it introduces and reviews some modern mathematical approaches to the science of complex systems. Standard modeling approaches (based on non-linear differential equations, dynamic systems, graph theory, cellular automata, stochastic processes, or information theory) are suitable for studying local problems. However they cannot simultaneously take into account all the different facets and phenomena of a complex system, and new approaches are required to solve the challenging problem of correlations between phenomena at different levels and hierarchies, their self-organization and memory-evolutive aspects, the growth of additional structures and are ultimately required to explain why and how such complex systems can display both robustness and flexibility.


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Alcune riflessioni sull’Europa – 1. E’ necessario comprendere il caos

Alcune riflessioni sull’Europa – 1. E’ necessario comprendere il caos | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Alcune riflessioni di approfondimento in margine all’intervento “Europa come sistema complesso” fatto all’incontro “Polis Europa” di Merano Alcune riflessioni su…
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Describing People as Particles Isn’t Always a Bad Idea

Describing People as Particles Isn’t Always a Bad Idea | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

Infomercialist and pop psychologist Barbara De Angelis puts it this way: “Love is a force more formidable than any other.” Whether you agree with her or not, De Angelis is doing something we do all the time—she is using the language of physics to describe social phenomena.

“I was irresistibly attracted to him”; “You can’t force me”; “We recognize the force of public opinion”; “I’m repelled by these policies.” We can’t measure any of these “social forces” in the way that we can measure gravity or magnetic force. But not only has physics-based thinking entered our language, it is also at the heart of many of our most important models of social behavior, from economics to psychology. The question is, do we want it there?


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IQ Test Result: Advanced AI Machine Matches Four-Year-Old Child's Score | MIT Technology Review

IQ Test Result: Advanced AI Machine Matches Four-Year-Old Child's Score | MIT Technology Review | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Artificial intelligence machines are rapidly gaining on humans, but they have some way to go on IQ tests.
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MIT claims to have found a “language universal” that ties all languages together

MIT claims to have found a “language universal” that ties all languages together | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Language takes an astonishing variety of forms across the world—to such a huge extent that a long-standing debate rages around the question of whether all languages have even a single property in common. Well, there’s a new candidate for the elusive title of “language universal” according to a paper in this week’s issue of PNAS. All languages, the authors say, self-organise in such a way that related concepts stay as close together as possible within a sentence, making it easier to piece together the overall meaning.

Language universals are a big deal because they shed light on heavy questions about human cognition. The most famous proponent of the idea of language universals is Noam Chomsky, who suggested a “universal grammar” that underlies all languages. Finding a property that occurs in every single language would suggest that some element of language is genetically predetermined and perhaps that there is specific brain architecture dedicated to language.

However, other researchers argue that there are vanishingly few candidates for a true language universal. They say that there is enormous diversity at every possible level of linguistic structure from the sentence right down to the individual sounds we make with our mouths (that’s without including sign languages).

There are widespread tendencies across languages, they concede, but they argue that these patterns are just a signal that languages find common solutions to common problems. Without finding a true universal, it’s difficult to make the case that language is a specific cognitive package rather than a more general result of the remarkable capabilities of the human brain.

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Le stategie dormienti - L'Impresa

Le stategie dormienti - L'Impresa | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it

Il paradosso, sempre più evidente in questi ultimi anni, è che le strutture più robuste nei confronti dei pericoli prevedibili si dimostrano essere le più fragili di fronte a situazioni impreviste. John Doyle, scienziato del California Institute of Technology, ha coniato il termine “robust-yet-fragile” (“robusto-ma-fragile”) o “RYF” per descrivere l’architettura di sistemi di questo tipo, in grado di resistere di fronte ai pericoli previsti ma estremamente fragili rispetto a minacce impreviste. I sistemi RYF sono quelli più diffusi nel nostro ambiente economico e sociale: sono efficienti ed affidabili, spesso dando l’illusione di poter durare per sempre.”


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Twitter-based analysis of the dynamics of collective attention to political parties

Large-scale data from social media have a significant potential to describe complex phenomena in real world and to anticipate collective behaviors such as information spreading and social trends. One specific case of study is represented by the collective attention to the action of political parties. Not surprisingly, researchers and stakeholders tried to correlate parties' presence on social media with their performances in elections. Despite the many efforts, results are still inconclusive since this kind of data is often very noisy and significant signals could be covered by (largely unknown) statistical fluctuations.
In this paper we consider the number of tweets (tweet volume) of a party as a proxy of collective attention to the party, we identify the dynamics of the volume, and show that this quantity has some information on the elections outcome. We find that the distribution of the tweet volume for each party follows a log-normal distribution with a positive autocorrelation over short terms. Furthermore, by measuring the ratio of two consecutive daily tweet volumes, we find that the evolution of the daily volume of a party can be described by means of a geometric Brownian motion. Finally, we determine the optimal period of averaging tweet volume for reducing fluctuations and extracting short-term tendencies. We conclude that the tweet volume is a good indicator of parties' success in the elections when considered over an optimal time window. Our study identifies the statistical nature of collective attention to political issues and sheds light on how to model the dynamics of collective attention in social media.

 

Twitter-based analysis of the dynamics of collective attention to political parties
Young-Ho Eom, Michelangelo Puliga, Jasmina Smailović, Igor Mozetič, Guido Caldarelli

http://arxiv.org/abs/1504.06861


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Unveiling patterns of international communities in a global city using mobile phone data

We analyse a large mobile phone activity dataset provided by Telecom Italia for the Telecom Big Data Challenge contest. The dataset reports the international country codes of every call/SMS made and received by mobile phone users in Milan, Italy, between November and December 2013, with a spatial resolution of about 200 meters. We first show that the observed spatial distribution of international codes well matches the distribution of international communities reported by official statistics, confirming the value of mobile phone data for demographic research. Next, we define an entropy function to measure the heterogeneity of the international phone activity in space and time. By comparing the entropy function to empirical data, we show that it can be used to identify the city’s hotspots, defined by the presence of points of interests. Eventually, we use the entropy function to characterize the spatial distribution of international communities in the city. Adopting a topological data analysis approach, we find that international mobile phone users exhibit some robust clustering patterns that correlate with basic socio-economic variables. Our results suggest that mobile phone records can be used in conjunction with topological data analysis tools to study the geography of migrant communities in a global city.

 

Unveiling patterns of international communities in a global city using mobile phone data
Paolo Bajardi, Matteo Delfino, André Panisson, Giovanni Petri and Michele Tizzoni

EPJ Data Science 2015, 4:3  http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjds/s13688-015-0041-5 ;


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BionicANTs, una squadra di formiche bioniche da mettere al lavoro - Wired

BionicANTs, una squadra di formiche bioniche da mettere al lavoro - Wired | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
Piccoli robot ispirati alla natura e perfettamente sincronizzati potrebbero essere il futuro dei nostri impianti industriali
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PNAS : Dynamical evidence for causality between galactic cosmic rays and interannual variation

"Dynamical evidence for causality between galactic cosmic rays and interannual variation in global temperature. Anastasios A. Tsonis et al (2015),  http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1420291112"

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Only ten midges needed to make a swarm

Only ten midges needed to make a swarm | Complexity & Self-Organizing Systems | Scoop.it
High-speed cameras reveal when insects become self-organizing.

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